When globalizing Korean food, it is important to conduct regional consumer research before entering the market so that an effective market strategy can be developed. This study was conducted to compare the perceptions regarding Thai, Chinese, Japanese and Korean food between Swedish and Yugoslavian university students in Växjo, Sweden, where regional market research is lacking. As immigration increases worldwide, comparison of consumer perceptions of immigrants and domestic individuals will provide meaningful insight for use in the development of marketing strategies for areas where immigrant populations are increasing rapidly. In this study, six attributes of Asian food, fresh vegetables, low fat, chicken and sea food, exotic ingredient, value for money and unknown food, were compared. The perception of fresh vegetables and low fat of Chinese food differed significantly among the two groups. Because both of these attributes are health related, these findings indicate that recipe modification may be necessary to adapt to the preferred taste of target customers in this prospective market.
The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the dimensions and patterns of the perception of traditional food for Koreans living in Yanbian, Mongolia and Uzbekistan. Items representing the perception of traditional food were combined into a dimension and a pattern based on underlying perception of the Koreans living in the area. Any difference in the perception of the Koreans living in these areas likely reflects their different dimensions and patterns. Thus, it is important to determine if Koreans living in Yanbian, Mongolia and Uzbekistan should be treated as a homogeneous group when defining their perceptional structure of traditional food. Factor and cluster analysis of the data generated in this study revealed two different dimensions and patterns for each group of Koreans living in Yanbian, Mongolia and Uzbekistan. However, the structure of the dimensions and patterns of the perception of traditional food differed, indicating that Koreans within and between the countries are not a homogeneous group. Similarities and differences in perceptional dimensions and patterns among Yanbian, Mongolian and Uzbekistan-Koreans are also discussed. Moreover, future implications for food and nutrition specialists, especially for those who have an interest in Korean traditional food in Asia and those who have an interest in globalization of Korean traditional food are provided.
This study was conducted to investigate and analyze food related and space related elements of popular Vietnamese restaurants in Hong Kong to identify restaurant images related to food, to examine how Vietnamese traditions are applied to such restaurants, and ultimately, to get their implications for us. Luxury Vietnamese restaurants in Hong Kong tended to be located in major office buildings and famous shopping malls in the downtown area; therefore, they were highly accessible to foreigners. In addition, most Vietnamese restaurants were quite formal in size or atmosphere. The food-related elements of the luxury restaurants reproduced traditional menus, but the table setting and service generally adopted a formal Western style setting. The presentation of foods was also creative and contemporary, to suit international customers' tastes. Regarding the spatial elements, restaurants serving traditional menus had interiors influenced by the French colonial period, while those serving contemporarily adapted menus had interiors with simple contemporary images emphasized by Vietnamese traditional decorations. These characteristics allowed foreigners from diverse countries to access the restaurants without a sense of rejection. Casual restaurants were primarily exposed to many people on busy roadsides, but they tended to be inferior in terms of size and quality. Apart from size and price level, food-related elements failed to reflect Vietnamese unique traditional characteristics. The outward appearance consisted of basic construction materials (glass, chassis, and bamboo) instead of those representing Vietnamese architecture. Additionally, the interior of the casual restaurants contained traditional elements or objects more frequently than luxury restaurants, but they looked rather disorderly and lacked harmony. Overall, the image of casual restaurants was degraded by the use of cheap and low quality finishing materials and furniture. The results of this study may be useful for organizations promoting the Branding of Korea or businesspeople and designers promoting the globalization of Korean foods.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the Jorim of meat and poultry in Korean modern cookbooks. Jorim is a traditional Korean method of braising meat and poultry with soy sauce or gochujang. This study evaluated jorim in 10 books published in Korea from the end of 1800 to 1987 and to develop cooking models of beef jorim, pork jorim, and chicken jorim. The main ingredients in the jorim were beef, pork, chicken and pheasant. Other ingredients in the jorim included pine nuts, beef, eggs, radishes, bean sprouts, onions, bamboo shoots and pepper. In Sieuijeanseo, which was published at the end of the nineteenth century, the method called for braising meat directly in soy sauce. However, other modern cookbooks suggested boiling the meat prior to braising. Despite jorim being a popular sub-dish in Korea, there has been a decrease in the varieties available.
The purpose of this research was to investigate whether the perception of KPIs by restaurant managers from financial and non-financial perspectives was affected by BSC implementation. The perceptions that were examined were importance, adoption, performance, and utilization of KPIs. We surveyed managers from multinational restaurant chains that were adopting BSC and those that were not. From a non-financial perspective, the difference in perceived importance between BSC adopted firms and firms that did not adopt BSC was significant. The managers of BSC adopted firms perceived KPIs more seriously than the others. Secondly, according to the managers' working experiences, the difference of perceived utilization in the internal business process perspective was significant between BSC adopted firms and firms that did not adopt BSC. In addition, from the learning and growth perspective, the difference in perceived adoption and utilization between the two groups was significant. Finally, in the BSC adopted firms, the perceived importance of the managers affected the other perceptions like adoption and utilization from both the financial and non-financial perspectives.
This study was conducted to provide basic data and insight into behaviors that result in increased continuous sales and competitiveness. This was done by examining the effect of personal involvement on customer satisfaction and trust, the effect of customer satisfaction on switching cost and loyalty, the effect of trust on switching cost and loyalty and by analyzing the indirect effect of trust and loyalty to personal involvement on switching cost and loyalty of the patrons of casual dining restaurants. In order to achieve the goals of the study, a hypothesis and structural equation were proposed based on preceding research and the proposed model was analyzed using LISREL 8.30 to prove the hypothesis and better understand the interactions between the cause and effect. The results were as follows: Six proposed hypothesis were chosen and the indirect effect was verified. In other words, customers' personal involvement was shown to have an effect on trust and devotion and satisfaction influenced switching cost and loyalty. Trust had an effect on switching cost and loyalty and by analyzing the indirect effect the customers' personal involvement was shown to affect the switching cost and loyalty through satisfaction and trust. The result of this analysis provides clues to better understand the eating-out behavior of customers and proves that personal involvement, satisfaction, trust, switching cost and loyalty are directly and indirectly related.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of 6 Sigma on menu management, work commitment and quality in the culinary division of hotels and family restaurants. In addition, this study sought to identify the effects of menu management, work commitment and quality performance on customer satisfaction. Furthermore the relationship between menu management and culinary quality was evaluated here. The subjects evaluated in this study were employees of culinary division of hotels and family restaurants that implemented or were about to adopt the 6 Sigma program. A total of 385 questionnaires were analyzed using factor analysis, a reliability test, and covariance structural analysis. The results revealed that the 6 Sigma program influenced menu management, work commitment and culinary quality. Moreover, menu management, work commitment and culinary quality performance were found to impact customer satisfaction and culinary quality performance. Based on these findings, culinary divisions of hotels and family restaurants should incorporate the 6 Sigma program as soon as possible. To implement this program, faultless data for the 6 Sigma program should be collected using sufficient preparation procedures. After the data were collected, a task force team should be developed, experts should be cultivated and employees should be trained as necessary. Finally, the current level of product and services should be measured and reported to all employees in the culinary division and a challenge spirit should be brought with understanding for the reason for implementation of the 6 Sigma program. In implementing the 6 Sigma program, the leadership of the top manager and the head of the culinary division is very important.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fast food customer's perceived risks on risk reduction behavior, attitude and purchase intention. A total of 268 usable surveys were collected using a stratified random sampling method. Descriptive analysis and factor analysis was then conducted using SPSS 12.0, and a Cronbach's α was generated to estimate the internal consistency of the survey items. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationships among variables. The results indicated that fast food safety and monetary risks had a negative effect on customer feelings and satisfaction with fast food, which had a positive effect on buying purpose and recommendation purpose. Conversely, obesity and monetary risks only had a negative effect on buying purpose. An improved menu more effectively reduced the risk perceived by the fast-food customers than an improved image.
School dietitians are divided into two groups according to their status of employment, school nutrition teachers and dietitians, with the latter being irregularly employed by the institution. In this study, the job satisfaction, communication ability, work performance and importance in feeding services and dietetic counseling of both groups were compared. To accomplish this, 100 regularly employed school nutrition teachers (regularly employed) and 101 dietitians (irregularly employed) were surveyed by questionnaire. The results were as follows: (1) The irregularly employed dietitians showed a lower level of job satisfaction than the school nutrition teachers. This was likely because the school nutrition teachers belonged to the strong inner circle of school teachers and cafeteria workers, and had enough time to prepare for class lectures and consultancy. Conversely, the irregularly employed dietitians generally handle extra office work in addition to their primary duties. Despite these differences, both parties agreed that it was necessary to change the work system. Additionally, school dietitians reported that they had little opportunity for further training for career development. (2) Both parties had good communication skills; however, the irregularly employed dietitians had more conflicts with other staff members than the regular employees. (3) Job performance and job importance level was compared among employees involved in school feeding services and nutrition counseling. No significant differences were observed between dietitians and nutrition teachers in either group (p<0.05). However, the school nutrition teachers showed better skills than school dietitian with respect to public relations, running independent counseling offices, and using effective tools and materials. Job performance level was lower when compared to job importance level for all items, which meant the job was not well performed when compared to the work importance awareness.
Frying is the most popular cooking style used in food service institutions in Korea because fried dishes are well accepted by students. However, trans fat contents reduction have recently been required in many foods for health reasons Therefore, alternatives to frying such as oven baking or roasting are being used in many institutions. Steam convection ovens provide dry heat as well as steam so that they can be used to make a wide variety of Korean dishes. In this study, a menu acceptance test was conducted over 2 weeks. Pork, chicken, fish and potato dishes cooked by conventional cooking methods were served for 4 successive days, after which the same dishes were prepared using the oven. Overall, 322 junior high school students evaluated the traditionally cooked foods, while 316 evaluated the oven cooked foods. Comparison of the foods prepared using both methods only revealed a significant difference in the acceptability of foods on the fish menu (p<0.05). Specifically, the acceptance of fried fish was higher than that of the oven baked fish. Additionally, overall acceptance of the menu by males was higher than the acceptance by girls. Furthermore, students who had the preference for special ingredients showed a higher menu acceptance for the menu cooked with those ingredients. On average, approximately 25% of the meal was not consumed and left as plate waste. The portion of the fried fish not consumed was smaller than that of the oven cooked fish, but the portion not consumed did not vary based on cooking method for any other foods evaluated. Overall, it is expected that the oven cooking method will be a good substitute for frying or other cooking method for traditional Korean dishes.
This study was conducted to investigate the quality characteristics of mungbean starch gels containing various hydrocolloids (carrageenan, locust bean gum and xanthan gum) during room temperature storage (25℃ for 24, 48 and 72 hours). Carrageenan and xanthan gum reduced the pasting viscosity of mungbean starch, whereas the locust bean gum increased the viscosity. The melting characteristics, as assessed by DSC, showed that carrageenan and xanthan gum delayed gelatinization of mungbean starch and the locust bean gum had no effect on this property. The lightness (L) of the gels with the locust bean gum was similar to that without the additive during storage, whereas that with carrageenan and xanthan gum was higher than that without the additive. Hardness, chewiness and gumminess of the gels with the locust bean gum was higher than that without the additive during storage, whereas that with carrageenan and xanthan gum was lower than that without the additive. The rupture stress, rupture strain and rupture energy of the gels with carrageenan and xanthan gum was lower than that without the additive during storage, whereas that with the locust bean gum was similar to that without the additive. In the sensory evaluation, springiness and cohesiveness of the gels with carrageenan and xanthan gum were lower than those without the additive, whereas springiness, brittleness and hardness of the gels with the locust bean gum were higher than those without the additive. In addition, the overall acceptability of the gels with the locust bean gum improved. The above results showed that carrageenan and xanthan gum lowered the quality characteristics of the mungbean starch gel and the locust bean gum improved them. Thus, the addition of 0.5% locust bean gum is an appropriate method for improving the quality characteristics of mungbean starch gel.
Bamboo leaf powder was added to Chiffon cake to increase its neutraceutical effects and storage periods. Specifically, 0, 7, 10 and 13% leaf powder was added to the cakes. The content of total dietary fiber in the bamboo leaf powder was 65.57%. The moisture content did not differ significantly among groups. The cake containing 10% bamboo leaf powder had the greatest volume, whereas the control group (0% bamboo leaf powder) had the lowest volume (p〈0.05). The Hunter's L and a values decreased significantly as the amount of bamboo leaf powder increased. The b value of the control was lowest among the groups (p〈0.05). Evaluation of the consumer acceptance of flavor revealed that the cakes containing the added bamboo leaf had greater consumer acceptance than the control. However, when the color was evaluated, the 13% group showed the lowest acceptance (p〈0.05). Other factors such as texture, taste and overall acceptance did not differ significantly among groups. Additionally, the elasticity did not differ among groups, while the air cells were most uniform in the control. The strength of bamboo leaf aroma, bitter taste and aftertaste increased as the amount of bamboo leaf powder added increased. Cakes containing 10% and 13% added powder had the greatest moisture content, while the control had the lowest content (p〈0.05). As in previous studies, the results of this study indicated that 10% bamboo leaf powder was the optimal level for the preparation of Chiffon cake. To evaluate the storage of cakes, the 10% group and the control were inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae and then incubated at 30℃ for 6 days. The microbial colony counts in the control group were dramatically increased after 48 hrs; however, the fungal concentration of the 10% group did not increase for 4 days. In conclusion, the addition of 10% bamboo leaf powder to Chiffon cake increased the storage time while maintaining adequate consumer acceptance.
The effects of substituting whey protein isolate (WPI) powder for rice flour during the preparation of paeksulgi (Korean rice cake) were evaluated by objective and subjective tests. Milk whey is drained from milk curd as a by-product of the cheese manufacturing process. Whey protein is known as a good nutritional source and a functional material for many processed foods. WPI contains more than 90% whey protein. The moisture content decreased gradually during storage and the decrease was less in control than WPI powder-substituted groups. The color lightness (L) decreased significantly with increasing WPI powder, wherease the redness (a) and yellowness (b) both increased. Texture analyses revealed that the hardness, chewiness, gumminess, adhesiveness and fracturability of paeksulgitended to increase in proportion to the amount of WPI powder added. Evaluation of the gelatinization of paeksulgi by amylographing revealed that the initial pasting temperature, peak viscosity, hot pasting viscosity and breakdown was lower in samples that contained WPI powder. However, the lowest setback value was observed in the control. The results of the sensory evaluation indicated that paeksulgi prepared with 2% WPI powder had the highest overall acceptability. Taken together, these results suggest that WPI paeksulgi containing 2% WPI powder has the best quality.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the multilateral weight control program provided by the university health care center for female college students. The program was 8weeks long and composed of nutrition consultation, exercise, and behavior modification. Nutrition education focused on a low calorie and balanced diet, increasing the intake of protein and micronutrients and reducing carbohydrate and fat consumption. Evaluations were made upon completion of an 8-week program and upon follow-up at 6 months after the end of program. A total of 92 women completed the 8-week program, while 20 completed the follow-up survey. Upon completion of the 8-week program, significant decreases in body weight, BMI, body fat (kg), and %body fat were observed, and muscle mass was also reduced. The total energy and carbohydrates intake were also significantly decreased in subjects with weight loss, while the percentage of subjects whose consumption of protein, calcium, iron, vitamin B1, B6, and niacin did not meet the EAR, were decreased. The blood values of glucose, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were decreased. The follow-up survey revealed that the subjects continued to lose weight after completion of the program. In addition, a Mini nutrition assessment revealed that diet quality improved, especially with respect to reductions in the consumption frequency of fried, greasy and salty food. In conclusion, the multilateral weight control program with diet education for female college students was effective for long lasting weight control and improved dietary behavior. Nutrition education for weight reduction should focus on balanced nutrition as well as lowering the total caloric intake.