In order to optimize the quality of pine sprout tea, its chemical properties were analyzed and the yeasts associated with the quality of pine sprout tea during the storage were isolated and identified. In proximate composition moisture content was 20.13%, but other components except sugar were relatively low. Sugars such as glucose(30.15%), fructose(19.57%), and sucrose(9.27%) were major sugars which contained up to 76.73%. Total vitamin C and soluble tannin contents were 11.31 mg% and 68.31 mg%, respectively. Thirteen kinds of free amino acids were detected, but they were contained only in trace. In fatty acid composition 64.69% of fatty aids composed mainly of saturated fatty acids and major fatty acids were oleic acid, palmitic acid, and tricosaenoic acid. Among 8 mineral elements detected, calcium content was highest with 79.00 mg% and followed by potassium(45.16 mg%) and magnesium(8.93 mg%). The sweetness of pine sprout tea was gradually decreased from 70˚ Brix to 63˚ Brix and 3.2% of ethanol at the initial concentration was increased to 6.0% during the storage of 40 days. The yeasts associated with the quality and alcohol formation of pine sprout tea during the storage were identified by Biolog MicrostationlTM system, as Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Kluyveromyces lodderae, Kluyveromyces wickerhamii, and Pichia fluxuum.
This study was designed to develop the education and training program of dietitians and cooks in contracted foodservice management company. The instruments were developed by reviewing extensive literatures on education programs and by interviewing with dietitians and cooks who were working in contracted foodservice management company. A total of 400 questionnaires were hand delivered at the fourteen contracted foodservice management companies by designated coordinators. A total of 286 questionnaires were usable; resulting in a 70.0% response rate. Statistics data analysis was completed using the SPSS for frequency analysis, reliability, mean value, t-test and ANOVA. The results of this study were summarized as follows: 1. The dietitians wanted to take a management course. The cooks wanted to take a culinary education. The dietitians and cooks took an emphasis on service education, foodborne illness & HACCP and sanitation & safety. Service as well as the taste of food and sanitation was emphasized according to the flow of customer satisfaction. 2. Contracted foodservice management company should provide dietitians and cooks with an education for the job to accomplish customer satisfactions.
국내에서 버려지는 쌀눈활용을 위한 기초연구로 쌀눈의 화삭성분들을 분석하였다. 일반성분은 수분 8.69%, 조지방 21.18%, 조단백질 16.50%, 조섬유 2.95%, 조회분 6.23%, 그리고 당질함량은 44.45%로 나타났다. 유리당은 maltose, glucose, fructose가 있었으며 각각 569.00, 68.80, 50.20mg/100g함유되어 있었다. 아미노산함량은 글루탐산이 1920.09mg/100g, 아르기닌이 15.03mg/100g, 아스파르트산이 1208.7mg/100g, 알라닌이 1001.2mg/100g으로 가장 많이 함유되어 있었으며, 함황아미노산인 시스틴과 메티오닌은 적었다. 무기질 조성은 8종류의 무기성분들이 검출되었으며 칼륨과 인이 각각 가장 많은 1217.80, 1766.22mg/100g이었으며 칼슘, 망감, 나트륨이 각각 36.60, 16.74, 16.22mg/100g으로 많았으며, 아연, 철, 구리도 각각 11.75, 7.99, 1.16mg/100g이 들어 이었다. 비타민함량은 5가지의 수용성 비타민과 지용성비타민이 토코페롤이 함유되어 있었으며, 비타민 E가 11.96mg/100g으로 가장 많았고 B1과 B2는 각각 5.69mg/100g, 0.45mg/100g였으며 비타민 C는 1.66mg/100g 그리고 나이아신과 비타민 B6는 각각 2.96mg/100g, 0.69mg/100g였다. 지방산은 6가지 종류의 지방산이 함유되어 있었으며, 주지방산은 linoleic acid와 oleic acid로 전체지방산의 약 64%를 차지하고 있다. 또한 모든 유지류에 널리 분포되어 있는 palmitic acid가 22.2%였으며, arachidic acid도 3.1%였다. 16종의 flavonoid와 9종의 phenolic acid를 screening한 결과 쌀눈에서는 검출되지 않았다.
The purpose of this study was to describe the levels of market goods substitution of housework and find out the determinants on it in the domain of food among married female home-based workers. The data were collected from 169 married female home-based workers in Pusan and Kyungnam province, by self-administered questionnaires. Frequencies, percentiles, Cronbach's alpha, Pearson's correlations, and multiple regression were used to analyze the data. In the convenience foods, frozen foods had the highest substitution level, whereas prepared stew had the lowest. The substitution level of Korean traditional storage foods was the middle. And in dining-out service, the substitution level was mostly high: the level of delivery service was higher than that of dining-out. Compared to the previous research, these results showed that market goods substitution tended to increase, and its level in the domain of food will promote continually over time. The variables affecting the substitution level of convenience food were the number of family members, occupation, the existence of elderly/disabled person in the family, sex-role attitude, and weekly hours at home-based work. The substitution level of Korean traditional storage foods was influenced by sex-role attitude, occupation, education, monthly household income, and the existence of elderly/disabled person in the family. The significant variables affecting the substitution level of dining-out service were weekly hours at home-based work, the number of family members, occupation, monthly household income, education, and sex-role attitude.
A survey was conducted to examine the knowledge and acceptance of food irradiation in order to provide baseline data required in the development of food irradiation education programs for college students. 150 students majoring in food and nutrition or food technology in the Chungnam National University were chosen for a survey. The results are as follows. First, college students' knowledge about food irradiation is scanty. Knowledge assessment showed that 56% of the participants had previously heard of food irradiation. 68% of the respondents thought that radioactivity remains in food after irradiation and 25.3% of them were not sure whether radioactivity remains in food after irradiation or not. Only half of the respondents thought that nutrient loss due to irradiation is equal to or lower than that due to cooking or freezing. Second, approximately 56% of the respondents showed that food irradiation is somewhat or strongly needed for meat or fish; whereas, over 60% of them showed that food irradiation is not needed for grain, vegetable and fruit. Almost 40% of the respondents were seriously concerned about irradiation of vegetables and fruits; whereas, they showed less concern about spice irradiation. More than half of the respondents were not willing to use irradiated food in all the six food groups. Third, the correlation analysis showed that the need of food irradiation is negatively correlated with concerning about the irradiated fish and fruits, but positively correlated with willingness to use irradiated food in all the five food groups, except in spices. Concern about the irradiated food is negatively correlated with willingness to use irradiated food from all the six food groups. Fourth, almost all the respondents (over 90%) agreed that the irradiated food labeling is required as well as the development of proper methods to identify irradiated foods.
A survey was conducted to examine the effect of food irradiation education on college students' knowledge and acceptance of food irradiation. The instrument for the knowledge and acceptance of food irradiation was administered before and after food irradiation education, to 150 students majoring in food and nutrition or food technology in the Chungnam National University. Before the education approximately 93% of the respondents did not know that radioactivity dose not remain in food after irradiation; whereas, after education half of them thought that radioactivity dose not remain in irradiated food. Knowledge about food irradiation has improved through education. The education significantly increased all the mean scores of need for food irradiation and willingness to use irradiated foods for the six food groups (p<0.01). The education significantly decreased the mean scores of concern about the irradiated food for all the six food groups (p<0.01). Although the responses to irradiated foods are, in general, negative or neutral even after education, the mean scores of acceptance of the irradiated foods have improved through education in all the six food groups (p<0.01). In conclusion, this study showed that food irradiation education may positively affect the college students' knowledge and acceptance of food irradiation, and that the development of both the appropriate detection methods to identify irradiated foods and the education programs to enlighten the college students are needed.
부산지역 대학생 340명을 대상으로 패스트푸드점 이용실태를 조사한 결과 다음과 같다. 1. 조사 대상자는 남학생 56.2%, 여학생이 43.8%이었고, 20-24세가 66.8%를 차지하였고, 자기집에 거주하는 학생이 73.6%이었으며. 평균용돈은 16-20만원이 31.8%로 가장 많은 비율을 차지하였다. 2. 대상자 중 패스트푸드점을 이용하는 대학생이 83.3%로 남학생이 77.6%, 여학생이 90.3%, 19세이하가 88.1%를 차지하였으며, 자기집에 거주하는 학생이 87.7%, 월평균용돈의 액수에 상관없이 높은 비율의 학생이 이용하고 있었다. 3. 패스트푸드점을 이용하는 시간대는 아무 때나가 44.7%로 가장 많았으며, 저녁시간, 점심시간 순으로 남학생은 아무 때나, 저녁시간대가 많았고, 여학생은 모든 시간대에 비슷한 비율로 높았다. 또한 자기집에 거주하는 학생이 아무 때나, 저녁시간대 이용하는 비율이 높았다. 4. 1회 이용시 평균비용은 삼천원대가 가장 많았는데 남학생은 삼천원이상 비용대의 비율이 높았고 여학생은 삼천원 비용대에서 두드러지게 그 비율이 높았다. 또 연령이 높을수록 비용이 많이 들었고, 자취와 하숙생이 삼천원 이상의 비용을 이용하는 비율이 높았으며, 평균용돈이 많을수록 삼천원 이상의 비용대의 비율이 상대적으로 높았다. 5. 패스트푸드점 이용시 메뉴선택은 기호에 따라 선택하는 비율이 64.5%로 가장 높았고, 남학생에 비해 여학생이 기호에 따라 선택한다는 비율이 80.1%로 높았다. 6. 대학생들이 이용하는 패스트푸드점은 맥도널드이었으며 특히 남학생보다 여학생이 상대적으로 월등히 높게 나타났다. 연령이 낮을수록 맥도널드, 롯데리아 등을 많이 이용하였고, 나이가 많을수록 다른 패스트푸드점도 이용하는 것으로 나타났다. 이와같은 결과로 볼때 대학생들의 패스트푸드점 이용은 점점 증가하고 있고, 소비하는 비용도 많아져 가고 있어 젊은이들의 식습관에 문제가 되리라 사료된다. 그러므로 패스트푸드의 영양성을 고려한 메뉴개발 등의 노력이 필요하며 미래의 주역이 될 대학생들의 식습관에 대한 보다 심도있는 연구가 함께 병행되어야 할 것으로 생각된다.
The purpose of this research is to compare the university foodservices with exterior restaurants, to investigate the fact regarding the use and the preference, to evaluate the expectation and the satisfaction of eaters, and to establish the foundation to improve the quality of the university foodservices. 2 women's universities were chosen and 300 copies of survey were distributed to the students. The data were statistically analyzed by SAS. The frequency was compared with the percentage by using Chi-square, and Spearman Correlation was calculated to see the correlation between the expectation and the satisfaction. The results of this research are as below: 1) As students move to upper grades, have enough monthly allowance, have irregular dietary habit and have snacks often and spend much time on eating, and as the BMI index is low, the survey shows that students use exterior restaurants more frequently than the university foodservices. 2) Analysis of main factor in utilizing university foodservices and exterior restaurants Is 'the taste', 'the price', 'the variety of menu'. 3) The survey also shows that the satisfaction is greater than the expectation for exterior restaurants while the satisfaction is not greater than expectation with the university foodservices. 4) The matters like 'more delicious-food' and 'more various menu' were pointed out to be improved.
The purpose of this study is to understand the Chinese noodles(mian tiao). Wheat seems to have been cultivated 3-4,000 years before according to the archaeological evidences from the neolithic sites. The five grains(rice, millet, beans, barley, barnyard millet) already appeared in the period prior to Chin dynasty and were used as whole grain, but it was not until Chun Chu Zhan Guo period that the introduction of the flouring method stimulated the cultivation of wheat. In Chin-Han period, when water power and animal force were put into usage to facilitate the mass production of wheat flour, 'Bing', a designation for all the food made of wheat first appeared in the literature, and it was this 'Bing' that had later developed into noodles. In Wei Chin Nan Bei Chao period, roasted 'Bing', namely 'Kao-Bing' made its first appearance, and in Tang period, various noodles were created with the increase of restaurants specialized in noodles. In Song dynasty, 'La-Mian', the noodles stretched and beat from noodle dough, was first introduced, and in Yuan period, invention of drying method made the appearance of dried noodles, 'Gua-Mian', possible, which was good for easy and long preservation. Qing dynasty developed the noodles with a variety of assorted ingredients. The Chinese noodles are classified by various standards such as main ingredients, cooking methods, kinds of sauce, secondary ingredients, shape, eating method, flavor, and look.
Although it is rapidly increasing the number of day-care centers in Korea, the quality of food and nutrition services is not improved sufficiently. The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutrition and health status of children in day-care center. Menus for lunch of 253 centers were collected and the content of nutrients was analyzed. Nutrient intakes from lunch and snacks of 90 children were investigated using weighing method and those from breakfast and dinner by 24-hour recall method surrogated from their mothers. Anthropometric indices of height, weight, skinfold thickness, the ratio of fat were measured. The lunch menus for children contained 437.0±138.9 Kcal, 17.6±6.7gr protein, 153.9±87.7mg Ca, 3.63±1.6mg Fe, 164.5±158.2RE Vit A. and 4.46±3.04mg Vit B1. Energy, Ca and Fe supplied were below one third of RDAs. Mean daily calorie intake of children aged 3 years was 1303.0±474.0Kcal/day, 1322.3±442.4Kcal in aged four, 1307.0±545.9Kcal in aged five and 1497.1±93.5kcal in six year of age. Intake of iron, vitamin A and vitamin B1 were below RDAs.