This study aimed to examine the operations of school food services to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in schools nationwide. The survey data on school food service operations targeting nutrition teachers and nutritionists at 1,023 schools in 2020 and 1,177 schools in 2021 were used. The year 2021 saw an increase compared to 2020 in the following: ‘average days to be served with meals for a year (144.5 vs. 184.7)', 'provided meals to all students (92.3% vs. 96.6%)', 'utilization of additional staff for foodservice assistance (33.4% vs. 38.8%)', 'installation of partitions (61.2% vs. 83.8%)', 'provision of general diet (96.1% vs. 99.1%)', and 'use of kitchen utensils (91.3% vs. 95.1%)', 'use of cafeteria water cup (9.9% vs. 31.0%)' and 'use of drinking water in school (46.8% vs. 52.1%)'. Compared to 2020, in 2021, it was confirmed that the school food service operations stabilized due to the increase in the normal school attendance rate and that systems were in place for operations during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the future, it will be necessary to develop manuals and special recipes necessary for responding to infectious diseases, and to operate a manpower pool that can quickly find replacement personnel if required.
For any research study, in order to achieve the researcher’s intended purpose, the depth of research is added, and the area of the subject is expanded by clearly defining the scope and objective. The study was undertaken to analyze the bibliographic data of 254 papers in the field of foodservice and restaurant published in the Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture from 2002 to 2021. The study was divided into two periods: 2002 to 2011, and 2012 to 2021. Research topics were derived and research trends according to temporal changes were confirmed through analysis of keyword networks by period. In addition, analyzing the keyword network of simultaneous appearance of “foodservice” and “restaurant”, the research topics were compared and analyzed in relation to which keywords were expanded by period. Our analysis revealed that the research topics were mostly studied for satisfaction and nutrition. Additionally, they were classified into procurement, Korean food before employee menu, marketing, restaurant industry, and quality. In the period from 2002 to 2011, it was confirmed that studies encompassed a wide range of research topics, focusing on foodservice and restaurant; in the second period from 2012 to 2021, the research topics were more classified and subdivided.
게임 산업은 갈수록 성장하고 있으며 그 규모는 국내에서만 10조원을 넘어서고 있다. 게임의 이용자와 이용시간이 증가하면서 게임 내 비정상적인 행위를 제재할 필요성이 커지고 있다. 게임 회사는 비정상적인 이용자를 적절히 제재하기 위한 노력을 끊임없이 하고 있다. 이와 관련하여 Riot Games에서 운영하는 League of Legend 라는 게임에서는 이용자들을 재제하기 위해 2012년 게임 배심원제를 도입하였다. 게임 배심원제는 이용자와 회사 간의 제재에 대한 입장 차이를 줄이고 제재를 위해 투입해야 할 게임 회사의 자원 낭비를 줄이며 게임 이용자들의 의식을 제고하기 위하여 필요하다. 이러한 게임 배심원제의 취지는 제재 권한을 이용자에게 일정 부분 이양 또는 분담시키는 것으로 불공정 한 약관에도 해당하지 않는다 할 것이다. 게임 배심원제는 배심원단이 불성실하게 판단 할 가능성이 있고, 배심원단에게 어떠한 정보를 제공할 것인지 대상 선정의 어려움이 있으며, 배심원단의 권한의 범위를 어디까지 설정할 것인지 의문제점이 존재한다. 이와 관련하여 LOL의 게임 배심제는 판결 건수를 제한하고 무죄 판결이 포함되게 하는 방법 등으로 성실한 판단을 유도하 였는데 이에 적절한 보상을 제공하는 것이 더 필 요할 것이다. 제공할 정보로는 신고된 5건의 플레이와 각 플레이의 여러 데이터들을 보여주는 방법을 취하고 있는데 직접 영상을 보여주고 해당 사건별로 각각 판단하게 하는 것이 더 신빙성을 높일 수 있다. 배심원단의 결정의 범위에 관해서는 제재의 수위는 선택할 수 없도록 하였고 구속력과 관련해서는 게임 배심원제는 무죄 판단에는 기속 되지만 유죄 판단에는 기속되지 않는 방식으로 운영되었다. 현실적인 면을 고려하였을 때 배심원단의 판단에 전적으로 제재를 맡길 수는 없지만 제재 수위는 회사가 결정한다는 면을 고려한다면 배심원단의 판단에 구속력을 부여해야 할 것이다.
본 연구는 유용 냉수성 어류 등의 종묘생산 시 초기의 성장과 생존률을 향상시키기 위하여, 저온에서 증식할 수 있는 저온내성을 가진 로티퍼(Brachionus plicatilis)를 배양하여, 수온 및 시간에 따른 영양강화 실험을 실시하였다. 로티퍼의 저온 배양은 20℃에서 배양하던 로티퍼의 수온을 점차적으로 낮추면서 활력이 있는 개체의 선별 배양을 반복하여 최종적으로 10℃에서 사육하였다. 영양강화는 상업적으로 이용되는 영양강화제인 A, S, SCV 및 SCP의 4종류를 사용하여 10, 15 및 20℃의 수온에서 6, 12 및 24시간 실시하였다. 수온 10℃에서 50일간 로티퍼의 증식률 실험을 한 결과 접종 밀도 350±7.9개체/ml에서 최종 배양 밀도는 1,064±5.7개체/ml로 약 3배 개체수가 증가하였다. 영양강화제에 포함된 지방산을 분석한 결과, n3계 고도불포화 지방산인 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) 및 docosahexaenoic acid(DHA, C22:6n-3)는 SCP에서 각각 15.49%, 35.03 %로 높게 나타났다. 영양강화한 로티퍼의 지방산 조성은 영양강화제에 따라 영향을 받았다. EPA는 SCP가 영양강화 수온 및 시간에 관계없이 2 % 이상을 차지하여 다른 영양강화제보다 높은 비율을 나타냈다. DHA는 S가 15℃, 24시간 실험구에서 12.40 %로 높게 나타났다. 영양강화 로티퍼의 EPA와 DHA의 비율을 고려하면 S를 20℃에서 12시간 영양강화한 실험구가 각각 3.09, 11.65 %로 높게 나타났다.
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing sales of health functional foods by door-to-door saleswomen. A total of 450 women who worked as door-to-door salespersons in Seoul were enrolled. The survey questionnaire was composed of five parts as follows: general characteristics, factors related with door-to-door sales process, task education, competency required for door-to-door salespersons, and customer relationship beliefs. The survey was conducted in October 2011. Finally, data on 302 subjects were statistically analyzed using the SPSS 17.0 package program. Reason for sales of health functional foods (p<0.01), time required for sales promotion (p<0.001), difficulties during sales of health functional foods (p<0.05), satisfaction of task education (p<0.01), and failure of salesperson's memory as problems of task education (p<0.01) were significantly associated with sales of health functional foods. However, means of sales promotion, frequency and time of task education, and competency required for door-to-door salespersons were not significantly related with sales of health functional foods. Customer relationship beliefs did not show significant association with sales of health functional foods either. In conclusion, certain factors were associated with sales of health functional foods by door-to-door saleswomen. These results provide an understanding for sales of door-to-door health functional foods and provide basic information for preparation of task education for health functional food saleswomen and marketing.
This study aimed to classify attendants of a wine training institute according to loyalty for wine training service program and to deduce the core managing points in a wine training program by IPA (Importance-Performance Analysis). Self-administered questionnaires were collected from 192 trainees and statistical data analysis completed using SPSS ver. 18.0. As a result of clustering analysis based on trainee loyalty from both attitude and behavioral perspectives, four classification groups were identified: a "genuine" loyalty group, a "latent" loyalty group, a "mendacious" loyalty group, and a "low" loyalty group. For the genuine loyalty group, the importance of total service quality was 4.32 on average whereas the performance was measured as 4.22; thus there was little difference between importance to quality and performance. However, for the other three groups, especially the low loyalty group, there were significant wide gaps between importance to quality and performance. According to IPA, different service quality items were posted on the 'Focus here' quadrant (a domain with high service quality importance but low performance) by group, while the other three quadrants had several common items regardless of the group. Finally, the core quality managing points were different depending on the level of trainee loyalty. Therefore, it is necessary to plan and conduct a wine training program that reflects the characteristics and needs of its students, which will lead to a differentiated management strategy according to the level of loyalty.
The purpose of this study was to examine the dietary habits of boarding high school students in Gangwon based on gender and stress levels. Questionnaires were distributed to 571 boarding high school students and collected from 491 students from June 28 to July 20, 2011. The statistical data analyses were completed using SPSS (ver. 19.0) for the descriptive analysis, independent sample t-test and 2-test. The mean stress score was 23.7 out of 40, and male's stress was significantly higher than female's (p〈0.05). The rates of having daily breakfast and dinner were significantly influenced by gender (p〈0.01), and the regularity of lunch was significantly different depending on the stress level (p〈0.05). Female students consumed less flour based foods (p〈0.01), carbonated drinks (p〈0.01), juices (p〈0.05) and functional drinks (p〈0.01) than male students, but male students consumed less cookies and breads (p〈0.01). Dietary habits that boarding high school students should improve were an unbalanced diet (38%), too much intake at once (17%) and prejudice against foods (11%), and their primary value in dietary life was preference (33%), followed by staving off hunger (18%) and pleasure (18%). The average level of interest in dietary life was 2.46 (on a Likert-type 3-point scale) and it was significantly higher for female students (2.53) than male (2.40) (p〈0.05). About 54% of students washed their hands before a meal when they thought of it, but only 25% of students always scrubbed up. The regularity of breakfast and dinner, frequency of snack intake, dietary habits that need to improve, intrest in dietary life, and washing hands before meals showed significant difference by gender but not by stress levels.
The purpose of this study was to propose effective marketing communication strategies for overseas Korean restaurants through a multilateral comparison analysis of American, Chinese, and Japanese consumers' attitudes towards communication media and Korean restaurants. The survey was written in English, Chinese, and Japanese, with guideline for surveyors, and conducted using both online and offline methods. Samples were collected from five major cities - Los Angeles, New York, Tokyo, Beijing and Shanghai, which are the foothold for the globalization of Korean food. When it comes to attitudes towards communication media, word-of-mouth showed a high mean value, indicating it as the most useful and reliable media recognized by consumers who visited Korean restaurants. Furthermore, the necessity of recognizing the importance of visual communication in the physical environment of Korean restaurants and specialized websites, featuring restaurants and gourmet food, was observed. Consumers in all three nations chose word-of-mouth as the most useful and reliable media for learning about Korean restaurants. In addition, American consumers highly depended on signage and restaurant exteriors. Chinese consumers highly recognized the usefulness and reliability of offline media, such as newspapers, magazines, and events, while Japanese consumers considered online media, such as gourmet websites, blogs and social networks, as useful and reliable sources. A significantly positive attitude and high value was observed in all who had visited Korean restaurants. American and Japanese consumers had a significantly higher rate of intention to visit Korean restaurants in the future and to tell others about their satisfaction with Korean restaurants. Meanwhile, the average rate of prior preference for Korean restaurants (when choosing restaurants) was the lowest in all three countries. This study is useful for both the Korean government and food enterprises abroad to plan and develop marketing communication strategies properly for overseas Korean restaurants.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of quality factors on value, satisfaction and loyalty in a wine training program. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: Structural verification of the wine training program loyalty model showed that the quality of the wine training program positively affected both value (p<0.001) and satisfaction (p<0.001). Further, the value of the wine training program positively affected satisfaction (p<0.01), which in turn positively influenced loyalty (p<0.001). The quality of the wine training program was presented as solicitude for students, textbook and curriculum, qualification and confidence of lecturer and staff, and training quality, whereas the value of the program was composed of sense of belonging, promotion of self-esteem, good impression on others, and improvement of social status. Therefore, the wine training institute's intensive management of the quality and value of the program could induce students' loyalty by enhancing satisfaction for the wine training program.
The purposes of study were to survey the status of nutrition education in school and investigate the perception of nutrition teacher candidates concerning the direction and ideal method for nutrition education. A questionnaire was distributed to 554 nutrition teacher candidates from August to October, 2006. A total of 468 usable data were collected (84.5% response rate). The statistical data analysis was completed by using SPSS for Windows (ver. 10.0) for descriptive analysis, ANOVA and 2-test. About 52% of respondents had nutrition education teaching experience. Half of the respondents indicated that the necessity for nutrition education stemmed from their own need for such education. The main problem in students' dietary life was 'the increasing intake of processed foods, instant foods and fast foods (4.23 out of Likert 5 point scale)' and the major nutritional problem was 'high calorie intake with low essential nutrients (3.96 out of Likert 5 point scale)'. Over half the respondents (53.4%) recommended that nutrition education be oriented towards behavioral change rather than knowledge delivery. Social learning theory was preferred mostly as an theory apt to nutrition education (60.3%) and the most effective means of education was referred to organizing the regular class for nutrition education (50.5%). The 'playing such as songs or game' was reported as both effective and realizable method in nutrition education.
The purpose of this study was to survey the current status of bread menus at school, business and industry (B & I), and military foodservice operations and to analyze dietitians' perceptions of applying rice bread in foodservice menus. A questionnaire, which was developed by content analysis, situation analysis, and in-depth interview, was distributed to 183 schools, 31 B & I operations, and 26 air force dietitians. In the school and B & I foodservices, wheat bread was used much more than rice bread and serving frequencies of morning rolls and sliced bread were higher. The military foodservices, however, served much more rice bread as burger buns than the other groups. For the school and B&I operations, consumer preference for wheat bread was perceived as high. In contrast, soldiers preferred rice bread to wheat bread in the military foodservices. The recognized advantages of using rice bread were different among the three groups. The military dietitians perceived the main advantage of using rice bread as an increase of rice consumption, while the school and B & I dietitians viewed it as promoting a healthy image. In all groups, the primary difficulties for using rice bread were the higher cost of rice bread as compared to wheat bread and a lack of facilities (e.g. oven). The military dietitians had the highest levels of positive and active interest as well as intention and opinions toward using rice bread. On the other hand, the school and B & I dietitians had very positive perceptions of rice bread but did not actually apply it in their foodservice menus. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the development of diverse menus using rice bread along with government support of its use, including facilities with ovens as well as rice bread subsidies, should be carried out for on-going expansion of the rice bread supply.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors consumers seriously considered when purchasing HMRs and the difference among the factors according to their demographic characteristics. The subjects were adults in their twenties or older who had used HMRs and lived in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province in Korea. Random sampling picked 550 of them, who were distributed a questionnaire from March 12 to 30, 2005. Total 451 questionnaires were returned(the return rates were 82%). The validity of the 27 features was examined by factor analysis. There were seven factors identified, and they were labeled considering the meaning of their items as follows: 'Factor 1. food quality,' 'Factor 2. appearance and packaging,' 'Factor 3. convenience and reliability,' 'Factor 4. access,' 'Factor 5. familiarity,' 'Factor 6. positive experiences,' and 'Factor 7. practicality.
The purpose of this study was to investigate university students' attitudes and interests for ethnic food. The questionnaire developed was distributed to 60 students majoring in food & nutrition and 260 students taking a liberal course related with food culture in world. A total of 271 questionnaires were usable ; resulting in 84.7% response rate. Among 12 kinds of ethnic food, a large number of students had an experience in Japanese, Chinese, American and Italian food. Also Chinese, American, Japanese and Italian food were familiar with them, but the hope to eat for French, Spanish, Mexican and German food was too strong. Students knew kinds, characteristics, table manners and etc. for Japanese, Chinese, and American food very well and wanted to know the information about French food. as result of positioning for ethnic food by correspondence analysis, Spanish, English, French, Germany and Mexican food had a strong image in want to eat, wanted to know information about food and got a good feeling. Students perceived Vietnamese, Thai and Indian food as having an experience, Japanese, American and Italian food as well-know about food or restaurants, and Chinese food as being familiar. The findings would indicate trends for ethnic foods and their cultures in Korea and forecast the possibility of change in foodservice market.