This study intends to consider about the food culture during the latterly Chosun Dynasty through the genre paintings which are depicted realistically about the total food life figures for example not only the foods, but also that people who eat and drink the food and eating implements, eating methods. There are 9 pieces of works Kim hong-do's which are the best appraisal on the incorporated Korean emotion and on the real life of general public. Those are selected for this study's characteristics through the literature consideration. The characteristics of the tableware pottery and food culture are following things. The first is a white porcelain's development and popularization. In the latterly Chosun Dynasty period, the development of the agriculture and commerce made been connected to the affluent food cultures, these made increase the porcelain's use of upper classes and these made been connected to the development of the porcelain's cultures. The second is the development of various pottery with a dark brown glaze manufactures. The development of agriculture and economy power made bring the development of the kinds of sauces and Kimchi culture with an inflow of foreign crops and these made making the large an earthenware pot or jar which could store something during the long time. The third is the development of the small dining table on the eating the bread of idleness. In the Chosun dynasty period, the food style was been unified to he eating the bread of idleness and been lowered. These made developed of various small dining table through the underfloor heating system's generalization. The fourth is the development of the spoon with the soup culture. It is the East Asia called that the spoon culture boundary, this show the characteristic that we use the spoon mainly compare with another countries. Finally, it is universal use of the fixed quantitative implements. They could live quantitative life with the scales which are jar of soy sauce, liquor jug, jar, scoop leading a set of tableware.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the eating habits and eating behaviors, nutrition knowledge of students in 4, 5 and 6th graders of elementary school in Jeonju Area. The subjects for questionnaire were 2,568 elementary school students (boys 1,364, girls 1,204). The results were analyzed by SPSS program, and were as follows. In anthropometric data, there were significant differences between boys and girls. In eating habits and eating behaviors, there were significant differences in the rate of 'Hasty eating habit(p<0.01)', 'Most heavy meal(p<0.01)', 'Eating when receive stress(p<0.05)', and 'Frequency of snack eating per day(p<0.01)' between boys and girls. In total scores of nutrition knowledge, there were significant differences between boys and girls. In nutrition knowledge, there were significant differences in the rate of 'Carbohydrate and fat give heat and force.(p<0.001)', 'Carbohydrate is nutrient that make muscle and blood of our body.(p<0.01)', 'Overeating of carbohydrate does not contribute gain of weight. (p<0.05)', To intake vitamin, it is good to eat fresh fruit and vegetable.(p<0.01)', 'Calcium deficiency is leading to anemia.(p<0.001)' between boys and girls. In conclusion, systematical educational programs need to be developed at elementary school. These should include information about achieving a balanced diet, good eating habit and behavior, meal management and Korean dietary culture. Also, nutritional education at home must be emphasized.
A technological trend of treating or preventing the cardiovascular diseases has reviewed on 381 domestic and foreign patents from the year 1980 to June, 2007. Primarily focused upon countries such as Korea, Japan and the United States; the leading nations concerning cardiovascular disease, this paper delved into a systematic research of the cardiovascular disease utilizing research focused database and research analysts. Korea was showing increased development in the diet and cardiovascular related areas as shown by increase in related patent caseloads and submission since the 2000. Especially within the area of food production, there had been an increase of market share by up to 50% and the frequency of patent submission had also increased. Japan was showing similar trend as Korea with its increase in research, but the only difference was that Japan was focused more upon medical supplies. With the United States, there was no real consistency with the number of patents, therefore harder to make an accurate assessment.
The purpose of this study is to recognize the Brand chef(Star chef) in Korean society to globalize the Korean cuisine. There have been so many famous chefs in Europe, USA and Japan such as Auguste Escoffier, Paul Bocus, Pierre Gagnaire, Ferran Adria, Thomas Keller, David Bouley, Alain Ducasee and Nobu Matsuhisa. They have developed their own cuisine and food culture and delivered their food culture to the other countries. We must educate the Korean brand chefs to inform our Korean food and Korean culture to the foreign country. The school, the government and the industry must recognize the power of the Korean brand chefs.
This research aimed to Kimchi to be well known in the World, which to be international food on the each nation and each people, each religion cultural area, with having done Kimchi adaptation plan for localization. Among the plan, Kimchi utilization ways with the localization strategy in Turkish dietary life were investigated to the Kimchi preference, improvement points on Turkish view, for the Turkey person it would be able to apply in Turkish food culture, and the results are as follows. 1. According to sex of Chinese cabbage Kimchi preference, men (M=3.75 ± 0.89) appeared higher than women (M=3.62 ± 0.88). Color or appearance preference after Chinese cabbage Kimchi taste was investigated in order that red 〉 burnish felt 〉 transparent 〉 yellow, and the smell preference which was hot(M=4.64 ± 1.37) appeared highest. A hot taste felt most intensely, and it was investigated in order that aftertaste〉 salty taste 〉 sourness 〉 off flavor taste 〉 fermented fish source taste 〉 sweetness〉 carbonic acid by the followings. For the feeling of texture of Kimchi, the crunch was higher than durable tough(it was visible the consider difference of the sex 2. That the Korean Kimchi hit to a palatable taste, against 109 people (72.2%) answered suitable appetite to this taste, and the reason which was in order of that hot tasty 〉 appearance 〉 chewing texture 〉 red 〉 fermented flavor was investigated. Did not hit to a taste 42 people (27.8%) answer back, with the reason that was investigated in order of hot tasty 〉 appearance 〉 red 〉 fermented flavor 〉 chewing texture. The hot tasty of Kimchi was commonly presented that hit and did not hit to appetite taste against people. 3. Among the Turkish food, similar foods for Kimchi were answered in order of Lahana Tursu (44.2 %) 〉 Kapuska (25.9 %) 〉 Lahana Prasa (11.1%), and similar food category were that Chinese cabbage or various vegetables to be pickling food and to be dressing salad with salt and vinegar. The accompanied or garnished Turkich food category for Kimchi were answered in order of cooking meat (34.1%)〉 steamed cooking rice (22.7%)〉 cooking fish (17.0%)〉 cooking soybean (14.2%). This result was same tendency with steamed cooking rice accompaniment for Kimchi in Korea and Turkey, and could be applied a new main menu like meat cooking and fish cooking dish which matched and accompanied with Kimchi.
To investigate of the perception and using behavior by age of tofu, 46.3% of male and 53.7% of female about 700 adults in Daegu and kyungbuk area were surveyed. 96.4% of the participants usually preferred the tofu owing to health and 68.4% of them had purchased tofu made of domestic soybean. In addition, the responses to 7 questions about the tofu were also measured on 5 point Likert scale. The item "Tofu is healthy food" was totally received the high point but "Tofu prevents osteoporosis" earned the lowest. Most participants relatively knew and had eaten common tofu, soft bean curd, uncurdled bean curd, fried bean curd against functional tofu such as tofu added with omija, surimi, spinach, etc. But they intended to eat functional tofu such as tofu added with green tea, black sesame, spinach, omija. Furthermore, 60.7% replied "increasing" prospects for the tofu consumption. 40.0% of adults said the plan should be "Make of good quality domestic soybean" for the purpose of better improvement to consume.
In spite of the fact that the food group(Food, Drinks and Health foods & Agricultural and Marine products) occupies little position in total sales of Internet shopping mall, the food group's sales in cyber shopping mall in 2006 have increased 678.1% over 5 years. In addition to the fact that the food consumption pattern has changed from quality-oriented to convenience, health and safety-oriented, the need to decrease the opportunity cost created by housework is rising in the context of increase of women's work participation rate. The wind of change like these will become the foundation on which cyber food industry will be developed. The factors having an effect on consumer purchasing intentions when one buy foods through internet shopping malls are researched in this thesis. For the investigation, women of 697 were surveyed by a questionnaire, and the data were analyzed by the SPSS for WINDOW(Version 12.0). The result is as follows: Factors having an effect on food purchasing intentions are Convenience(Timesaving, Troublesomeness), Customer service(Responsiveness, Reliability, Empathy, Tangibility), Perceived Customer Risk(Economic, Social, Performance risk) and Shopping experience(Easy to find out, Easy process for payment) in order.
To investigate of the recognition and using behavior on the Tofu, 46.3% of male and 53.7% of female adults in Daegu and Kyungbuk area were surveyed. The main results are as follows : 96.4% of the participants usually preferred the Tofu owing to health and about 68.4% of them had purchased Tofu made of domestic soybean. In addition, the responses to 7 questions about the Tofu were also measured on 5 point Likert scale. The item "Tofu is healthy food" and "Tofu is digestive food" were totally received the high point but "Tofu prevents osteoporosis" earned the lowest. Female had generally better knowledge of Tofu than the counterparts. Most participants relatively knew and had eaten common Tofu, soft bean curd, uncurdled bean curd, fried bean curd against functional Tofu such as Tofu added with omija, surimi, spinach, etc. But they intended to eat functional Tofu such as Tofu added with green tea, black sesame, spinach, omija. Furthermore, 60.7% replied "increasing" prospects for the Tofu consumption. 40.0% of adults said the plan should be "Make of good quality domestic soybean" for the purpose of better improvement to consume.
조선시대 (1400년대부터~1900년대)까지 고조리서와 고문헌 50권을 위주로 밥류를 분류하여 그 종류와, 사용된 식품재료, 조리방법을 분석 고찰한 결과 전체적인 내용의 요약은 다음과 같다. 1. 밥류의 종류 밥의 종류로는 쌀만으로 조리한 밥이 1종, 찹쌀로 조리한 제밥이 1종류, 잡곡류와 견과류 등을 섞어 조리한 목맥반(메밀밥), 소맥반(밀밥), 조밥, 기장밥, 율무밥, 현미밥, 보리밥, 잡곡밥, 팥물밥, 팥밥, 콩밥, 별밥, 밤밥 등이 13종류이었다. 야채류와 꽃, 과일류 등과 약초, 한약재료를 함께 섞어 조리한 밥은 청전반, 오반, 복숭아밥, 검은색밥, 황국감초밥, 연근밥, 옥정밥, 고구마밥, 두부밥, 삼씨밥, 도라지밥, 감자밥, 송이밥, 죽실밥 등 12종류 이었다. 조류, 육류, 어패류, 우유를 재료로 섞어 한그릇용으로 조리한 밥은 황탕, 개장국밥, 장국밥, 굴밥, 김치밥, 추사반, 비빔밥 등 7종류로 분석한 밥의 종류는 총 34종류이었다. 2) 조선시대 밥류의 취급율 변화추이 밥류 취급율은 1500년대 18.5%(17종)으로 가장 높았고, 1600년대 9.7%(11종), 1700년대 6.6%(4종)으로 급격히 감소하다가 1800년대 18.5%(17종), 1900년대 15.4%(16종)으로 다소 증가하였다. 2. 밥류에 사용된 식품재료 밥류에 사용된 식품재료로 잡곡류는 23종류, 견과류는 5종류, 육류는 11종류가 사용되었고 생선류는 6종류, 채소류는 35종류이며 과일류는 2종류로 배와 복숭아를 사용하였다. 밥이기 때문인지 마늘은 사용되지 않았다. 3. 밥류의 조리방법 쌀밥은 물을 먼저 펄펄 끓인 후 쌀을 넣어 조리하였고, 잡곡류는 낱알이 큰 것을 부수거나 물에 침지하였으며, 견과류, 서류, 구근류, 과일 등도 잘게 썰어 사용하였다. 치료식으로 한약재료는 물에 우리거나 삶았고, 육류는 푹삶아 육수에 밥을 하였다. 비빔밥은 되게 밥을 조리하여 나물과 밥을 일부 비빈후에 웃기로 얹었다. (1) 쌀밥은 물을 먼저 끓이다 쌀을 넣고 펄펄 끓여 된밥으로 조리하였다. 육수에 쌀을 넣고 밥을 조리하기도 하였으며, 찰밥은 제사밥으로 시루에 조리하였다. (2) 잡곡밥은 메밀, 보리, 율무 등을 사용하여 물에 곡식알이 큰것(콩)부터 미리 담가 삶거나 잘게 부숴 조리하였다. 팥등은 미리 삶거나 두쪽으로 조개 솥밑바닥에 깔았으며 대추나 밤은 세쪽으로 자른 후 물을 많이 붓고 기타재료를 섞어 밥을 하였다. 3) 국밥등은 말린국화 황국을 우려내 쌀을 넣고 밥을 조리하였으며, 국밥은 고기류와 뼈등을 푹삶아 육수에 밥을 말아 고기와 나물로 웃기를 얹었다. 굴밥등은 밥이 반쯤 익으면 재료를 미리 볶거나 씻어 넣고 조리하였다. 4) 비빔밥은 먼저 쌀로 밥을 되직하게 조리한 후 나물을 미리 밥과 슬쩍 비비다가 밥위에 나물과 웃기, 고명을 얹고 고추가루를 뿌렸다. 5) 남촉잎 등은 삶아 냉각후 쌀로 밥을 조리하였으며, 남촉줄기와 잎은 찧어 즙내 쌀로 밥을 조리하였다. 복숭아 연근 고구마는 잘게 썰어 쌀이 반쯤 익으면 함께 넣고 도라지는 물에 우려 푹 삶았고, 감자, 송이 등은 잘게 썰어 쌀과 함께 밥을 조리하였다. 4. 약선 음식조리방법 약선음식의 재료는 평상시 식생활에 사용되고 있던 식품들의 기능성분과 약이성을 이용하여 만성적인 질병과 급성적인 복통 설사 등에 재료의 전처리를 통해 죽으로 많이 이용하였다. 특히 곡류 등은 갈아 수비하여 이용하였으며, 동물성식품재료를 이용 할 때에는 재료를 만화(중간불)로 오랫동안 끓여 된장이나 향신료 등을 함께 사용해 먹기에 수월하게 조리하였으며, 한약재료인 약초류 등을 이용하였는데 오랫동안 푹 삶아 그물에 곡류 등을 넣어 죽이나 밥으로 조리하였으며 면으로도 조리하였다. 이상과 같이 조선시대 주식류의 종류 및 조리방법에 대한 문헌적 고찰을 분석한 결과로 조선시대로부터 현재까지 주식류의 변천과정을 파악할 수 있었으며 새롭게 문헌으로라도 복원된 전통음식인 주식류의 음식을 국민들이 식생활에 응용하여 건강에 도움이 되길 바란다. 또한 후속연구로서 이러한 문헌의 고찰과 분석 결과를 토대로 하여 더 깊이 있는 연구로 학문 발전을 기대한다. 산업현장에서는 과학적인 실험과 표준화된 메뉴개발을 통하여 전통음식을 상품으로 개발하여 국민건강에 도움을 주며, 전통음식문화를 세계화하는데 자료로 활용되어 경제발전에 기여할 수 있기를 기대한다.
The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of menu price and image on perceived sacrifice and value of tourist restaurant, the mediating effects of perceived sacrifice on the relationships between menu price and value, and between image and value. A total of 273 questionnaires were completed. ANCOVA was used to measure the mediating effects of perceived sacrifice on the relationships among menu price, image, and value. When the menu price and perceived sacrifice were regressed on the value, the menu price and perceived sacrifice were statistically significant. Moreover, when the image and perceived sacrifice were regressed on the value, the image and perceived sacrifice had a statistically significant effects on value. The results demonstrated that perceived sacrifice played a mediating role in the relationship between menu price and value.
The purposes of this study were to analyze importance and performance for coffee quality attributes based on customers according to their consumption types; and provided ideas and marketing strategies to increase sales through IPAs (Importance-Performance Analysis). University students in Incheon were conducted a survey from March 13, 2007 to March 31, 2007. As for a quality attribute with the highest importance, the survey showed 'price' was important for 「vending machine coffee」, and 'taste' was important for 「commercial coffee」, and 「coffee house coffee」. And 'thirst relief' was found to have the lowest importance for three types of coffee. As for a quality attributes with the highest performance, the survey showed 'taste' was important for 「coffee house coffee」 'price' was important for 「vending machine coffee」; and 'period of circulation' was important for 「commercial coffee」. IPA results for coffee quality attributes also showed quality attributes that should be improved quickly for each type of coffee: 'hygiene', 'safety', 'period of circulation', and 'package' were for 「vending machine coffee」; 'price' and 'freshness' were for 「commercial coffee」; and 'price' and 'period of circulation' were for 「coffee house coffee」.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary habits and demand for nutrition service of university dormitory residents. Out of 450 questionnaires distributed to the undergraduate and graduate students residing in a university dormitory, 335(74.4%) returned and 265(58.8%) were analyzed. The analyzed sample included 140 males(52.8%) and 125 females(47.2%). The number of undergraduate and graduate students were 183(69.1%) and 82(30.9%), respectively. Male and undergraduate students tend to more frequently use dormitory foodservice than the respective counterpart. About 21% of respondents skipped breakfast everyday and almost 2/3 of respondents skipped breakfast more often than 3~4 times a week. The most often chosen reason for skipping meals was 'lack of time' for lunch and dinner as well as breakfast. Graduate students tend to drink coffee more often than undergraduate students. Male students were more likely to drink carbonated drinks and alcohol compared with female students. Over half(59%) of respondents were taking multivitamins and mineral supplements. About 80% of respondents perceived their health average or above. New residents having moved in to the dormitory less than a semester before tend to perceive their heath status worse than the residents having lived longer in the dormitory. The demand for nutrition service was high as shown by the high percentage of respondents willingness to receive the service: 76% for nutrition assessment service and 63% for nutrition counseling service. Such demand did not differ between males and female respondents. However, graduate students were more willing to participate in nutrition counseling service than undergraduates.
Aging rate of rural area in our country is relatively high compared to that of the urban area. Thus, the introduction of meal service for the elderly residing in the rural area is necessary for their better living quality. Food habit, health and the nutritive intake conditions during the busy farming season were surveyed and comparative analysis of dietary intake for the introduction of meal service in pavilion of the elderly living in Chungnam, Kangwon, Jeonnam and Kyungbuk was performed for basic reference data of meal service introduction to the pavilion of the elderly in rural area. In general subject, the male elderly had a significant difference in marital state and showed that 79.4% was married and 20% was separated by death(P<0.05). In allowance, there were no significant difference but most of them lived with less then three hundred thousand won and especially, female lived with less then one hundred thousand won. In health state, the female elderly showed significant difference on difficulty with every day activity but with small trouble although they had to prepare their own meal(P<0.05). The condition dental health conditions of the female elderly had a significant difference showing bad conditions in following order; Kangwon(48%)>Chungnam(38.1%)>Kyungbuk(22.9%)>Jeonnam(22.5%)(p<0.05). The female elderly showed a significant difference in usage of denture and number of the female elderly without using the denture were very high(p<0.05). In nutrition intake condition, amount of sodium was very high but intakes of fiber and calcium were relatively 1ow(P<0.05). Meal service introduction in the pavilion of the elderly is suggested for the improvement of the life quality of the elderly in rural area. When developing the menu for them, conditions such as shortage of the fiber and calcium in diets, the dental conditions should be considered.
Dietary behavior of the elerly over 65 and local products in Yeongi Chungnam were studied during busy farming season and meal menu was developed based upon the information surveyed. In allowance, 45% of them lived with less then one hundred thousand won but 95% had their own residence(P<0.001). The dental health conditions of the male and female elderly did not show significant differences but had tendencies of bad conditions with 68% and 80%, respectively. Percentage of using denture at least one side was only 48%(P<0.05). Meal preparation was mostly done by 75% of the female elderly and only 64% of the elderly in the area took meals regularly. Recommended intakes(RIs) of calorie, protein, dietary fiber, calcium for the elderly were significantly very low(P<0.001), but those of sodium were high(P<0.05). Meal menu was developed for the meal service introduction in the pavilion of the elderly with considerations of the food habits, nutritional status, and local products studied.
The purpose of this research was to investigate consumers' awareness and perception of the noble family food to popularize it. A total of 1,100 subjects lived in Seoul area participated in Web-based survey. Thirty eight percents of the participants were not even aware that there exists the noble family food and overall 63% of the participants merely have the idea of what the noble family food is. The impressions of the noble family food varied widely. Some of them were positive as the noble family food seems good for health and some were negative as it is not easy to cook. The results showed that many people are not interested in noble family food, however, there was a high behavioral intention to have it in their future meal plan. Participants responded that noble family food had not fully developed yet (mean=4.08), but it had potential to be world-wide excellent (mean=3.95). There was significantly high scored response that the noble family food should contain sanitary cooking process to popularize it (mean=4.16). Also participants addressed that it was necessary to use public relations through mass media (mean=4.02), and it required appropriate educational approach to the noble family food (mean=4.02). In addition, people perceived that traditional custom and the noble family foods were jointly connected by cultural events. On the other hand, there were low scored responses on developing of noble family food as a processed food to be generally accessible in daily life. In conclusion, the importance of public relations should be emphasized to popularize the noble family food. Also, increasing the number of places that sell noble family food would help to popularize it.
The purpose of this study was to measure the tourists' preference for alternative restaurants with different combinations of 4 attribute levels: origin description, food type, price and service guarantee. A total of 210 questionnaires were completed from tourists who visited Kwangyang, Suncheon and Yeosu during Jan. 2 - Jan. 15, 2007. Conjoint experiment method was used to develop hypothetical restaurants. Ordinal probit model was used to measure the effects of attribute levels on the tourists' preference. Results of the study demonstrated that the ordinal probit model analysis result for the data indicated excellent model fit. The effects of attribute levels (origin description, traditional food, fusion food, price, service guarantee) on the tourists' preference were statistically significant. As expected, estimates of marginal willingness to pay for origin description(3.063), food type(2.349), and service guarantee(2.356) were statistically significant. Moreover, tourists were more willing to pay for origin description than other attribute levels. Tourists also considered the origin description as the very important attribute. In conclusion, based on conjoint analysis, a model was proposed of marginal willingness to pay of attribute levels. It should be noted that the original model was modified and should, preferably, be validated in future research.
The objectives of this study were to develop Korean dishes acceptable for quick-service Korean food restaurant franchising operations in the U.S. and to test consumer preferences of 6 Korean dishes developed. One hundred American consumers evaluated beef(Bulgogi), pork(Jeyuk-bokkeum), chicken(Dagkalbi), noodles with seasoned vegetables(Japchae), braised tofu(Dubujorim), and stir-fried kimchi (Kimchi-bokkeum). Consumer preferences for color and aroma of the three dishes(Bulgogi, Jeyuk-bokkeum and Dagkalbi) were not different with most indicating they liked these attributes. Bulgogi was preferred over Dagkalbi and Jeyuk-bokkeum was least acceptable. Consumers rated the flavor of the Bulgogi from a little too mild to just right while both the Dagkalbi and Jeyuk-bokkeum were rated from just right to too strong. Overall acceptance was inversely related to spiciness. Bulgogi and Dagkalbi were ranked significantly higher than Jeyuk-bokkeum with Bulgogi receiving a slightly higher score. Overall acceptance was higher for the Japchae than the Kimchi-bokkeum. Dubujorim was intermediate and not preferred or disliked more than either of the others. Consumers rated the flavor of the Japchae and the Dubujorim higher than the Kimchi-bokkeum, indicating that the flavor of the Kimchi-bokkeum was too strong. Almost half indicated both the Dubujorim and Kimchi-bokkeum were slightly or much too hot. The Japchae and the Dubujorim were ranked equally high and significantly higher than the Kimchi-bokkeum. We suggest that control of spiciness is a main factor to develop Korean dishes acceptable for quick-service Korean food restaurant franchising operations in the U.S.
해바라기박을 이용하여 직화법과 autoclaving법에 의하여 2종의 향미유를 제조하고 이의 특성을 살펴보았다. 직화법으로 얻은 원액의 색상, 향미 등이 상대적으로 autoclaving법으로 얻은 원액에 비하여 강하였다. 대조군으로 사용한 참기름에 비하며 향미유의 향미는 낮은 것으로 확인 되었으나 산가는 0.452, 0.463으로 참기름의 1.987보다 월등히 낮은 것으로 측정되었고 Lovibond color는 3종의 시료유에서 거의 유사하게 나타났다. 이들 향미유와 대조군으로 직접 제조한 참기름을 대상으로 정유성분의 휘발성 향기성분조성 및 함량을 측정해 보았다. 그 결과 총 휘발성 성분 함량은 참기름이 1,300.6 ppm, 직화법으로 제조한 향미유(A type)가 697.8 ppm, autoclaving법으로 제조한 향미유(B type)는 648.2 ppm으로 참기름 의 약 53.65% 및 49.84% 수준의 휘발성 성분을 함유한 것으로 확인되었다. 주요 휘발성 성분은 2-butanone, hexanal, methyl pyrazine 등이었으며, 참기름은 pyrazine류가 전체의 50% 이상을 차지하였으나 향미유에서는 이와 같은 특정성분에 의존하기 보다는 전체적으로 분산되는 경향을 나타내었다.
Physicochemical and sensory properties of sponge cakes using 2 kinds of domestic wheat flour(white flour, whole wheat flour) and imported cake flour were investigated. In the proximate analysis, white flour had higher contents of water and protein compared with those of imported flour. Whole wheat flour had the highest contents of protein, lipid and ash. Regarding the batter, imported flour sample showed lower specific gravity and higher viscosity than those of domestic flour sample, implying that there was more air incorporation and higher batter stability. As a result, imported flour batter produced larger cake compared to that of domestic flour batter. But indexes of symmetry and uniformity showed no significant difference among the samples. In textural analysis using rheometer, cakes with imported flour were softer compared with that with domestic flour. In gumminess and brittleness, cakes with domestic white flour showed the highest value while that with the imported flour showed the lowest value. For the color measurements of cake crumb, no significant difference in DE was found among the samples. Regarding the cross-sections of the cake observed using SEM, imported flour produced cake with smaller and more even air cells compared to that with the domestic flour cake. In sensory evaluation, cakes with the domestic white flour showed the highest moistness value. But there was no significant difference in springiness, firmness, adhesiveness and ease of swallow among the samples. In conclusion, cakes with domestic white flour and whole wheat flour were as good as that with imported cake flour for the sponge cake preparation.
Different types of bap(cooked rice) was cooked using barley or/and SoRiTae with rice as the base. Total(TS), rapidly digestible(RDS), slowly digestible(SDS) and resistant(RS) starch fractions were determined. Other physicochemical properties such as moisture, protein, amylose contents, protein digestion in vitro and color values as well as sensory properties of different bap were also investigated. Cooked rice with SoRiTae(RiSo) showed the highest moisture content of 63.9%, whereas other bap showed simillar content ranging from 62.3-63.0%. Crude protein content of RiSo was the highest, while that of cooked rice(Ri) was the lowest(p<0.05). Amylose content of RiBa was the highest, while that of RiSo was the lowest(p<0.05). In in vitro protein digestibility(IVPD), cooked rice with barley and SoRiTae(RiBaSo) was the highest, while Ri was the lowest, showing no significant difference at p<0.05. In starch fractions, as barley or/and SoRiTae were added to rice, a decrease in RDS content and increases in SDS and RS contents were observed. In addition, starch digestion index(SDI), which derived as an indicator of their in vitro starch digestibility and rapidly available glucose(RAG) value, which determined as a predictor of potential glycemic response decreased. A decrease in L value from RiSo and RiBaSo, which comprised of SoRiTae and increases in a and b values in RiSo and RiBa were observed, respectively. All sensory parameters involving color, glossiness, sweet taste, wetness, roughness, hardness and stickiness were shown to be a significant difference except sweet taste among different bap(p<0.05). L value of instrumental characteristic was negatively correlated with color of sensory characteristic and a value was positively correlated. Significant negative correlation was found between RS content and glossiness, however, positive correlation with roughness and hardness, respectively. These results suggested that cooked rice mixed with barley and SoRiTae contain significant RS and SDS contents and may improve diabetes and hyperlipidemia, due to the lowering RDS and RAG, respectively.