This is the research on the observing annual customs, the annual custom foods and the application of the annual custom foods to the school foodservice. We sample 419 housewives live in Kyungnam area and 174 dieticians work at the primary and secondary schools. Annual customs the housewives and dieticians observe at high degree are Chuseok, Seolral, Jeongwoldaeboreum, Dongji, Chopail, Sambok etc. The housewives observe more Seolral, Chuseok and Dongji than the dieticians and the dieticians observe more Sambok than the housewives.(P<.001) When they provide school foodservice, the dieticians observe Dongji at the highest degree. In Kyungnam they eat most the gakjongnamul as annual custom foods on Chuseok and Seolral. They eat most ogokbap and mugeunnamul on Jeongwoldaeboreum, minarinamul on Chopail, and samgyetang on Sambok and patjuk on Dongji as the annual custom foods. Most of dieticians (94.3%) answer that it is good to provide annual custom foods as the school foodservice on annual customs. However, they indicate some practical problems to do such as inadequacy of the school cooking facilities, its not suiting students' tastes, etc. The rate of housewives' answers that we have to transmit annual customs is higher than that of dieticians.(P<.001) Seolral topped the list of annual customs both housewives and dieticians answer must be transmitted, followed by Chuseok, Jeongwoldaeboreum, Dongji. Dongji is followed by Chopail(P<.001) in the housewives' answers while Sambok(P<.001) in the dieticians' answers. Though most of the respondents know the origins, dates and details of annual customs they think must be transmitted, they don't know well those of the other ones. By their mothers both housewives and dieticians have come to know about annual customs and mostly affected. Secondly housewives affected by their mothers-in-law while dieticians by their school education.(P<.001)
본 연구는 우리의 전통혼례음식을 발전시키기 위한 기초자료 수집의 일환으로서 부산, 경남지역 주부들의 혼례음식에 대한 관행 및 견해를 조사한 것이다. 응답한 525부의 설문지를 분석한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 조사대상자는 부산지역 주부들이 77.9%, 경남지역 주부들이 22.1%이었으며, 30대가 34.5%, 40대가 31.8%를 차지하였고, 전업주부가 43.5%, 직장인이 34.7%, 고졸이 49.3%, 수입정도는 100만원대가 44.2%, 핵가족의 구성이 66.9%로 가장 많은 비율을 차지하였다. 2. 이바지음식, 폐백음식, 예단음식의 필요성은 이바지음식의 필요성이 가장 점수가 높았고(3.36±0.93), 연령이 높을수록 높은 점수를 보여 유의적인 차이를 보였으며, 학력이 낮을수록 폐백음식(p〈0.01), 예단음식(p〈0.01)의 필요성에 높은 점수를 나타내어 유의적인 차이를 보였다. 또한 수입정도가 높을수록(p〈0.01), 핵가족 및 기타의 가족구성(p〈0.05)이 이바지음식의 필요성에 높은 점수를 나타내었다. 3. 봉치떡, 신부큰상, 시부모큰상, 함, 혼서지 등의 필요성은 시부모큰상이 3.19±0.97로 가장 높은 점수이며, 연령이 높을수록 봉치떡, 함, 혼서지에 유의적(p〈0.001)으로 높은 점수를 보였고, 신부큰상, 시부모큰상에도 유의적인 차이(p(0.01)를 나타냈다. 학력이 낮을수록 봉치떡(p〈0.01), 함(p〈0.05), 혼서지(p〈0.05)의 필요성에 대체로 높은 점수를 보였다. 4. 혼례음식의 종류 중 가장 선호하는 것은 떡(58.4%), 생선류(27.3%), 과일류(17.0%), 한과류(16.1%), 산적류(14.1%)의 순으로 나타났다. 5. 현행 혼례음식에 대한 견해는 좀더 간소화하여야 한다가 64.4%, 생략되어야 한다가 17.8%로 나타났으며 연령별(p〈0.001), 직업별(p〈0.01), 가족구성별(p〈0.05)로 유의적인 차이를 보였다. 6. 현행 혼례음식의 상차림의 실천에 대한 견해는 간소화 한다 57.5%, 양가가 의논해서 23.4%로 나타났으며 직업별(p〈0.05)로 유의적인 차이를 나타내었다. 7. 자녀를 결혼시킬 때 혼례음식을 장만하는 방법에 대한 견해는 손수 장만하겠다는 비율이 30.1%, 주문하겠다 28.7%로 나타났으며 연령별(p〈0.01) 직업별(p〈0.05)로 유의적인 차이를 나타내었다. 8. 주부들 자신이 혼주가 되었을 때 음식차림의 정도에 대한 견해는 양가 상의 하에 간소화하겠다가 51.0%, 보통이면 만족하겠다 19.8%, 기본적인 것만 해도 좋다 1%로 나타났다. 이는 연령별(p〈0.05), 직업별(p〈0.05), 학력별(p〈0.05), 가족구성별(p〈0.05)로 유의적인 차이를 나타내었다. 9. 혼례음식의 전수와 보존에 대한 견해는 조금씩 사라질 것이다가 52.1%, 유지될 것이다 21.8%로 나타나 연령별(p〈0.001), 직업별(p〈0.01)로 유의적인 차이를 보여 연령이 높을수록 전통을 유지하려는 것을 알 수 있었다. 10. 혼례음식과 예식절차와의 관계에 대한 견해는 시대에 따라 변해야 된다 57.5%, 너무 겉치레이다 17.9%로 나타났다. 연령별(p〈0.001), 학력별(p〈0.05)로 유의적인 차이를 보였다. 이상의 결과에서 1997년 이후 일부 계층의 부의 과시처럼 혼례음식을 준비하는 경향이 이루어져 극도로 사치화 하는 혼례음식에 대해 부정적인 견해를 나타내었지만 1999년 1월 6일자로 "가정의례의 정착 및 지원 에 관한 법률"이 제정되므로 인해 전면 허용됨에 따라 우리의 혼례음식 또한 그와 더불어 더욱 고급화, 허례허식화 된 것에 그 원인이 있는 것으로 판단된다. 따라서 신식혼례에 혼례음식은 전통을 고수18)한다는 명목하에 일부 부유층에서는 다시 혼례의 사치화가 일어나고 있는 것은 사실이나 최근 세계화는 곧 우리의 전통문화를 알리는 것이라는 목소리에 주부들이 전통음식에 대한 관심이 높아졌고 이는 학습으로 연결되어 많은 주부들이 혼례음식을 배우고 있기 때문에 혼례음식의 인지도가 높아진 것으로 사료된다. 하지만 아직도 현시대에 맞는 적합한 모델이 제시되지 않은 상태이고 혼례음식 또한 혼례풍습과 함께 이어져 나갈 것은 확연한 사실이므로 이에 우리는 현시대에 맞는 적합한 모델을 찾아야 할 것이다. 즉 혼례음식이 가지는 기복의 의미를 되살리고 혼례음식을 준비하는 우리의 주부들의 사회, 경제적 부담을 줄이면서 전통계승을 살릴 수 있는 모델의 제시가 필요한 것으로 사료된다.
The purpose of this study examined important factor of performance on Contract Foodservice management. Three contract Foodservice companies were selected which were located in Seoul & kuonggi province. 300 units were chose. The questionnaire was composed of seven part. There were the operation of food management, the operation of menu, the operation of equipment and facilities management, the operation of solid waste and safety management, the operation of waiting time management. As a result of the survey B&I foodservice was listed higher than University foodservice as food hygiene, FIFO and food shelf life. University foodservice employees worked 4 hour longer than B&I foodservice employees, so turnover rate was higher than it. Comparing the number of feeding, B&I foodservice equipment and facilities scale was bigger than University foodservice equipment and facilities. The rate of solid waste on B&I foodservice was 11.468% and the rate of University foodservice was 16.23%, the waiting time of University foodservice was about 8mins longer than B&I foodservice.
This study was performed to know effect of Yackwa quality when sucrose fatty acid esters(S-570, S-970, S-1570) were added as an emulsifier. In mechanical characteristics, the Yackwa of sucrose fatty acid esters did greatly decrease the hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and gumminess, respectively, and increase the brittleness compared to the Yackwa of non-emulsifier and egg yolk. This tendency showed at the above level of 1.0% S-570, and 0.5% S-970 and S-1570, respectively. In sensory evaluation, the Yackwa of sucrose fatty acid esters increased the softness compared to the Yackwa of non-emulsifiers and egg yolk. There were significantly differences in the preference at 0.5% level of S-970 and 1.5% level of S-1570, respectively compared to other treatments. In conclusion, the 0.5% level of S-970 would be mostly useful level of emulsifier for making Yackwa.
The quality characteristics of traditional Kyungsangdo Myungtae (Alaska pollack) sikhae including optimal composition of the product were investigated. In the sensory evaluation, the Myungtae sikhae made from Gampo accepted to be best for traditional Kyungsangdo Myungtae sikhae and it is called standard sikhae. The standard sikhae was prepared as follows: dried-Myungtae 200g, cooked rice 230g, red pepper 92g, garlic 112g, ginger 100g, radish 1.6kg, salt 20g, and malt meal 65g. The Myungtae sikhae made from Gampo showed higher values in total sugar, free reducing sugar, and nitrogen compounds than the Myungtae sikhae made from another locations. The sugar of standard sikhae consisted of four kinds including glucose. And, the contents of free amino acid was increased in the order of glutamic acid, alanine, and methionine. The composition of free amino acid in Myungtae sikhae contained 17 kinds, and the contents was increased in order of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and proline. The organic acid of standard Myungtae sikhae consisted of 7 kinds including lactic acid during fermentation. The contents of citric acid, succinic acid, and lactic acid gradually increased during fermentation, and especially, increasing of lactic acid remarkably increased than the different organic acid.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive differences among the aged who have different living conditions. 91 free-meal receivers and 86 people with stable lives were asked about their living conditions and cognitive function by using K-MMSE. All data were analyzed by SPSS 10.0 package. Free meal receivers had poorer socioeconomic status than the subjects who had stable lives. Cognitive function of free meal receivers was lower than the people with stable lives in the most cognitive factors. Especially age of 50 to 64, pre-aged group, who had been receiving free meals, showed lowest cognitive level than the other age groups. Among 7 cognitive factors, there was the greatest difference in attention and calculation between 2 groups. Percentage of 'conclusive dementia' among the free meal receivers was statistically higher than the people with stable lives and that of 'conclusively normal' was statistically lower in free meal receivers comparing with the people with stable lives. Moreover, socioeconomic factors like income, former job, marital status, housing and education, blood pressure and physical activity were significantly related to the subject's cognitive function.
This study was conducted to find sensitive indicator of food intake and specific food group related to cognitive function and to analyze the pathway among factors affecting food intake and cognitive function of the aged. 179 people over 50 years old were investigated and all the data were analyzed by SPSS 10.0 package. Food frequency was more sensitive indicator to show the relationship between food intake and cognitive function of the aged than the numbers of standard amount of food eaten. Consumption of grains and starch, meat, fish, eggs and beans were strongly related to cognitive function of the aged and intake of vegetables and fruits also have relationship with it. Moreover, the more frequent eating the carbohydrate and the protein, the higher the cognitive level of the aged. Age, education period, income, blood pressure, duration after retirement, frequency of physical activity and BMI were correlated with food intake and cognitive function of the aged. Among them, age and frequency of physical activity were most strongly correlated with food intake, and education period with cognitive function of them. This investigation shows that more stable intake of carbohydrate and protein containing foods need to be supplied to low income aged and the importance of physical activity of the aged must be emphasized with food intake for better life of the aged.
The purposes of this study were to examine understanding, attitudes, and behaviors of college students regarding the nutrition labels of food package and the relations among these factors and demographic background such as educational experience with label, major, home place and parents' status. The study was surveyed 471 undergraduate students enrolled in general education classes at local university. Generally, college students could understand nutrition label. Nutrition related class in college didn't influence Nutrition label understanding, use and purchasing behavior. Students whose mothers with higher than college education level and professional work showed strong dependability on nutrition label. Label use, understanding and purchasing behaviors significantly associated with gender of subjects. All the subjects looked at the amount of sodium most frequently among all the nutrients listed on the food package(88.8%). Of all the food labels, the manufacturing date(25.1%) was considered the most important and the refund and exchange(12.9%) was considered the least important information. This paper suggested that nutrition education program for college students needs to be developed in series from elementary school curriculum and to enhance the use of nutrition labels.
The purpose of this study was to investigate several aspects of eating out behaviors especially in relation to Chinese food. Self-administrated questionnairs were completed by 556 food-related major college students in Kangwon-do area. The results were as follows: 1. The frequencies of eating out were not significantly different by gender, type of residence, and the amount of spending money per month of the subjects. 2. Korean foods had a tendency to be selected as a first choice of eating out with both family and friends. The subjects preferred Korean foods, Western foods, Chinese foods and Japanese foods in order with their family but flour based foods, western foods and chinese foods in order with their friends. Japanese foods were not selected at all when they ate out with friends. 3. The 80.7% of male subjects and the 58% of female subjects liked Chinese foods. High calorie food was the feeling about Chinese foods for the male subjects and greasy food was for the female subjects. Taste was the most considered factor for choosing Chinese foods. 4. The 80% of subjects answered that Chinese food culture affected that of Korea. The 77% of subjects thought Chinese noodles were settled down to Korea. 5. Using MSG to Chinese foods was recognized as health-concerning factor for 67% of male subjects and 72% of female subjects.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the problems arising from the actual conditions of the Foodbank, and to implement the HACCP system as a solution in terms of increasing the safety of donated food within the Foodbank. In order to apply HACCP system, the entire Foodbank working process such as preparation, collection, transportation, division, and distribution was considered and analyzed to decide the application point for CCPs. Donated foods mainly consisted of processed foods, raw materials, lunch boxes, and cooked foods from mass catering establishments, which dominated over the others in terms of quantity. Cooked foods were divided into three groups based on menu-types and processing methods. Temperature, pH, and aw were measured on cooked foods, and Total Plate Count, Coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and E. coli O157:H7 were conducted in order to apply a HACCP plan. From these experiments, temperature, pH, and aw of donated food were likely contributed to microbial growth. Donated foods before HACCP implementation showed high numbers in terms of total plate count and Coliforms, both well over the acceptable standard levels. By setting the CCPs on maintenance of donated food below 10℃ and using a 75℃ reheating method, microbiological hazard levels were able to be controlled and lowered. From these results, it is concluded that in order to guarantee food safety, foods donated to the Foodbank must not only maintain a reasonable level of initial microbiological growth, but also must be handled properly through time and temperature controls within the Foodbank system. Furthermore, in terms of implementing the HACCP plan within the Foodbank management structure, basic food safety and sanitation measures, such as reheating facilities and various cold chain systems such as refrigerated vehicle for food transportation are importantly needed. The training and education of Foodbank personnel and management in areas such as awareness of hygiene and safe food handling and practice are also required and necessary.
본 연구는 건강한 남자 대학생을 중심으로 흡연 여부에 따른 흡연에 대한 인식 및 항산화 영양소 섭취수준과 혈장 농도를 비교하고자 흡연자 30명, 비흡연자 30명을 선정하여 신체계측과 설문조사를 통해 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 대상자의 연령은 흡연자가 24.4세 비흡연자가 22.4세이고, 신장은 각각 173.4cm, 172.6cm, 체중은 69.8kg, 67.9kg으로 나타났으며, BMI, 체지방, 체지방량, 제지방량(LBM), 체수분량(TBW)에서 군간 유의적인 차이가 없었다. 수축기 혈압 및 이완기 혈압은 흡연자에게서 유의적으로 높았으며, 혈당은 유의적이지는 않았지만, 흡연자가 높은 경향을 보였다. 커피와 알코올을 섭취하는 비율은 모두 흡연자에서 유의적으로 높았으며, 일일 섭취하는 알코올의 양도 흡연자에서 유의적으로 높았다. 흡연자들의 흡연 이유로는 '스트레스 해소'가 가장 많았고, 다음으로는 '습관적', '대인관계 향상을 위해서' 순이었다. 흡연여부에 따라 흡연에 대한 인식도를 조사한 결과, 흡연자가 비흡연자에 비해 유의적으로 흡연에 동의하는 경향이 높은 것으로 나타났다. 식품섭취 빈도조사에 의한 항산화 비타민 섭취량은 비타민 A의 경우 흡연자 505.15±123.32gR.E. 비흡연자 519.48±111.25μgR.E.로 유의적 차이는 없었다. 비타민 C는 각각 133.13 37.76mg, 124.68±27.12mg로 유의적이지는 않았지만 흡연자가 약간 높았으며, 비타민 E 섭취량은 6.91±2.39mg, 7.09±1.73mg로 차이를 보이지 않았다. 신체 계측치와 생화학적 성분간 상관관계에서는 이완기 혈압과 연령, 체지방, 체지방량이 양의 상관관계를 보였고, 혈장 비타민 C 농도는 체중(p＜0.05), 체수분량(p＜0.05)과 음의 상관관계가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구의 결과 혈압이나 혈당에서 흡연자가 비흡연자에 비해 높은 수준을 보여 흡연이 건강에 부정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났으며, 흡연에 대한 인식에서는 흡연자가 흡연에 동의하는 경향이 더 높았다. 흡연자와 비흡연자의 항산화 비타민 섭취량은 차이가 없었으나 활동량이 많고, 흡연력이 짧으며, 식이 섭취량이 비교적 많은 남자 대학생을 대상으로 하였음에도 불구하고 혈장의 비타민 C 농도가 유의적으로 낮았던 것은 흡연으로 인해 비타민 C 요구량이 증가된 것이라고 볼 수 있다. 따라서 항산화 영양소의 급원이 될 수 있는 식물의 섭취를 증가시키고 올바른 식습관을 형성하기 위한 교육이 이루어져야 할 것으로 사료된다.
The history and culture of using Zhu to help take food in China is a focal question in contemporary Chinese academic circle and leads to various conflicting ideas. This article, based on original historical documents, archaeological findings, cultural relic authentication, field investigation and the author's long-term thinking, comes up with a series of new conclusions. Firstly, Zhu emerged and developed along with cooked food and granular food served in bowls; secondly, there had been a period of using a single Zhu in China's history before two Zhus being used simultaneously; thirdly, the development of Zhu culture went through five historical periods, namely the former form, the interim form, the Jia form, the Zhu form and chopsticks form. In addition, the author gives out his unique viewpoints on some other relevant questions, including the Zhus which can be dated back to the Neolithic Age unearthed at Longqiuzhuang in Jiangsu province, Jiangzhai in Shanxi province etc, and the bronze utensils in the shape of Zhu unearthed in 1934 at Yin Dynasty ruins in Henan province.