The objective of this study was to investigate important factors affecting food choice, specific dietary changes over past few years and to find out consumer opinions concerning the use of yogurt and oligosaccharides. Results of this study showed that three most important factors in food selection were taste (52.5%), nutrition (23.4%) and safety (15.8%). Three most important nutritive factors were protein (26.3%), calorie (19.2%) and vitamin (13.8%). Specific dietary changes of the respondent over past few years didn't affect meat intake, but increased vegetable and fruit intakes. Majority of the respondent (52.3%) ate yogurt more than 3 times per week and 35.6% of them ate 3~4 times per month. Reasons for intake of oligosaccharides were as follows; low calorie (40.8%), sweetener (28.3%)and bifidogenic factor (25.0%). The respondent regarded that yogurt had more preventive effect of disease than that of oligosaccharide.
The purpose of this study was to find out how much they have several aspects of food related knowledge and eating behaviors of high school students in Sungnam area. The self-administrated questionnaire was used. The result were as follows: 1. The average height of boys and girls was 172.6±0.7 cm and 156.3±1.5 cm respectively. The average weights of them were 62.4±0.5 kg (male) and 47.2±0.8 kg (female). BMI (Body Mass Index) of them were 20.74±0.14 (male), 18.82±0.28 (female). The average age is 16.7 years old. 2. The 66.5% of the subjects were spent more than one-third of their pocket money in buying on light meals during three times a week. There were significant differences between income level of family. Boys spent more money on each meal than girls. And significant differences were also obserbed by their residence area and Bundang residences spent more in buying snacks. 3. The rate of skipping meals was 51.2% in boys compared with 68.0% in girls. The frequencies of buying snacks instead of main meal were high in girls. Time limits in eating may possibly be the main reason for skipping meals (59.8%), especially in the morning. Skipping a breakfast becomes general eating habits in high school students, because of pressure for time to go to school. 4. It is required that parents should be taught to prepare balanced lunch box for their children because the rate of students who prepared two lunch boxes are 49.4%. 5. The students took snacks once or twice a day. They usually bought snacks in school concessions (51.8%) and they selected items of snack instinctivly. The girls ate snacks during lunch break time (31.7%) and after dinner (23.6%). Boys ate snacks after dinner (29.1%). Preference of foods were different by sex. Boys preferred bread (31.7%), milk and otherdairy products (80.8%), cola and soda (42.0%) as their snacks between meals. Girls selected biscuit, chip, beverage, coffee as their snacks, frequently. 6. BMI value of the group who ate between meals more than three times a day was lower (18.78±0.65) than that of the group who ate nothing between meals (20.71±3.79). 7. As for the nutritional knowledge, the students generally had higher correct rate of answer about which nutritive components of food has (76.6%). But they had lower knowledge on questions of nutritive values in food (10.6%). There was a meaningful relation between favorite food and nutritional knowledge. In conclusion, there were some problems on nutritional knowledge and eating habits among the high school students. Therefore, it was required that girls should be learned to recognize the importance of breakfast and needed to select balanced meals and snacks. And it was required that the nutrition education should be complemented to motivate and improve practical eating behaviors.
The purpose of this study was to investigate several aspects of eating out behavior especially in relation to Korean food. Self-administered questionnairs were completed by 700 adults living Seoul and Kyunggi-do area from June to July 1994. The results were as follows: 1. The 68.4% of subjects ate outside home either frequently or occasionally. Lunch-eat-out was the most frequent and breakfast-eat-out, the least. Male subjects, adults under the age of 50, and students ate out more frequently. 2. The 70.3% of subjects spent less than 5000 won for the expense of eating out. Those under the age of 25 and students considered reasonable the expenditure of less than 3000 won for lunch and less than 5000 won for supper. But older adults and workers and housewives prefered 3000~5000 won for lunch and 5000~15000 won for supper. 3. Nayngmyun, bibimbap, jajangmyun, pizza, Broiled galbi, and pork cutlet were favorite eat-out dishes. Among Korean foods, bibimbap, Broiled galbi, nayngmyun, bulgogi and galbitang were frequently selected menues. While Korean dishes had a tendency to be selected as a first choice, noodle type dishes and western style fast food were prefered as a second and third choices. 4. Korean food restaurants received highest score in the food taste and familiarity evaluations. They also received good grade in such points as the nutritive value of food, amount of serving portion and the variety of menu. But as for the sanitation and food price, Korean restaurant scored the lower mark in comparison to noodle restaurant and fast food restaurant.
The survey was made to learn Yanbian Korean housewives' knowledge of Korean traditional holidays and foods. The questionaires were answered by 143 Korean housewives living in Yanbian region. The results are summarized below. 1. 94.6% of the respondents acknowledge that the Korean traditional holidays should be inherited. And 47.0% of them answered that the Korean traditional foods should be inherited as they have been, but 51.0% replied that the traditional foods need to be slightly modified. 2. The percentages of those who have knowledge of the Korean traditional holidays are 98.7% for Seolnal, 97.3% for Chusuk, 96.6% for Jongwol Daeborum, 94.6% for Dongji, 90.6% for Dano. However, the percentages of those who know about Jungyangjeol, Yudeu, Muojeol and Samjitnal are lower than 10%. 3. Regarding the Korean traditional foods, more than 80% of the respondents have knowledge of Naeongmyun (96.6%), Gejangguk (94.0%), SiruD'ock (94.0%), Ogokbab (87.2%), Mulmandu (86.6%), Patjuk (94.0%), and D'ockguk (82.6%). And Naeongmyun, Mulmandu, Gejangguk, Kalgulksu were consumed most frequently. 4. It is found that Kimchi (97.9%), Soy-sauce (88.4%), and Sseokjang (72.6%), Hot-pepper paste (69.1%) are mostly made at home. The number in the parenthesis indicates the percentage of those who make the food at home.
Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of Korean traditional alcoholic beverages, such as Kwahaju, Sokokju, Baikhaju, Samhaeju and Hosanchun were investigated during fermentation with the difference of input step and treatment of rice and Nuruk (Korean-style bran koji). pH values in all treatments were similar to be ranged 3.1~3.2, but acidity of the treatment brewed without seed mash was 1.5~2 times higher than that of the treatment brewed with seed mash. The concentration of alcohol in all treatments increased as the concentration of the Nuruk increased. The alcohol concentrations of Samhaeju and Hosanchun ranging from 6.5% to 7.7% were higher than those of Kwahaju, Sokokju and Baikhaju ranging from 7.9% to 10.6%. Residual reducing sugar contents of Kwahaju, Sokokju and Baikhaju ranging from 4.6 g/L to 9.7 g/L were lower than those of Samhaeju and Hosanchun ranging from 14.2 g/L to 15.5 g/L. The consumed total sugar contents of Kwahaju, Sokokju and Baikhaju ranging from 125.4 g/L to 159.2 g/L were higher than those of Samhaeju and Hosanchun ranging from 111.2 g/L to 123.8 g/L, and the treatments brewed with seed mash showed more sugar consumption than the treatments brewed without seed mash. Sensory quality in the treatments brewed with seed mash was better than those of without seed mash. Concentration of Nuruk and preparation of seed mash from it were critical factors compared to input step and treatment of rice in Korean traditional alcoholic beverage brewing.
Infanthood is a crucial period when mental and emotional developments take place along with physical growth. Adequate supply of nutrition is essential during this period and there is an urgent need for proper education and guidance on balanced nutrition. Therefore, this study tried to set the direction for developing baby food by investigating the conditions of weaning status and mothers perspectives on weaning. According to the result of this study, the average period when interviewees began weaning of their infants is 4.1 months and finishing period of weaning is 14.2 months on average. The frequency of consuming commercial weaning food is once a week. As high as 88.4% and the fruit juice was mainly used as the starting weaning food. The consumtion rate, more than once a day, is as high as 60%, they use commercial weaning food for convenience, especially when they are out. The 65% of surveyed group show rather dissatisfactory view about the commercial weaning food, and wanted improvements and changes. Interviewees wanted to obtain the information on baby food sold in the market and how to prepare baby food through technical literatures, and they frequently relied on commercial baby food due to its convenience. The most desired type of baby food was semi-solid paste in a disposable package that can be stored at room temperature.
To study the dining-out behaviour of housewives, the frequency, food preference, expense for dining-out in social meeting, family gathering, daily meal were surveyed with a total of 454 housewives in Pusan. (1) In the frequency of dining-out, once or twice a month shows highest percentage, 59.7% and 45.8% for social meeting and family gathering respectively. The occasion of dining-out for the daily meal is less than 1 or 2 time per 6 month (62.6%). The frequency of dining-out is highly dependent on demographic variables such as age, academic background, family income, car ownership. (2) The preference for Korean dishes is found to be top in all occasions for dining-out. And then for the social meeting, chinese food, western style food, japanese cuisine and fast food are prefered in order, while western style food and chinese cuisine are rather prefered than japanese cuisine and fast food in occasion for family gathering. When they dine out just for daily meal, korean food is prefered first and preference for chinese food, western style food, fast food is followed in order. Japanese cuisine is prefered the last. (3) Housewives answered highly that the expense they spend for dining-out for social meeting (45.8%) or family fathering (46.8%) is 5,000 to 10,000 won per person. For these occasions, the expense is different with family income. Namely, if their income is higher than 3,000,000 won, they usually spend 10,000 to 15,000 won for the occasion. And for the daily dining-out, 34.7% respondents answered that they spend 2,000 to 3,000 won.
The Buinpilji is a book of food and clothes which was published in 1915 by Binghugak, Lee. The food part of Buinpilji is as follows: (1) The staple food are 2 kinds of Bab, Juk, and Guksoo. (2) The side dishes are 7 kinds of Kimchi, 4 kinds of Tang and Marunchan, 3 kinds of Jim, Jockgall, and Po, 2 kinds of Namul, Jon, Kui, and Jockpyun, and 1 kinds of Son, Shinsonro, Pokkum, Hoe, and Sundae. (3) There are also 10 kinds of Dock, 13 kinds of Kwajungryu, and 8 kinds of Umchungryu. (4) There are 14 different kinds of wine. (5) For seasoning there are 6 kinds of soybean sauce and oils and 1 kinds of vinegar. (6) There are 177 ways of preparing the ingredient 18 kinds of cutting terms, 22 heating terms. 29 expressions of taste can be found in the book.
The soluble solid of red pepper was extracted by water in order to investigate changes of soluble solid content by different extraction temperature (4~90℃) and time (1/2~3 hrs), and the contents of carotenoid, capsaicinoids, free sugar, organic acid, free amino acid in soluble solid were measured. Most of soluble solid in red pepper was extracted within the first 2 hrs and 93~98% of total soluble solid was extracted during the first 30 min. The contents of carotenoid increased by increasing extraction time and temperature, but decreased by increasing extraction time at 60℃ and 90℃. β-carotene content was sharply decreased after 2 hrs at 90℃. The content of capsaicinoid was sharply increased between 1 hr and 2 hr. Fructose and glucose in red pepper were extracted in the range of 83.8%~96.4% and the contents of free sugar gradually increased by increasing extraction time and temperature. The content of organic acid was gradually increased by increasing extraction time and temperature and the greatest amount of organic acid was extracted during the first 30 min of extraction time. The content of free amino acid was decreased by increasing extraction temperature.
The purpose of this study was to get data on the job attitude of cooks. This study was surveyed 216 cooks who work for deluxe hotels at Pusan. The results were summarized as follow: 1. The cooks think that their devotion is most important source for the best cooking. The next are taste, quality of raw materials, skill and hygiene in order. 2. 57.9% of the cooks think that a degree of expertise their field are average, but 73.6% cooks believe that the degree of expertise is higher than the other restaurant cooks. 3. They think that a good cook should be sincere and have proficiency of skill, good human relationship and study attitude, but they also believe an academic background and knowledge is not important to be a good cook. A deficiency of knowledge about cooking is what cooks believe to be the greatest hindrance for progress of cooking skills. The next hindrance are, a shortage of endeavor and authority of management. 4. The cooks believe that the ability of cooking is most important for a promotion, the others are, in order, human relationship, career background and age. 5. The cooks show little satisfaction with their job, but express their unsatisfaction with their pay. Also the cook's social status is mean. 6. The cooks recognize that a change in hotel policy is most important for the cooking department of the hotel. The next are, in order, enlargement of working space, arrangement of equipments and hiring of experts. 7. The cooks think that Japanese cooking have the best prospect in a food and beverage enterprise, while Chinese cooking have relatively lower prospect.
솔잎의 향기성분을 용매분획과 수증기증류법으로 분석한 결과는 다음과 같다. 솔잎을 hexane, ethyl acetate 및 ethanol로 연속적으로 추출하였을 때, 29종의 향기성분이 분리, 확인되었고, 주요 성분은 hydrocarbon이었다. hexane 추출에 의한 솔잎의 주요 향기성분은 α-pinene, β-thujene, trans-caryophyllene, β-cubebene 순으로 높게 나타났다. 솔잎을 hexane으로 추출한 잔사에 ethyl acetate를 가하여 향기 성분을 분석하였을 경우 추출된 향기성분은 α-cubebene, 3,6,9,12,15-petaoxanonadecan-1-ol, camphene, 순으로 높았고, 솔잎을 hexane 및 ethyl cetate로 추출한 잔사에 ethanol을 가하여 분석한 경우는 β-D4-tetrahydropyran, γ-cadinene, 3-ethyl-1,4-hexadiene, α-cubebene등이 주성분이었다. 솔잎을 수증기 증류하여 향기성분을 분석한 결과 44종의 성분이 분리, 확인되었고, hydrocarbon류가 주성분이었다. β-cubebene, trans-caryophyllene, 2-hexenal, T-muurolol, δ-cadinene 순이었다. 수증기 증류법에 의한 방법으로 추출 하였을 때 용매분획 추출시 보다 더 많은 성분이 검색되었고, 용매분획에 따라 추출되는 향기성분의 함량과 조성은 차이가 있었으며, 추출방법에 따라서도 향 기성분의 조성비가 다르게 나타났다.
Consumer's perceptions of the qualities of food and food-related services were surveyed through questionnaires by 672 adults randomly selected from 20 industrial foodservice in Pusan and Kyeung Nam area. The results are as follows: 1) By age, the elderly group gaved the highest mean score not only for freshness and temperature among the food characteristics but also for cleanliness of dishes and materials of dishes among the food-related service. 2) By occupation, the white collar worker group gaved the highest mean score in all characteristics of food and food-related service than did the blue collar worker group. Especially for courtesy of employees, the mean rating given by the white collar worker group was 3.15/5.00, but by the blue collar worker group was 2.67/5.00. 3) Good appetitive group rated taste of food 3.15/5.00, quality of food vs. food price 3.17/5.00, and freshness 3.15/5.00. But poor appetitive group rated taste of food 2.44/5.00, quality of food vs. food price 2.65/5.00, and freshness 2.70/5.00. 4) Men agreed that the rice and soup were right in amount. And women responded that the rice was in a large amount and the soup was not enough. 5) The white collar worker group agreed that the rice, the soup, the side dish, and the kimchi were right in amount. However the blue collar worker group agreed that the rice was right in amount, the soup and the side dish were not enough, and the kimchi was in a large amount. For seasoning of food, the white collar worker group responded that the salty taste and the hotness were just right. But the blue collar worker group responded that the food was neither salty nor hot at all. 6) The taste of food was shown to be positively correlated (p<0.001) with various food item combinations, freshness of food, and the variety of cooking methods.