To optimize initial cooling conditions, forced-air cooling was applied to freshly harvested oak mushrooms at 2 levels (0oC for 30 minutes, at 0oC for 1 hour) followed by room cooling at 3 levels (-3oC for 1 day, 0oC for 1 day, 3oC for 1 day). After initial cooling, the oak mushrooms were packaged with PVC film, then held in a storage room at 1oC for 6 weeks. Quality characteristics and percentage marketability were then investigated. As a control, Mushrooms were placed in storage with no initial cooling. The quality factors impacting marketability of fresh oak mushrooms were color change and appearance of decay. Off-odor did not occur or developed only slightly, so it did not affect oak mushroom quality within 6 weeks of low temperature storage. In all treatment groups, the shelf life in which 100% marketability was maintained was up to 3 weeks. At week 5, percent marketability of the 3 treatment groups 1 hour room cooling treatment at 0°C, 1 hour forced air cooling, and control was 100%. 80% In the group that underwent 30 min forced air cooling retained 80% marketability, and the group exposed to 1 day in room cooling at -3oC retained 86.7% marketability. At week 6 of 1oC storage, the marketability ratio was 80% in the 1 day room cooling at 0oC group, 66.7% in the 1 day room cooling at 3oC group, 46.7% in the 1 hour forced air cooling group, and 33% or less in all other treatment groups. Therefore, the most suitable initial cooling parameter to extend shelf-life of oak mushrooms is 1 day of in room cooling at 0oC immediately after harvest.
The objective of this study was to investigate taste profiles and the correlation of Doenjang soup solution prepared with three different temperatures (5, 25, 45℃) and using an electronic nose (e-nose), electronic tongue (e-tongue), and descriptive analyses by trained panelists. A total of 17sensory attributes were generated from the descriptive analyses for the Doenjang soup solution. There were significant difference among the samples in the cooked soybean flavor, the cooked soybean odor, the soy sauce odor, the sweet odor, the sweet taste, and the sweet aftertaste attributes. The intensities of these sensory attributes tended to increase as the serving temperature of the Doenjang soup solution increased. There were seven volatile compounds detected by the electronic nose: ethanol, propanal, 2-methylpropanal, ethyl acetate, 3-methylbutanal, and beta-pinene. The intensities of the volatile compounds increased as the temperature of the Doenjang soup solution increased. On the other hand, the intensities of the basic tastes by the e-tongue decreased as the temperature of the Doenjang soup solution increased. In conclusion, the e-nose, e-tongue, and descriptive analysis results showed different correlations depending on the temperature of the Doenjang soup solutions.
Consumers have recently shown great interest in organic foods since they are considered to have higher antioxidant activity compared to conventionally farmed foods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the general characteristics of organic and conventional spinach, such as length, weight, color, moisture contents, and antioxidant capacity based on ABTS radical scavenging activity, total phenol, and flavonoid contents. Spinach that was used in this study was grown conventionally and organically in Po-Hang, Korea. As the results, conventional spinach showed higher values for length, weight (p<0.001), and moisture content (p<0.05). For antioxidant capacity, organically grown spinach showed higher antioxidant activity than the conventional group based on total phenol and flavonoid contents, but only total flavonoid content was significantly different (p<0.05). For ABTS radical scavenging activity, the conventional group showed a slightly higher capacity, but the difference was not significant. Thus, the organic farming system in spinach showed similar or slightly higher antioxidant activities.
Demand for organic agriculture has greatly increased in the past decade. The objective of this study was to evaluate quality the characteristics and antioxidant activities of organically and conventionally grown carrots. Organically and conventionally grown carrots were harvested in Jeju Island, Korea. Carrot extracts were investigated for their antioxidative components (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and their antioxidant activities (DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities). The quality characteristics of carrots were estimated in terms of hardness, length, weight, moisture contents, and soluble solid content (SSC). Conventionally grown carrots showed higher values than organic carrot in terms of hardness (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference in moisture contents or SSC. In the case of antioxidant activity, organic carrots showed a higher value for DPPH radical scavenging activity (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in other antioxidants. Consequently, quality characteristics and antioxidant activities were different between organically and conventionally grown carrots.
Increasing use of organically grown foods has renewed interest in the relationship between agricultural methods and food quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of organic strawberries. For this study, strawberries were measured in terms of quality characteristics, including weight, length, diameter, hunter color, soluble solid contents (SSC), moisture contents, and pH, as well as antioxidant activities, including DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and total phenol and flavonoid contents. Consequently, conventional strawberries showed higher weight, diameter, and L (lightness) and b (yellowness) values than organic strawberries (p<0.001). Length, moisture contents, pH, a (redness) value, and DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were similar (p<0.05). However, organic strawberries showed higher SSC and total flavonoid and phenol contents than conventional strawberries (p<0.001). These results indicate that there were significant differences between organic and conventional agriculture techniques.
This research was conducted to investigate the effect of essential oil (EO) from Artemisia Princeps Pampanini on quality of tomato during storage. EO was extracted by steam distillation and diluted by 1 and 2%. Total phenolic contents and antioxidative activities of EO were analyzed. Tomato was packaged corrugated box covered with polypropylene (PP) film containing EO (1 and 2%) and then stored at room temperature for 10 days. During storage, appearance, weight loss rate, soluble solid contents, pH and a (redness) value were measured for tomato. Total phenolic contents of EO increased in a dose-dependence. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities also showed a concentration-dependent increase. The weight loss rate was lowest using the film packaged in 1% EO. During the storage period, soluble solid contents and pH increased in all treatments. The a value increased regardless of EO concentration in films. Especially, tomato packaged with EO film showed a lower a value than non EO-packaged ones. This result suggests that application of EO to film is effective for tomato quality preservation.
As consumers are aware of their health and are more conscious of environmental conditions, there is an increasing demand for agri-foods obtained from organic agricultural practices. The present study aimed to investigate the physicochemical quality characteristics of blueberries. The weight, length, moisture contents, color (Hunter L, a, b), soluble solids contents, pH, and acidity were measured for their quality characteristics. In addition, ABTS radical scavenging activity was analyzed for antioxidant activities of organically and conventionally grown blueberries. Organically grown blueberries showed a greater weight, soluble solid contents, and pH than conventionally grown ones. Especially, organically grown blueberries showed significantly (p<0.05) higher weight and pH. Moisture contents of organically and conventionally grown blueberries were similar. L and b values of organically grown blueberries were higher than those of conventionally grown blueberries. ABTS radical scavenging activities of organically grown blueberries (36.4%) were higher than those of conventionally grown ones (36.4%), but the difference was not significant. Further studies are recommended to evaluate other differences between organically and conventionally grown blueberries.
가공식품으로 많이 애용하는 마늘 장아찌가 생마늘과 같이 위점막 손상을 방비하는지를 조사하였고, 아울러 이들의 보호기전에 SH기가 관여하는지를 알고자 본 연구를 실시하였던 바 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. HCl-ethanol(약 60% ethanol에 15mM HCl을 함유)을 공복상태의 흰쥐에 투여하였더니 검고 붉은 선상의 괴사와 출혈을 보였다. 그러나 생마늘과 3주 된 마늘 장아찌을 투여한 군에서는 괴사가 방지되었고, 효과는 용량에 비례하였다. 3주 경과된 마늘 장아찌가 생마늘과의 효과를 비교해 볼 때 감소하였으나 유기적인 변화는 없는 것으로 나타났다. 담근지 5주 된 마늘장아찌를 투여한 군에서도 억제효과가 나타났으나 3주된 마늘 장아찌와 비교해 볼 때 원액과 1:10 희석액에서는 큰 차이가 없었으나 1 : 100희석액에서는 작용효과가 감소하는 것으로 나타났다. Diallyl disulfide 만 투여한 군에 비하여 SH차단계인 N-ethylmaleimide와 indomethacin를 각각 투여한 군에서는 위점막 보호효과가 감소하였다. Diallyl disulflde 함량은 생마늘에서 1.40㎎%이었던 것이 저장기간이 경과함에 따라 서서히 감소하여 3주에는 0.96㎎%, 5주에는 0.49㎎%로 감소하였다. 이상의 결과로 부터 마늘 장아찌도 횐쥐의 위점막 손상에 대한 보호작용이 있으며 그 기전은 마늘의 SH기가 관여하는 듯하였다.
고온기 결구상추의 선도유지 및 수급조절에 효과적인 포장조건을 구명하기 위하여 연구를 수행하였다. 수확 후 결구상추를 골판지 상자, 농산물 유통상자(P box), 개별 랩핑 등 세 가지 방법으로 포장한 후 2℃에 저장하며 품질변화를 분석하였다. 그 결과 개별 랩핑 한 결구상추의 중량감소율이 다른 처리구보다 적었고, 저장 중 색변화 및 갈변도가 가장 낮았다. 또한 다른 포장방법에 비하여 개별 랩핑 한 결구상추의 엽록소 함량 및 경도 감소가 적었다. 총 페놀함량 및 DPPH 라디컬 소거능의 경우 저장 중 개별 랩핑 한 결구상추의 값이 높았으나 포장방법에 따른 차이는 적었다. 저장 중 결구상추의 외관은 개별 랩핑 하였을 때 가장 우수하였으며 반으로 절단하여 골판지 상자에 포장한 결구 상추는 저장 14일부터 내부갈변이 발생하여 품질이 저하되기 시작하였다. 따라서 고온기 결구상추를 수확 후 개별 랩핑하여 2℃에 저장할 경우 21일간 선도유지에 효과적이며 수급조절에도 도움을 줄 수 있으리라 판단된다.
본 연구에서는 과채류의 포장실태를 조사하고, 포장방법 을 달리한 토마토 및 파프리카의 저장 중 품질변화를 측정 하였다. 포장실태조사는 서울에 소재한 백화점, 대형할인 마트, 동네슈퍼마켓을 대상으로 조사하였으며 주로 골판지 상자, PP, LDPE, PS, PVC 등의 재질로 포장되어 있었다. 이를 바탕으로 토마토와 파프리카의 포장형태별 품질변화 를 측정하기 위하여 토마토는 골판지 상자+PP film, PP film bag, 파프리카는 PP film bag, 스티로폼 tray+PVC film wrapping 형태로 포장한 후 상온저장하며 품질변화를 측정 하였다. 저장 48시간 후 포장하지 않은 토마토와 파프리카 의 중량감모율이 다른 처리구에 비하여 증가하였으며 경도 는 저장 중 감소하였다. 골판지 상자로 포장한 토마토는 저장 중 가용성 고형분 함량이 유의적으로 높았던 반면, pH값은 처리구 중에서 가장 낮았으며 유의적인 차이는 없 었다. 토마토는 골판지 상자+PP film, 파프리카는 PP film bag으로 포장한 경우 저장 중 품질유지에 효과적이었다.
유기 및 일반재배에 따른 풋고추의 이화학적 품질특성 및 항산화활성을 비교하고자 무게, 길이, 수분함량, 표면색도, 경도, DPPH 및 ABTS radical 소거능, 총페놀함량 등을 분석하였다. 무게, 길이의 경우 전반적으로 유기농 풋고추에서 무게가 적고, 길이가 짧았으며 수분함량의 경우 유기 및 일반재배 간 비슷한 값을 나타내었다. 표면색에 있어서 유기농 풋고추의 L과 b값이 높았고, a값은 일반재배 풋고추의 값이 높았으며 재배조건에 따른 L, a, b값의 유의적인 차이를 보였다. 항산화활성의 경우 DPPH radical 소거능은 유기농 풋고추가, ABTS radical 소거능은 일반재배 풋고추가 높은 활성을 보였다. 총 페놀 함량은 유기농 풋고추 값이 높았으나 유의적 차이를 보이지 않았다. 본 연구에서는 무게, 길이 등의 외적 품질에 대해서 일반재배 풋고추의 값이 높았고, 항산화활성에 대해서는 전반적으로 유기농 풋고추에서 다소 높은 활성을 보였으나 유기 및 일반재배에 따른 내외적 품질비교를 위해서 더 많은 분석이 추가로 진행되어야 할 필요가 있다고 사료된다.
Mushrooms have a shorter shelf-life than most vegetables because of their very high respiration rates, sensitivity to enzymatic browning and susceptibility to microbial spoilage. This study was conducted to investigate effects of various packaging materials and precooling on the quality of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). Mushrooms were precooled at 4℃ for three hours and packaged using the following packaging materials; 1) polyethylene (PE) film bags of 0.03 mm thickness, 2) polypropylene (PP) film bags of 0.03 mm thickness, and 3) polystyrene (PS) tray+polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wrapper. The physiological changes (weight loss, gas composition, color, firmness, and sensory evaluation) associated with postharvest deterioration were monitored for 17 days at 10℃. The results showed that the PP film bag maintained quality of mushrooms most effectively, especially PP film bags inhibited decreasing firmness. The samples also exhibited smaller decreases in weight loss rate (0.57%) and Hunter L value (84.44) than PS tray+PVC wrapper (7.73%, 82.19) and PE film bags (0.89%, 82.96). Sensory evaluation level in all samples remained relatively constant during the first 5 days of storage. However, PE film bags and PS tray+PVC wrapper showed lower score of flavor, texture and color than PP film bags after 8 days of storage. This study suggested that PP film bag packaging effectively extends shelf-life of mushrooms during storage.
This study was investigated the changes in quality of heat treated fresh-cut lotus roots using various packaging materials. Lotus roots were purchased from Daegu, Korea. Lotus roots were washed, peeled and sliced with a sharp ceramic knife. The prepared peeled and sliced lotus roots were dipped for 45 sec in water at 55℃. After air-dried at room temperature, the slices were packaged with polyethylene films, polyethylene terephthalate tray+wrapping, vacuum packaging and then stored at 4℃. Changes in weight loss, color, firmness, microorganisms and sensory characteristics were measured. In general, the weight loss rate was increased slightly in vacuum packaged lotus roots. Application of heat treatment delayed browning of lotus roots, and especially vacuum packaged lotus roots were the most lowest △E value. However, L and △E value of PE film packaged lotus roots were increased highly during storage. The heat treated and vacuum packaging inhibited the growth of microorganisms effectively. The organoleptic quality of vacuum packaged lotus roots showed the best by sensory evaluation.
This study was carried out to investigate the packaging status of the Agaricus bisporus mushrooms and the benefits of storing them after precooling to improve their distribution system using small packages. The packaging status of the Agaricus bisporus mushrooms was surveyed at a farm, a department store, a wholesale market, and a supermarket from May to September 2011. The packaging materials that were used were PS, carton, PP, LDPE, PLA, and PVC. The harvested Agaricus bisporus mushrooms were precooled at 4℃ for three hours and were then stored at 20℃ for three days. The weight loss rate of the precooled sample was slightly lower than that of the unprecooled sample; conversely, the L value of the precooled sample was higher than that of the unprecooled sample. The △E value was lowest in the precooled sample after packaging. The precooling process effectively prolonged the shelf life and enhanced the quality of the Agaricus bisporus mushrooms.
천연 갈변저해제 소재를 발굴하기 위하여 민들레와 감국을 열수 및 80% 에탄올로 추출하고, 그 추출물에 대하여 PPO 저해활성과 DPPH radical 소거능, 총페놀 함량 등을 통하여 항산화 효과를 조사하였다. 또한 추출물을 사과슬라이스에 침지하여 외관의 변화를 관찰하였다. 감국 추출물이 민들레 추출물보다 높은 PPO 저해활성을 보였으며 DPPH radical 소거능 그리고 총페놀 함량 등에 대해서 높은 함량을 나타내었다. 각 추출물에 대하여
본 연구는 신선편이 연근의 열처리에 대한 품질 변화를 조사하기 위하여 수행하였다. 산지에서 구입한 연근을 수돗물로 표면과 아물질 등을 제거하고, 박피 및 절단한 후 30, 55, 에서 45초간 열처리한 후 PE 필름으로 포장하여 에서 저장하였다. 중량 감모율, 표면색도, 일반세균, 관능검사 등을 통하여 품질을 분석하였으며 중량 감모율은 저장기간이 경과함에 따라 전반적으로 증가하였고, 열처리를 한 경우 증가폭이 낮았다. 열처리한 연근의 L값은 가