The food used in the royal palace of Chosun dynasty(朝鮮王朝) are viewed from various aspects of the dishes for ordinary meal, royal banquet, reception for the foreign representatives, wedding feast, and ancestral rites. Unfortunately most of knowledge on the food used in the royal palace is not accurate as it had been delivered orally and includes only that of the late Chosun dynasty era. Accordingly more accurate knowledge on its historical change could be illustrated by the ancient literature, including uigue(full account, 儀軌), dungrok(memorandum, 膳錄) or balgi(list, 件記). Though it is different from the preparation of King´s dinner table in kitchen, the uigue on ordinary meal, while King Jungcho(正祖) and his troupe visited the Hwasung(華城) has been handed down as the literature on the ordinary meal of the royal palace. Twenty seven kinds of uigue and dungrok on royal banquet for a celebration, from the 45th year of Sook Jong(肅宗, 1715) to the 6th year of Kwang Moo(光武, 1902), remain & reveal the change of features on dishes and food materials for royal banquet. Twenty kinds of uigue and dungrok on foods for reception of Chinese representatives, from the first year of Kwang Hae Koon(光海君, 1609) to the 21st year of Injo(仁祖, 1643), remain and antedate those on foods for royal banquet approximately 100 years. These have been precious materials for historical view on foods used in the royal palace. Twenty kinds of dungrok and uigue of karaedogam(嘉禮都監), in which dishes, food materials, and table setting diagram for dongrae feast (同牢宴) were put on record, remain as the litherature of wedding feast. Wangchosilrok(dynastic record, 王朝實錄) and numerous kinds of uigue have been helpful for study on foods used in ancestral rites. Detailed kinds and cooking procedures of foods for ancestral rites were clearly explained in Taesangji(太常志). A full view on foods used in the royal palace will be reproduced only through analytic study of these ancient litheratures.
There is the picture of four gods(四神圖) painted on the wall of old tomb of Koguryo dynasty in 4~5 century. Four gods in this picture were Symbolized by four animals, tortoise, tiger, ryong which is imaginative large Snake, and bong hwang which is also imaginative birds. Those animals wese believed at that time as protecting geities against all of the haman disaster and evils. The peoples of Kojosun dynasty carried those animal charms, and painted or graved on some where of living environment such as furniture, utensils, tools, wall, ceiling, etc. They ate those animals as food or medicine to treatment of all disieses and to get rid of evils and to gain well-being. A lot of examples in historical records were cited and interrelated to above super stitions.
The utilization of horticultural tools in Korea is historically viewed through limited materials. The garlic shown in the birth myth of the Korean nation appears to be the first record of horticultural foods. Only the fragmentary knowledge is available on the production and utilization of horticultural foods during the eras from Old Chosun to the Three States and the Unified Shilla. It seems that mutual exchange of horticultural foods between the Three States and neighbor countries was very active. Kinds of horticultural foods utilized were more variable in the era of Koryo dynasty. The situation on horticultural foods during Chosun dynasty is comparatively well known through published agricultural books and other literatures.
In order to Characterizing the tea-culture of Korea, historical records for tea-culture of Korea, Japan and China were reviewed. The results were summarized as follows. 1. As for the type of tea through the history of Korea, it could be characterized as Cake-tea(餠茶) in Sam Kook dynasty, Iump-tea(硏膏茶) in Koryo dynasty and leaf tea(葉茶) in Chosun dynasty. Those were affected by Chinese and Japanese tea-culture. 2. Fashiono of tea-culture in Korea were unigue, imitative and reconstitutive. 3. It was concluded that the tea-culture in Korea might be established by the 'cult of tree' (樹木崇拜信仰) of Hwa Rang in Shilla dynasty.