Supercapacitors are attracting much attention in sensor, military and space applications due to their excellent thermal stability and non-explosion. The ionic liquid is more thermally stable than other electrolytes and can be used as a high temperature electrolyte, but it is not easy to realize a high temperature energy device because the separator shrinks at high temperature. Here, we report a study on electrochemical supercapacitors using a composite electrolyte film that does not require a separator. The composite electrolyte is composed of thermoplastic polyurethane, ionic liquid and fumed silica nanoparticles, and it acts as a separator as well as an electrolyte. The silica nanoparticles at the optimum mass concentration of 4wt% increase the ionic conductivity of the composite electrolyte and shows a low interfacial resistance. The 5 wt% polyurethane in the composite electrolyte exhibits excellent electrochemical properties. At 175 ℃, the capacitance of the supercapacitor using our free standing composite electrolyte is 220 F/g, which is 25 times higher than that at room temperature. This study has many potential applications in the electrolyte of next generation energy storage devices.
The demand for energy storage devices capable of operating at high temperatures is increasing. In order to operate at high temperatures, a device must have excellent thermal stability and no risk of explosion. Ionic liquids are electrolytes that satisfy the above conditions, and studies on improving their performance have attracted great interest. Here, we report the results of a study on the fabrication of a supercapacitor that has a composite electrolyte prepared by dispersing fumed silica in an ionic liquid. The fumed silica filler exhibits improved ionic conductivity and lower interfacial resistance. In particular, the silica nanoparticles with diameters of 10 nm exhibit better electrochemical properties than fillers of other diameters and have excellent device performance of 33 times higher than the pristine ionic liquid at high temperatures. This study can be used to improve the electrolytes of electrochemical devices, such as the next generation battery or lithium ion battery.
The objective of this study was analyze the relationship among emotional intelligence, job attitude (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention), and organizational performance in kitchen staff. A survey collected data from foodservice employees (N=611). Statistical analyses were completed using SPSS Win (17.0) for descriptive analysis, reliability analysis, factor analysis, t-test, correlation analysis, and AMOS (7.0) for confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The main results of this study were as follows. The four EI (Emotional Intelligence) dimensions significantly correlated with age. The mean of the job satisfaction score was 3.24. The organizational commitment score was 3.54. The organizational commitment score was higher for 'loyalty' factor than for 'sense of belongs' factor. The mean of organizational performance score was 3.61. The four EI(Emotional Intelligence) factors were significantly correlated with job satisfaction (organizational commitment, organizational performance, and turnover intension). Structural equation modeling found that emotional intelligence had positive effects on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational performance, whereas job satisfaction and organizational performance had positive effects on organizational performance. Therefore, this study found that emotional intelligence had direct and indirect effects on organizational performance.
This study was planned to investigate the current using status of agricultural products in school food service both produced in Korea and imported from other countries and the dieticians' perception on using those. A total of 723 dieticians of 442 elementary schools and 381 middle high schools were surveyed in July, 2003 to perform the purposes of the study. A high using rate (93.4%) for Korean agricultural products was investigated. As for meat such as pork and chicken except beef and eggs, the using rate of Korean agricultural products was high. Almost 100% of vegetables and fruits, except tropical fruits such as banana, kiwi, orange and pineapple supplied for school food service were also Korean products. As for nuts and edible oil, the rate of using for Korean agricultural products was comparatively lower than those of other food items due to the price gap. Most dieticians rated the quality of the products produced in Korea higher than that of the imported products in the aspects of their freshness, taste, and safety. But they found no difference in the package condition of the products produced in Korea and of those imported from other countries. This result suggests that the package system should be improved for the agricultural products produced in Korea.