The purpose of the present study is to collect information in terms of the frequency and amounts in frequently consumed foods. We conducted the secondary analysis from '93 Korean National Nutrition Survey. Mainly informations about 2-day food records were used to investigate food intakes and to compare different food patterns by area. Amounts and frequencies of food intakes are on the list by the order of contributing amounts and frequencies. Amounts of total daily intake of food per capita are 1,054g in nationwide, 1,076g in large city, 1,049g in small city, 1,017g in rural. The major foods consumed in large quantities were rice, kimchi, milk, in nationwide, large city, and small city and rice, kimchi, Korean radish in rural. The intake frequency of kimchi, rice, and basic seasonings as garlic, green onion, salts, soy sauce et al, were higher than other foods in all area. However, there are need for further researches to investigate individual dietary intake and seasonal variation of intakes. Also, food consumption patterns for different groups considering age, sex, area should be studied.
The purpose of the present study is to collect information in terms of the frequency and amounts in frequently consumed dishes. We conducted the secondary analysis from '93 Korean National Survey. Mainly informations about 2-day food records were used to investigate dish intakes and to compare different food patterns by area. Amounts of total daily intakes of dishes per capita are 1,741.46g in nationwide, 1,722.03g in large city, 1,712.46g in small city, 1,808.73g in rural. The dish consumed in largest quantities per capita per day is the rice which amounts is 481.67g, 27.66% of total intake. Fruits and cabbage were consumed in large quantities too. Kimchi made of cabbage have the highest number of frequencies. Number of frequencies in rice, fruits, and milk showed high, too. Dish groups are classified by the cooking method. Some dishes in several dish groups have small number of frequencies and small amount of quantities. Some dishes in the top list are not included in the 30 dishes list. There should be some studies about validity and reliability of the dish list, using individual dietary assessment methods.
This study was undertaken to investigate the knowledge and the use of Korean traditional basic side dishes, dried side dishes and Jabans, by housewives. Among the 59 kinds dried side dishes and Jabans, the most well-known food (above 90% of subjects) turned out to be squid Po (dried strip), kong Jaban (seasoned bean), pollack Po, dried yellow croacker, build -dried anchovy Jaban and laver Boogag in the order. In cooking experience of dried side dish and Jaban, over 40% of subjects for build-dried anchovy Jaban, squid Po, dried yellow croacker and kong Jaban have cooked frequently. The proportion of subjects who has bought the marketed dried side dishes and Jaban products was 61.5%. Major problem of that products was pointed out for a sanitary condition and high price. If marketed dried basic side dishes and Jabans were improved over the aspects, the proportion of subjects who would buy the products was 70.0%. Preparation ability of these basic side dishes was influenced by age and educational level. The working housewives had higher frequency in use than the non-job housewives. The interesting degree for basic side dishes was not significantly different from age, resident area and educational level.
Fermentation characteristics of Baikhaju (a typical Korean traditional alcoholic beverage) were investigated during fermentation with differently treated rice samples, which were steamed rice (SR), plain steamed rice bread (RB), rice porridge (RP) and roasted rice (RR). The RB sample showed an excellent fermentation efficiency with the highest alcohol production (20.84%). The SR and RR samples showed 17.79% and 17.31% of alcohol production, respectively. The RP sample was the lowest alcohol production (11.47%). The pH values of all the beverage samples were similar and were ranged from 3.6 to 3.9. The fermentation periods of RB and RR samples were longer than the SR and RP. The inner temperature and microbial growth in all the beverages increased at each of input steps of the rice and Nuruk (a Korean-style bran koji). Fusel oil content of the SR and RP samples (613.6 ppm) was higher than that of RR (482.7 ppm). The RB sample with the best fermentation efficiency had the lowest fusel oil content (341.8 ppm). The RP sample showed the highest score in sensory evaluation and RB sample showed the lowest. The results on sensory evaluation were contrary to those on the fermentation efficiency.
In this study, the alteration of Jook was studied by analyzing and comparing ingredients of Jook appeared in the reference of cookbooks from 1611 to 1958. 121 kinds of Jooks were mentioned 371 times. The Jooks made only with grains, mostly Hin Jook (white Gruel) made of rice, were recorded 31 times in 10 kinds. Rice or processed rice appeared most (194 times) as main ingredients in Jooks other than Hin Jook. As for condiments, honey and sugar were mentioned 37 times, accounting for one third of the condiments recorded as used for Jooks. The basic ingredient of Jooks were rice, but mostly the Jooks were named after the subsidiary materials. Chinese medicinal ingredients were most among the subsidiary materials; 35 kinds of them were mentioned 73 times. As regards the ingredients of the Jook, the other ingredients were added to the grain ingredients between the 17th century and the 19th century whereas only grains were put into Jook during the 20th century.
This study was conducted to investigate the eating patterns of Korean men by analyzing the relation among their socio-demographic characteristics, value toward food and nutrition, and eating behavior. Nine hundred twenty nine Korean men were selected by the stratified random sampling method. The socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects had a significant influence on their value toward food and nutrition. After in their sixties had meals for physiological needs rather than for nutrition or preference. Highly educated people, professional workers, office workers and people in the higher incomes, placed a higher value toward food and nutrition. In addition, rural inhabitants had a significantly lower value toward food and nutrition. They mainly ate to satisfy their hunger. The subjects' eating behavior had a significant difference according to their socio-demographic characteristics. The aged and the less educated valued breakfast the most, and showed a preference for rice as the staple food. The rate of skipping meals for this group was low. The higher their income, their eating behavior score was equally high, while the primary industrial workers and rural inhabitants had a low eating behavior score. Value toward food and nutrition had a significant influence on eating behavior. Those that placed a high value toward food and nutrition showed a marked tendency to choose bread or noodles rather than rice. In addition, those who placed a high value on food and nutrition skipped fewer meals and had a higher eating behavior score.
As a basic study for preparing pine sprout tea, chemical components in pine sprouts and pine needles were analyzed as follows: In proximate composition the contents of most components except for crude fat were different between in pine sprouts and pine needles. Moisture content in pine sprouts was higher than that in pine needles. Calcium and potassium were major minerals contained in pine sprouts and needles, and their contents in pine needles picked in December were higher than those picked in June. Soluble tannin and vitamin C contents in leaf part of pine sprouts were much higher than those in stem part and their contents in pine needles were increased according to their growth. Free sugars like fructose, glucose and sucrose were contained in both pine sprouts and needles, and their contents in pine sprouts were higher in stem part as compared that in leaf part. Although fourteen kinds of amino acids were detected in pine sprouts and pine needles, their contents were extremely low. Amino acid composition between pine sprouts and pine needles was different each other, but major amino acids contained in them were same, those are acidic amino acids such as aspartic acid and glutamic acid. Amino acid contents in pine needles were increased according to the growth. In fatty acid composition in leaf part of pine sprouts, saturated fatty acid contents were higher than unsaturated fatty acid contents, but in stem part unsaturated fatty acid contents were higher. In pine needles the amount of saturated fatty acid was increased with the growth, but the amount of unsaturated fatty acid was rather decreased.
This study was performed to investigate the adequacy of dietary fat and protein intakes among female college students. Daily intakes of energy, fat, protein, major amino acids and other nutrients were measured in 52 female college students. Daily energy intake was 75.8% of the recommended intake. Fat and protein consist 19.2% and 16.7% of the total calorie, respectively. The average protein consumption per day was 105% of the recommended intake. Essential amino acids intakes were more than the recommended amounts which appears in the 6th edition of Recommended Dietary Allowances for Koreans. However, when the intake of each essential amino acid was compared to the recommended amino acid requirement pattern, these subjects did not meet the estimated requirements. There was a highly significant correlation between daily protein intake and lipid intake implying the major sources of protein in the diet were also major sources of fat. Daily intakes of dietary fiber, vitamin C, iron, and phosphorous were above the recommended levels of intake. However, blood hemoglobin concentration was marginal indicating dietary iron consumption is not a good marker for iron status. Also, calcium intake was only 63.5% of the recommended intake. Therefore, these results imply that main problems for these subjects are low energy consumption, low calcium intake, and the quality of protein. However, as opposed to the hypothesis, the main energy sources were not the food items high in saturated fats such as instant foods, which should be emphasized further.
Algeria is located at the Mediterranean coast of north Africa, 90% of its population is concentrated in the coastal area which is mainly devoted to agriculture. Highland steppe and vast desert climate have determined its food culture. Long arab domination has influenced food of Algeria which has also undergone certain impact of Spanish, Turkish and French occupation. A variety of agricultural products, vegetables, fruits, spices and herbs have determined cooking method and food combination of Algeria. It use neither pork nor alcohol. Its main food consists of bread made from wheat flour and couscous cooked with semoule, Mechuwi, roast lamb and chorba, mixed soup are also typical foods of this region. For climatic reason lamb and chicken are prefered. Energy efficient method is applied to cooking through using oil for saute and water for boiling. Under european influence, Algerian salad used dressing for leaf vegetables, root and other kind vegetables were boiled. Serving with cake and cookies as dessert may possibly be the influence from the French occupation. The cake and cookie are made of wheat flour or other grain flour and take a specific form to be fried sweet with honey. Herbs and spices are widely used in cooking which are easily cultivated in household: mint, basil, rosemary, bayleaf, thyme, sage, fennel, marjoram, coriander, celery. Garlic, onion, piment, red pepper, cinammon are also widely used in an ordinary cooking. Reasonable food combination and economic cooking method could be subject of Algerian food study.
The purpose of this study was to compare high-school students importance and performance toward restaurant service attributes for the marketing strategy development. Specific objectives were to: a) investigate restaurant patronage characteristics of high school students; b) identify the difference of patronage behavior among three types of restaurants; and c) analyze the importance and performance among three types of restaurants. A questionnaire was developed and hand-delivered to 400 students enrolled 9th grade in 4 different high schools in Seoul. A total of 320 students (80%) was responded to this study. The questionnaire was composed of two parts with 47 restaurant service attribute statements. Results of this study were as follows: 1. A total of 57% was female and 61% of respondents spent less than ￦5,000 per week on eating out. 2. The frequency of visiting the low-priced restaurant was 8.9 times per week. 3. Reasons for being a patronage to low- (≥￦2,000) and mid-priced ( 〈￦2,000 and ≥￦5,000) restaurants were hunger, appointment, and seeking favorites with freinds but the reason for high-priced (〈￦5,000) restaurants was celebrating special days with parents. 4. The main source of information for selecting restaurants was family and friends, T.V. advertising, and bulletin board. 5. For the low-priced restaurants, food, hygiene, price, and location were rated as important; location, price, menu, and food were rated as satisfied. 6. For the mid-priced restaurants, hygiene, food, price, and menu were rated as important; food, hygiene, service, and menu were rated as satisfied. 7. For the high-priced restaurants, hygiene, food, and atmosphere were rated as important; food, hygiene, atmosphere, and menu were as satisfied. 8. According to paired t-test, the score gap between importance and performance was the highest in the hygiene attribute; differences were high with the low-priced and low with high-priced restaurants.
The purposes of this study were to: a) investigate the percentage distribution and the time spent of dietetic activities and b) estimate dietitian's staffing needs in employee foodservices. In 6 employee foodservices, the dietetic activities were analyzed by work sampling methodology. The results of this study were as follows: 1. The percentage distributions of dietetic activities, delay and non-dietetic activities were 79.06, 20.39, and 1.55%, respectively; 2. The major activities of dietitians in employee foodservice were production management 21.00%, purchasing management 16.73%, record keepig 14.40%, and menu management 6.30%, 3. The total labor time per week was 3,310 min (55.16 hr) and specially the time spent on 13 dietetic activities was 2,626 min (43.77 hr). 4. The time spent per week on major activities of dietitians such as production management, purchasing management record keeping, and menu management were 693.93, 554.83, 483.99, and 205.22 min, respectively.
Jujube paste was prepared by autoclaving the fresh jujube at 1.2 atm and 120℃ for 30 min and removing the skin and cores. In order to increase the juice yield, the paste was treated with pectinase, cellulase and their combinations. The soluble fractions of enzymatically treated jujube paste were characterized in terms of yield, pH, titratable acidity, color, Bx, transmittance and sugar compositions. The original paste exhibited the water soluble fraction of 57.3%. Of various quality factors, the clarity was the most significantly distinguished between pectinase and cellulase treatments. The cellulase treatment produced the cloudy juice with the yield of 83.60%. On the other hand, the clear juice was produced by the pectinase and combined treatments due to degradation of pectins, whose yields were 79.47% and 85.39%, respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that the pectinase treatments improved the solubilization efficiency and clarity.
This study was designed to investigate food consumption patterns and nutrient intakes of college students, divided into subgroups of normal weight men (no.=140), normal weight women (no.=101), and underweight women (no.=155) by body mass index. Frequency of food eaten, nutrient intakes from each meal, percentages of RDAs, and nutrient densities were analyzed using 24-hour recall records. It was very interesting in these results as follows. Normal weight men ate on the whole more frequently than other groups. Underweight women had higher intakes of nutrient than did normal weight women. However normal weight women consumed food of greater nutrient density than did other college students. Consequently, it is desirable to suggest nutrient density of food than learn RDAs for adequate diet in nutritional education programs.
The sacrificial foods using at 88 villages in Andong area where the village sacrificial rituals are performed, were investigated in 1994. The finding are as follows; 1. Since the village sacrificial rituals keep ancientry, white Baeksulki without any ingredients is used as Ddock (a steamed rice cake) in 74 villages, and in 5 villages the Baeksulki was served just in Siru (a tool used to prepare Ddock). The type of meat serving in rituals has been changing from large animal to small animal and the type of light from bowl-light to candle. 2. Though the ritual observes Confucianism style, memorial address was offered in 34 villages and only in 8 villages, liquor was served 3 times and the address was offered. In 60 villages, liquor was served only once, and calling village god, bowing twice, and burning memorial address paper were performed in order. Burning paper has been meaningful in rituals. 3. Tang (a stew) was served in 21 villages, and in 18 villages even Gook (a soup) was not used. The numbers of village which do not use cooked rice and Ddock are 14, respectively. 4. Fruits are essential in rituals foods. In 63 villages, 3 kinds of fruits are served and this is contrasted with even number of fruits in Bul-Chun-Wi Rituals. 5. In 25 villages, fish and meat are not served. As meat, chicken in 19 village are served. Meat Sikhae (a fermented rice beverage) prepared with meats or fish are served in 5 villages. Slice of dried meat is served in 73 villages commonly. 6. In gender of god for village shrine, woman in 43 villages, couple in 17 villages, man in 9 villages, mountain god in 2 villages, villages tree, etc were enshrined. In 52 villages liquor is served in rituals (liquor is used in 58 villages including serving god), in 28 villages sweet liquor (Gamju) is served for god (sweet liquor is used in 46 villages), and liquor, water, or sweet liquor is just displayed on table but not served in 8 villages. Incensing is found to be not common in village ritual, only in two villages it is performed. The most appropriate rituals food is thought to be pig for mountain god. Home dishes can not be used in village ritual and spoon is not used and chopstick is prepared from wild plant. Meat and fish are used in the raw.
Fermentation characteristics of kwahaju (a typical Korean traditional alcoholic beverage) base were investigated during fermentation with different contents of nuruk (Korean-style bran koji) extract. The nuruk extract which was prepared by incubating the mixture of nuruk powder and water at 25℃ overnight and by filtering it was used to be 0.6%, 2.7%, 5% and 10% (v/v). Total and reducing sugar contents as well as acidity of the kwahaju base with 0.6% nuruk extract were higher than those with 2.7%, 5% and 10% at the fermentation end. Final pH values of all the base samples were ranged from 3.3 to 4.1. Alcohol concentrations of the base samples with 2.7%, 5% and 10% nuruk extract were higher than those with 0.6%. Microbial growth rate was great and inner temperature was high in the sample with high content of nuruk extract, but fermentation period was short. Total sugar consumption and alcohol production increased as the content of nuruk extract increased, but total acid production decreased. The base sample with 10% nuruk extract showed the most excellent fermentation efficiency. Fusel oil content of the base sample with 2.7% nuruk extract was the highest (457.3 ppm), and those wity 5% and 10% nuruk extract were 438.9 ppm and 442.6 ppm, respectively. The sample with 0.6% nuruk extract had the lowest content (409.5 ppm). Sensory evaluation of both the kwahaju base and kwahaju mix with 25% and 40% alcohol by adding soju (Korean distilled liquor) showed that the base with 2.7% nuruk extract had the highest score, and that the kwahaju mix with 25% alcohol had higher score than that with 40%. The sensory results on overall desirability were consistent to those on color and alcohol concentration, and it turned out that the two factors were important to make kwahaju.