The purpose of this study was to assess the causal relationships among belief, subjective norm, moral feeling, attitude, and the intention to consume organic beef. A total of 326 questionnaires were completed by adult in Jeonnam area. Structural equation modeling was used to measure the causal relationships among the constructs. The structural analysis results indicated an excellent model-data fit. The covariance effects of belief and subjective norm, and belief and moral feeling were statistically significant. The effects of belief and moral feeling on attitude and intention to consume were also statistically significant. As expected, attitude had significant effects on intention to consume. Moreover, attitude played a mediating roles in the relationship between belief and intention to consume. Finally, based on structural analysis, a model was proposed for the interrelations among belief, subjective norm and moral feeling towards organic food, attitude and intention to consume. It should be noted that the original organic food consumption model was modified, and should preferably be validated by future research. Other constructs, such as perceived behavior control and consumption, may be incorporated to form models that consist of new antecedent and consequence pairs.
Throughout history, tableware has attained an important position in human culture, and historical eras are clearly reflected in the shape of tableware items, which are tied to the cultural background of foods. In particular, the distinctive qualities of foods within a food-culture, such as the means for cooking, storing, or eating, have impacted the usage and shape of tableware along with the food behaviors of individuals. Korea, China, and Japan have all played important roles in producing limitless amounts of high quality porcelain products and take pride in being leaders of the world's porcelain production industry. Based on their natural geographical proximity and political and cultural exchanges, these three countries have long influenced one another not only in terms of technical concepts but also in improving quality within the tableware industry. Thus, by comparing Korea, China, and Japan's evolutionary interdependable variance with regard to their tableware, food-culture, and food-behavior, one can provide information on the historical stream and cultural exchanges relevant to china and porcelain. Ultimately, through the examination of tableware, the conclusions of this conceptual study offer researchers a deeper understanding of the historical stance of food-culture and contribute new and useful information for the future.
This study examined the cultural dietary habits as well as attitudes toward food, within other life pattern elements, of students living in Gwangju City and Chonnam Province, Korea. Questionnaires from 1,000 student respondents were analyzed. The survey consisted of questions regarding physical condition and health status, dietary consciousness, food preference, knowledge of food and nutrition, and dietary culture. The results showed that 1.6% of the students considered their own physical condition to be extremely poor, and 2.7% and 2.1% also considered their father's and mother's physical conditions as extremely poor, respectively. Among the respondents, 18.3% were smokers and consumed an average of 14.8 cigarettes per day. With regard to their dietary habits, the students answered that they preferred to eat meals with friends rather than with family members, fruit was chosen for eating over health food supplements, and there was very little participation or interest in various food and cultural festivals. The female students had a tendency to alleviate mental stresses by eating, while the male students performed more physical activity to deal with stress. The female students also preferred cereal, fruit, fast food, and sweetened foods more than the male students. Between the smokers and non-smokers, significantly more non-smokers chose fruit (p<0.01), ethnic foods (p<0.05), and sweetened foods (p<0.05) as compared to the smokers. Body mass index (BMI) had significant positive correlations with soft drink (p<0.01), health food supplement (p<0.01), and alcoholic beverage (p<0.001) consumption, while BMI was negatively correlated with cereal (p<0.01), fruit (p<0.001), and sweetened food (p<0.01) intake. The health status of students was positively correlated with their father's health status (p<0.01), mother's health status (p<0.001), and BMI (p<0.05), as well as cereal (p<0.001), high protein side dish (p<0.01), fruit (p<0.01), vegetable (p<0.01), and traditional food (p<0.001) intake. The average body weight for female students was approximately 5 kg less than the Korean Nutrition Society's standardized weight, therefore, it is strongly recommended that measures be taken to develop a systematic nutrition education program that would help those students who often unintentionally skip breakfast or go on extreme diets to improve body image.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the causal relationships among environmental belief, ambivalence, subjective norm, attitude and meat consumption behavior. A total of 318 questionnaires were completed. A structural equation model was employed to assess the causal effects of constructs. The results of the study demonstrated that the structural analysis results for the data also indicated excellent model fit. The effects of environmental belief, ambivalence, and subjective norm on attitude were statistically significant. The effects of environmental belief, subjective norm and attitude on meat consumption were statistically significant. The effects of attitude on intention were statistically significant. As had been expected, intention exerted a significant effect on meat consumption. Moreover, environmental belief and ambivalence exerted significant indirect effects on meat consumption through attitude. Subjective norm exerted a significant indirect effect on meat consumption through attitude and intention. Subjective norm also exerted a significant indirect effect on intention through attitude. In developing and testing conceptual models which integrate the relationship among behavioral belief, attitude variable, behavioral intention and meat consumption, this study may approach a deeper understanding of the complex relationship among meat consumption behavior-related variables. Greater understanding of the complex relationship among meat consumption behavior-related variables can improve the practical or managerial diagnosis of the problem and opportunities for different marketing strategies including meat production and meat product development and marketing communication.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the articles of food and nutrition published in the Yeo-Sung magazines from 1936 to 1940 in Korea. Out of the 67 articles about the food and the nutrition from the Yeo-Sung magazines, 28 (41.8%) of them were about the brief information of food and nutrition news, 16 (23.8%) of them were about the recipes, 6 (9.0%) were about the nutrition information, and 17 (25.4%) of them were about others. As the number of recipes mentioned from the Yeo-Sung magazine was 103, 77 items, the majority, were about the Korean foods, 18 of the Western foods, 6 of Chinese foods, and only 2 of Japanese foods. This result showed that the Japanese colonization didn't seem to influence on Korean tastes and gastronomy. During this period, the modernization caused the numerous changes to our traditional cuisine with introduction of new western menu items and concept of nutrition. The nutrition articles highly recommended eating brown rice, vegetables, tofu, and the white meat. Shin-Young Bang, one of the main authors, insisted that "Cookery is not only the skill, but also the one of the very important academic sciences." showed budding modern cookery sciences in Korea.
For globalization of Korean food, It is essential to research and analyze target markets in advance. However until recently, there has been a lack of food research in regions of select countries in order to create systematic plans for marketing Korean foods. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the recognition of Korean foods as compared to other Asian foods in young adults living in Vaxjo, Sweden. Over 90 percent of the Swedish students had experienced Thai and Chinese cuisines, indicating their popularity as Asian foods in Sweden. The participants were attracted to six positive attributes of Asian food: 'fresh vegetables', 'low fat', 'chicken and sea food', 'exotic ingredients', 'good value for the money' and 'unknown foods'. The favorite type of Asian food was Thai food and Korean food was the least tried, as over 50% of respondents linked it to 'unknown food' attributes. Based on these results, in order to introduce Korean food more successfully, focus should be placed on the unique and unknown attributes of Korean food, as well as emphasis placed on its healthfulness, to stimulate the curiosity of target markets such as young Swedish adults.
The purpose of this study was to survey the current status of bread menus at school, business and industry (B & I), and military foodservice operations and to analyze dietitians' perceptions of applying rice bread in foodservice menus. A questionnaire, which was developed by content analysis, situation analysis, and in-depth interview, was distributed to 183 schools, 31 B & I operations, and 26 air force dietitians. In the school and B & I foodservices, wheat bread was used much more than rice bread and serving frequencies of morning rolls and sliced bread were higher. The military foodservices, however, served much more rice bread as burger buns than the other groups. For the school and B&I operations, consumer preference for wheat bread was perceived as high. In contrast, soldiers preferred rice bread to wheat bread in the military foodservices. The recognized advantages of using rice bread were different among the three groups. The military dietitians perceived the main advantage of using rice bread as an increase of rice consumption, while the school and B & I dietitians viewed it as promoting a healthy image. In all groups, the primary difficulties for using rice bread were the higher cost of rice bread as compared to wheat bread and a lack of facilities (e.g. oven). The military dietitians had the highest levels of positive and active interest as well as intention and opinions toward using rice bread. On the other hand, the school and B & I dietitians had very positive perceptions of rice bread but did not actually apply it in their foodservice menus. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the development of diverse menus using rice bread along with government support of its use, including facilities with ovens as well as rice bread subsidies, should be carried out for on-going expansion of the rice bread supply.
The purpose of this study was to examine the job satisfaction of foodservice managers at schools in Jeju, Korea, according to the organizational culture and commitment of the school foodservice and administrative departments. The subjects included 144 (98.6%) dieticians from Jeju schools. The data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, reliability analysis, factor analysis, ttests, ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation coefficients, using the SPSS Win 12.0 program. In terms of organizational culture, the dieticians perceived the 'human relations model' and 'internal process model' as the strongest types for the school foodservice departments and administrative departments, respectively. However, for both types, a gap existed between the organizational culture that was perceived and that which was expected. In particular, the subjects expected that the 'human relations model' and 'open systems model' were the most important organizational culture types. In terms of the subjects' organizational commitment scores, loyalty and pride scored highest whereas unity scored lowest. For the level of job satisfaction, the performed work itself scored highest and was deemed most important. Additionally, organizational culture was positively correlated to the factors affecting organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Finally, the surveyed managers had high demands for a human relations-oriented organizational culture to enhance job satisfaction.
The objective of this study was to use cluster analysis to determine differences in eating-out behavior among grouped clusters of female consumers after each cluster was divided based on lifestyle patterns. The data were collected by interview survey from a biased sample of 1,300 females, ranging from ages 20 to 59, and living in residential districts of Seoul. Reliability analysis, factor analysis, cluster analysis, cross-tabulation analysis, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were applied to the data. Four lifestyle factors were extracted by lower-division and classified as follows: health condition, consuming, food, and housing lifestyles. Based on these four factors, the female consumers were grouped as three clusters: the consuming-individuality type, rational-pursuit type, and conservative-stability type. The eating-out behavior of each cluster was significantly different in terms of frequency of eating-out, eating-out expenditures, restaurant selection criteria, food preferences, and the purpose for eating-out. Since this study surveyed females from ages 20 to 59, age and demographics were the differential factors in determining the various lifestyle types. Thus, to target the consumers who form a target market, the food industry should consider market segmentation that combines demographic factors such as age, income, and marital status.
This study examined the effects of Web ad components on customer attitude and purchasing decisions in 300 individuals who visited family restaurant Websites. The results are summarized as follows: First, Web ad components such as content, design, and interactivity had effects on the cognitive attitudes of the customers. And design, accessibility, and Web functionality had significant effects on the customers' emotional attitudes. In addition, content, navigation, and Web functionality had significant effects on the customers' behavioral attitudes. Lastly, the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral attitudes of the customers had significant effects on their purchases. From these results, design elements such as content, color, and menus, along with user interactivity for information are considered helpful components of a food service Web ad for customer cognition of the restaurant's information. In addition, aspects of Web functionality such as the food service's Web ad set-up, or the protection of personal information, the color design and menu, as well as accessibility for easy use, are all helpful in terms of gaining a customer attitude that is friendly and preferential towards a restaurant's menu items.
This study was conducted to evaluate the quality characteristics of domestic as well as imported fermented skate. Three types of fermented skate products were analyzed for proximate composition, pH, VBN, ammonia-N, free amino acids, and fatty acids. The results indicated that the domestic fermented skate contained large amounts of TMAO. Also, the domestic and imported fermented skates each contained approximately 7.1 log CFU/g and 5.8~6.5 log CFU/g of aerobic bacteria, respectively, and 585.9 mg and 384.1~398.5 mg of total free amino acids, respectively; all samples contained high levels of taurine, anserine, lysine, alanine, glycine, proline, and β-alanine. For fatty acid composition, the domestic fermented skate contained 11 different types of saturated fatty acid and 16 types of unsaturated fatty acid, whereas the imported skate contained 8 types of saturated fatty acid and 10~15 types of unsaturated fatty acid. Overall, the results suggest that domestic fermented skate is a better source of amino acids and essential fatty acids and contains more aerobic bacteria than imported fermented skate.
Recently, the desire for low body weight, which is an abnormal weight construct along with obesity, has become an evident and serious problem in teenagers. In Korea, the desire for low weight is not perceived as an important problem, but it is rapidly expanding relative to the physical changes and developmental issues teenagers experience. The social atmosphere presented through mass media is the key influencer for the increasing low weight occurrence in teenagers. Because thoughts about beauty have changed among people, and since there is apparent blind interest in slim body shape and appearance, already low-weight individuals are attempting to lose weight along with obese persons. Thus, we consider it necessary to guide teenagers toward having correct perceptions with regard to weight and their own body shape, and that a healthy and appropriate weight is beautiful. Therefore, for this study, we investigated body perception, abnormal weight, attitude toward weight control, and factors related to eating behavior among teenage girls, who are considered the at risk group for overt body weight control behavior. Based on this, we have attempted to set in motion a systematic and active nutrition education program that will allow us to increase body satisfaction by educating on nutritional issues related to development, and ultimately, implant healthy body shape perceptions.
The objective of this study was to investigate the consumption pattern of snacks-containing trans-fatty acid in adolescents living in the Kwang-ju area of Korea, and to analyze the relevance toward their eating behaviors, body composition, nutrient intakes, and consumption frequency of snacks-containing trans fatty acid. A survey questionnaire was developed in order to investigate general environmental factors, eating behavior, nutritional knowledge, and the consumption frequency of snacks-containing trans fatty acid. A total of 312 middle school students were surveyed. The collection rate was 97% and ultimately 282 cases were analyzed. Anthropometric measurements, body composition data, and nutrient intakes were also collected. The consumption frequencies for snacks-containing trans-fatty acid were negatively correlated with food behavior scores (p〈0.01) however, pocket money and snack intake frequency per day were positively correlated with consumption frequency. Also, snack consumption frequency had some correlation with the subjects' anthropometric measurements and body composition data such as total body water (p〈0.01), body protein (p〈0.01), body minerals (p〈0.01), and skeletal muscle mass (p〈0.01). Finally, the consumption frequency of snacks-containing trans fatty acid was significantly correlated with calcium intake (p〈0.05), it also showed correlations with vitamin A, retinol, β-carotene, and folic acid intake, although statistical significance was not verified.