This research was conducted to examine the awareness and preference levels related to MSG (monosodium glutamate) according to well-being dietary life pursuit attitude factors as well as to improve opportunities to meet value conscious consumption of well-being-oriented customers. According to well-being dietary life pursuit attitude factors, respondents were divided to three clusters, indifference type, well-being-oriented type, and active health action type. Sensory evaluations were carried out on soybean paste soup (Doenjang-guk) and seasoned spinach with different levels of MSG. In the results, 74.4% of all respondents preferred Doenjang soup with 2% MSG, 65.4% preferred seasoned spinach with the same ratio of MSG, and 35.9% preferred seasoned spinach with 0.5% MSG. Regarding the acceptance level of MSG, addition of MSG to improve taste was acceptable to the indifference type (cluster 1). On the contrary, active health action type did not prefer MSG, wanted natural seasonings despite high prices, and preferred to dine at restaurants that serve MSG-free foods. Based on this study, restaurant companies should segment their customers on the basis of MSG usage and establish their positioning strategies according to their concepts.
This study examined the satisfaction level and effects of after-school program cooking activities in children of multicultural families. A total of 135 children of general and multicultural families from 3th to 6th grades and their 11 teachers were surveyed, and 75 multicultural family children underwent a cooking activity program. Children of multicultural families showed higher participation in cooking activities than other Korean children. Children of multicultural families wanted to be involved in cooking activity programs after school more than other Korean children. These children also showed a higher rate of wanting to cook Korean foods compared to children of general families. Regarding reasons for participating in cooking activities, ‘I think I’m glad to be served delicious food’ response was the most common. Children of multicultural families showed higher participation in cooking activities than children of general families. Regarding school life changes, children of multicultural families were found to be less picky of foods in general as well as kimchi and vegetables. In conclusion, cooking activity programs for children of multicultural family showed beneficial effects on diet and understanding of Korean culture.
This study researched a document regarding ‘Pyeon (tteok)’ on 25 Jong-ga ancestral ritual foods through 「Jong-ga Ancestral ritual formalities and food」, published during 2003~2008 by the National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage of Cultural Heritage Administration. A after about 10 years, the transmission process of the setting and recipe was compared and analyzed in 2015 by directly visiting 4 Jong-ga. This research classified regions into 7 Gyeonggi, 4 Chungcheong, 2 Honam, and 12 Yeongnam, and classified hakpa, Gyeonggi, Chungcheong, Honam region into 13 Gihohakpa, Yeongnam region into 12 Yeongnamhakpa. The important analysis standard of Jong-ga ancestral ritual food was the region and hakpa, which appeared to considerably influence ‘Pyeon’ setting style, which represents and symbolizes family and recipe. Gihohakpa Jong-ga, which is an academic tradition that pursues practical interests, seems to highly regard practicality to adapt to changes along with the period. On the contrary, Yeongnamhakpa Jong-ga, which highly regards self-sufficiency living base and moral justification, seems to be highly conservative. Increase in Jong-ga, which utilizes mill, is the result of adaptation to the period environment such as Jongbu aging and lack of labor, etc.
This study was carried out in order to investigate Korean food acculturation by married immigrant women and how it affects their children’s eating habits. Using an in-depth interview method, 26 domestically residing married immigrant Chinese, Vietnamese, and Indonesian women in Korea were surveyed to investigate adaption to Korean food at the time of their immigration, their current dietary life, their preferred Korean food, major factors in managing their children’s eating habits, etc. The results reveal that depending on the married immigrant women’s country of birth, which plays an important role in a family’s dietary life and health, acculturation phenomena occurred in which the specific eating habits of each country were grafted into Korean food. Furthermore, due to their school-age children’s display of acceptance of both their homeland’s and Korea’s food culture, we believe that this can become a pivot point for non-governmental diplomacy where Korean food can be understood along with the mothers’ countries.
This study compared recipes of Korean Traditional steamed dishes, Noodles, Rice cake & Confectionary in Choi’s Recipe (「Choi’s Eumsikbeop」) with those in other literatures written during the mid-Joseon Dynasty. Through this work, it aimed to explore the value of Choi’s Recipe (「Choi’s Eumsikbeop」) in the history of cooking and the meanings of its recipes. Choi’s Recipe (「Choi’s Eumsikbeop」) contains recipes for a total of 20 kinds of food. Specifically, there are seven kinds of Fermented dishes (kimchi (6), and salted fermented food (1)), four kinds of Steamed dishes, seven kinds of Confectionary and Sweet (rice cake (4), jeonggwa (1), and dang (2)), and two kinds of Noodles (dumpling (1), and noodle (1)). Among them, the steamed dishes revealed characteristics of 17th-century food as in other cooking books, and some of them utilized unique ingredients handed down only through head families. Moreover, some recipes showed different cooking methods using similar materials. This suggests the originality of the recipes in this cooking book.
This study intends to discover stories and sensibilities connected with characteristics and symbols of the history and culture of Sangju to develop contents about the native foods of Sangju. ‘General Jeong’s Table’, which supplied the energy and nutrition necessary for soldiers during war, is set with Jobap, Patipguk, Euneogui, Baechumoojeon, Kongnamulheojib, Patipnamul, and Munamulsileagideanjangmuchim. ‘Sangjuseong retaking wartime food’, as a kind of ready-to-eat meal, which stresses convenience above everything else, is composed of Konggarujumeokbap, Bbongipjuk, Gamjangajji, and Odigojgammodeumbagitteok for table setting. ‘General Jeong’s liquor table’, which allowed the general to regain his energy or was set to entertain generals of allied forces in the Myeong Dynasty, is formed by Baeksuk, Gojgamssam, Kongjukjijim and Sangsurisul. Efficacies of food materials were analyzed in the Part of Drug Formula of the best-known medical book in Asia. Foods on ‘General Jeong’s Table’ has health efficacies that protect the five viscera and maintain the spleen and stomach.
This study compared and analyzed the consumption and amount of red pepper used in Baechu Kimchi (cabbage Kimchi) especially the amounts used in Kimchi recipes with respect to the passage of time from the 1930s to the 2010s. In this analysis, 78 recipes for cabbage Kimchi were taken from books, daily newspapers and magazines from 1930 to 2014 and collected for comparison. The result of the study showed that the consumption and inclusion of dried red pepper powder in cabbage Kimchi increased. The average consumption of red pepper in the 1930s was 5.75 g, and the number went up to 8.83 g in the 1940s, to 13.8 g in the 1950s, and to 20.25 g in the 1960s. The amount dramatically increased from 1970 to 1980 (53.37 g) and kept rising until 2010 (71.26 g). The average consumption of red pepper in cabbage Kimchi in the 2010s is about 12 times that of the 1930s.
The purpose of this article was to research the difference in additional marketing satisfaction by lifestyle of Korean restaurant customers (focus on foreign students at university in Gangwon province). In this research, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and ANOVA were carried out. Lifestyle was divided into seven factors and six clusters. Additional marketing satisfaction was divided into three factors. Additional marketing satisfaction showed a significant difference by lifestyle of foreign students. First, ‘employee’ had a highest point at C3 ‘convenience·internet searching pursuit’ but lowest point at C4 ‘brand preference pursuit’ (p<0.001). ‘Service process’ had a highest point at C1 ‘safety·health pursuit’ but lowest point at C5 ‘effort pursuit’ (p<0.001). ‘Tangible clue’ had a highest point at C3 ‘convenience·internet searching pursuit’ but lowest point at C5 ‘effort pursuit’ (p<0.001). Additional marketing can reduce customer uncertainty, ambiguities, and wavering about eating at restaurants by intangibility of service. As a result, food-service corporations need to manage additional marketing as well as increase satisfaction and loyalty of customers.
This study is on the alcohol beverage utensils represented on the Chinese tomb mural paintings of Song, Liao, Jin, and Yuan those countries had foreign exchange with Koryo Dynasty. These mural paintings are distributed in the areas such as Hebei, Henan, Inner mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Peijing. etc. The Alcohol beverage vessels were classified mainly into storage vessel, pouring vessel, drinking vessel and ladles according to the purpose. The storage vessels of Song, Liao and Jin were called Jiuping, Jingping, Jiuzun as well as Meiping. Pouring vessels are basically one set of Zhuzi, Wenwan and Jiuzhu, or Zhuhu and Zhuwan. On the mural paintings of Yuan Dynasty, Meiping as storage vessels disappear, and a variety of shapes of pouring vessels such as Mayu and Yuhuchunping appear. This trend indirectly indicates the new arrival of distilled liquor, which seems to have affected transition of the alcohol beverage utensils.
This study was conducted on wine consumers to explore their behavioral characteristics concerning their drinking frequency of wine, wine selection factors, and difficulties in selecting wines. Data were collected during February 19th 2014 to April 20th 2014. Respondents were students who were taking classes about wine at a University located in the Gyeonggido area. Prior to the analysis, wine consumers were classified based on frequency of consumption: those who consumed wine less than once a month were classified as “Tell me consumers”, whereas those who consumed wine once or more a month were classified as “Engage me consumers.” The wine selection factors of the two groups were as follows: ‘label aspect’, ‘taste and aroma’, ‘use purpose’, and ‘price and recommendation’. Regarding ‘label aspect’ and ‘use purpose’, there were significant differences between the two groups. Regarding difficulties in selecting wines, “Tell me consumers” mentioned the following: ‘experience’, ‘price’, and ‘food pairing’. “Engage me consumers” mentioned the following: ‘ability to identify new wines’ and ‘tastes of others who drink with or oneself’. Classifying domestic wine consumers and their behavioral features of drinking frequency of wine can be used for market segmentation of wine consumers.
The objective of the current study was to analyze the major factors affecting quality of life improvement for contract foodservice customers by identifying the contract foodservice environment consisting of the customer, foodservice management, and competitor. Qualitative research method was performed on foodservice customers and foodservice management using in-depth interviews. First, the customer environment was classified into three categories, including convenience of location, foodservice management environment into six categories, including comfort level of dining facility, and competitor environment into three categories, including service competition between foodservice providers. Second, quality of life was defined as the level of contentment felt by both the customer and foodservice management consuming the food provided. Third, both the customer and foodservice management perceived that the management environment of contract foodservice had a “medium” effect on quality of customer life. The findings of this study could be applicable for development of a contract foodservice business strategy through objective comparative analysis of the customer, foodservice management, and competitor environments.
The goal of the current study was to analyze major factors for improvement of quality of life in contract foodservice customers. This study investigated how characteristics of customers, foodservice management, and competitors differ in different contract foodservice business environments in order to understand increasing concerns over health, in-house working, and the environment, which are directly connected to work and life satisfaction and company profits. For the foodservice business environment, this study classified environmental factors reported by Duncan (1972) into three factors: customer environment, foodservice management environment, and competitor environment. Multi-regression analysis was conducted on quality of life using the Korean version of the WHO Quality of Life Scale Abbreviated Version (WHOQOLBREF). Sub-factors of the contract foodservice business environment included foodservice management environment, customer environment, and competitor environment in the order of importance. The results indicate that the foodservice management environment of the company or organization where the customer is employed has the most substantial influence on quality of customer life.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of addition of Artemisia annua L. powder in jeonbyeong. Contents of crude ash increased as the amount of Artemisia annua L. powder increased, whereas crude fat contents decreased. According to increasing contents of Artemisia annua L. powder, total amino acid contents significantly increased. Hunter’s L value increased as contents of Artemisia annua L. powder increased, whereas total free sugar contents decreased. Addition of Artemisia annua L. powder to jeonbyeong increased dietary fiber contents. The sensory score of jeonbyeong containing 100 g of Artemisia annua L. powder was the highest of all jeonbyeong tested. According to the results, addition of Artemisia annua L. powder could improve the quality and sensory characteristics of jeonbyeong.
Bamboo sprout powder was added to rice cake in an effort to improve the quality and functional properties of dough. The contents of crude protein and carbohydrates increased as the amount of bamboo sprout powder increased, whereas moisture contents decreased. According to increasing contents of bamboo sprout powder, total amino acid contents significantly increased. Hunter’s L value decreased as contents of bamboo sprout powder increased, whereas sucrose contents increased. Addition of bamboo sprout powder to rice cake increased dietary fiber contents. Sensory scores of rice cake containing 90 g of bamboo sprout powder were the highest of all rice cakes tested. According to the results, adding bamboo sprout powder could improve the quality and sensory characteristics of rice cake.
This study was performed to investigate the effect of Gastrodia elata powder on the quality characteristics of Jochung with barley malt. Grain syrups with 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% Gastrodia elata powder were produced. The pH value decreased with higher volume of Gastrodia elata powder and showed a significant difference between the samples (p<0.05). Total polyphenol content was 77.45~129.25 mg/100 g, and DPPH radical scavenging ability was 36.70~57.09 μmol. Sensory score of Jochung containing 2.5% Gastrodia elata powder was similar to that of control. Jochung containing less than 7.5% Gastrodia elata powder gave the highest scores in terms of quality characteristics and sensory evaluation. The data from different procedures were compared and analyzed by multivariate techniques (correlation matrix, principal component analysis). Correlations between antioxidant activity and the analyzed parameters were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05).
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of chlorella powder on quality characteristics of maejakgwa (a Korean traditional cookies). Maejakgwa was prepared with different amounts of chlorella powder (in ratios 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% of flour quantity). The moisture, crude ash, crude protein, and crude lipid contents of used chlorella powder were 2.38, 7.25, 65.95, and 0.95% respectively. The pH of maejakgwa dough decreased significantly as the level of chlorella powder increased; however, density of the batter, spread factor values, and moisture contents of the groups increased significantly with higher level of the chlorella powder. In addition, Hunter’s color L, a, and b values decreased significantly with increasing amounts of chlorella powder. In the texture meter test, hardness increased according to increasing concentration of chlorella powder. Finally, maejakgwas containing 1~2% chlorella powder had the highest sensory evaluation. From these results, we suggest that chlorella powder is a good ingredient for increasing consumer acceptability as well as functionality of maejakgwas.
The purpose of this study was to analyze factors affecting acceptance of four kinds of dak-jjim samples in third year schoolaged children (n=100). Soy sauce, red pepper paste, Vietnam fish sauce, and star anise were applied to samples for their familiar and exotic characteristics. Significant differences among samples were observed in odor, taste, and acceptance (p<0.001). Soy (Soy sauce sample), RPPaste (Red pepper paste sample), and Soy_FishS (Soy sauce and Vietnam fish sauce sample) samples scored higher than Soy_StarA (Soy sauce and star anise sample) sample. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in intensities of saltiness, sweetness, and hot spicy flavor (p>0.05). Liked attributes in samples were saltiness, sweetness, chicken flavor, potato flavor, moistness of chicken, hot spicy flavor, and color. Disliked attributes in samples were hot spicy flavor, saltiness, and ginger flavor. Significant differences among samples were observed in familiar intensity and willing to try again (p<0.001). Soy, RPPaste, and Soy_FishS samples scored higher than Soy_StarA sample. Panels considered taste (46%) and nutrition (45%). Higher familiar intensity of sample was associated with higher acceptance in samples. In other words, familiarity of food affects acceptance of food. Therefore, familiar ingredients such as soy sauce and chicken can be used for development of Korean menu items considering taste and nutrition with enhanced Korean food acceptance in school-aged children
The purpose of this study was to analyze factors affecting acceptance of four kinds of dak-jjim samples in third year schoolaged children (n=100). Soy sauce, red pepper paste, Vietnam fish sauce, and star anise were applied to samples for their familiar and exotic characteristics. Significant differences among samples were observed in odor, taste, and acceptance (p<0.001). Soy (Soy sauce sample), RPPaste (Red pepper paste sample), and Soy_FishS (Soy sauce and Vietnam fish sauce sample) samples scored higher than Soy_StarA (Soy sauce and star anise sample) sample. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in intensities of saltiness, sweetness, and hot spicy flavor (p>0.05). Liked attributes in samples were saltiness, sweetness, chicken flavor, potato flavor, moistness of chicken, hot spicy flavor, and color. Disliked attributes in samples were hot spicy flavor, saltiness, and ginger flavor. Significant differences among samples were observed in familiar intensity and willing to try again (p<0.001). Soy, RPPaste, and Soy_FishS samples scored higher than Soy_StarA sample. Panels considered taste (46%) and nutrition (45%). Higher familiar intensity of sample was associated with higher acceptance in samples. In other words, familiarity of food affects acceptance of food. Therefore, familiar ingredients such as soy sauce and chicken can be used for development of Korean menu items considering taste and nutrition with enhanced Korean food acceptance in school-aged children.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between white rice consumption and dietary intake, the risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean based on 1st (1998), 4th (2007~2009), 6th (2013) KNHANES. This study included 25,799 subjects who were age 10 or over. Three groups(low, medium, high) were divided according to white rice consumption (per day). In the low group, the meat and oil intake were significantly higher than the high group. In the 1st survey year, the BMI, waist circumstances, hypertriglyceridemia and fasting blood glucose in the high group were higher than other groups, however the 4th and 6th survey year showed no significant results. In the 1st survey year the risk of waist circumstances was higher in the high white rice consumption group and also had high risk with hypertriglyceridemia. Since the lower white rice consumption in 4th than 1st survey year we found no significant results. But in the 6th survey year with the lowest white rice consumption the risk of high diastolic pressure was reduced in high group. Because continuously reduced white rice consumption meantime showed more intake of meat and oil, it can be concluded that defensive effects with the Korean health.
The aim of this study was to investigate school dieticians’ awareness of the necessity for nutritional education and job satisfaction via qualitative research. For this purpose, in-depth interviews were carried out with 10 school dieticians. Results revealed that all participants said that schools urgently need nutritional education, and dietary attitude and unbalanced eating habits were the most urgent matters to be addressed. They made various suggestions related to revitalization of nutritional education: turning dieticians into nutritional educators, improving awareness of teachers and parents, receiving training on appropriate teaching methods, and so on. In response to their tasks, they considered bargaining with vendors and examination foods as the most burdensome tasks. In response to questions about how participants were treated in their workplaces, all participants reported low job satisfaction due to excessive work, lack of promotion opportunities, and low salary. To improve this, participants recommended creating a task manual, strengthening their role as managers, increasing their salary, and so on. Therefore, institutional support is necessary for dieticians to efficiently handle their excessive workload. In addition, an educational environment where dieticians can effectively carry out nutritional education needs to be created.