This study was conducted to select cultivars and determine the harvest period suited for the availability of biological activities in unripen apple. To analyze effective the components in the apple (Malus domestica), three cultivars, 'Summerking', 'Hongro', 'Fuji' were harvested from 40~50 days after full bloom to harvest time. Soluble solid content increased gradually by ripening but titratable acidity decreased with ripening regardless of the cultivars. The total phenol content significantly reduced with ripening from May 30 to July 30 (p<0.05). Substantially, the total phenol content of ‘Hongro’ in May 30 was four times higher than that of ‘Summerking’ in the same period and ten times higher than that of ‘Hongro’ in August 30. The total flavonoid content reduced with ripening regardless of cultivars (p<0.05) and that of ‘Hongro’ in May 30 was significantly highest (p<0.05). The ascorbic acid content was the highest in ‘Hongro’ in May 30 (p<0.05). The contents of tannin and ursolic acid significantly reduced with ripening from May 30 to July 30 (p<0.05), while no significant difference was observed between Hogro and Fuji after July 30. Therefore, 'Hongro' harvested in May 30 was considered to be best in the utilization of the effective components of immature apple.
The objective of this study was to investigate taste profiles and the correlation of Doenjang soup solution prepared with three different temperatures (5, 25, 45℃) and using an electronic nose (e-nose), electronic tongue (e-tongue), and descriptive analyses by trained panelists. A total of 17sensory attributes were generated from the descriptive analyses for the Doenjang soup solution. There were significant difference among the samples in the cooked soybean flavor, the cooked soybean odor, the soy sauce odor, the sweet odor, the sweet taste, and the sweet aftertaste attributes. The intensities of these sensory attributes tended to increase as the serving temperature of the Doenjang soup solution increased. There were seven volatile compounds detected by the electronic nose: ethanol, propanal, 2-methylpropanal, ethyl acetate, 3-methylbutanal, and beta-pinene. The intensities of the volatile compounds increased as the temperature of the Doenjang soup solution increased. On the other hand, the intensities of the basic tastes by the e-tongue decreased as the temperature of the Doenjang soup solution increased. In conclusion, the e-nose, e-tongue, and descriptive analysis results showed different correlations depending on the temperature of the Doenjang soup solutions.
본 연구는 두부의 침지수에 AC를 처리하고 저장기간에 따른 품질의 변화를 측정하여 두부의 저장안정성을 조사하고자 수행하였다. 두부 침지액으로는 증류수, 0.05% AC 용액, 0.1% AC 용액 및 0.15% AC 용액을 사용하여 10oC에 저장하면서 pH와 탁도, 색도, 관능검사, 그리고 미생물의 변화를 관찰하였다. 침지액에 AC를 처리한 두부는 대조구와 비교해 보았을 때 pH가 높게 나타났고 저장기간이 늘어남에 따라 두부의 pH가 약간 감소하였다. 대조구에서 탁도는 두부의 저장기간이 늘어남에 따라 급격히 증가하였으나 AC를 첨가한 두부에서는 농도 의존적으로 탁도의 변화가 감소하는 경향을 보였다. 색도를 측정한 결과 AC를 처리한 두부에서 모든 군에서 차이를 나타내지 않았다. 두부의 관능검사에 있어서 저장기간 동안에 AC를 처리한 두부는 관능적 특성을 더 오래 유지하였으나 AC의 첨가율이 높을수록 색에 대한 기호도가 떨어지고 맛에도 영향을 미쳐 전체적 기호도를 저하시켰다. 두부의 씹힘성과 경도는 AC의 첨가율이 높을수록 낮아졌으나 이물감 조성에는 영향을 끼치지 않는 것으로 나타났다. Texture특성을 관능검사를 통해 측정한 결과 경도, 탄성, 검성, 씹힘성은 0.1% AC와 0.15% AC 용액을 침지액으로 사용하였을 때 대조구와 비교해서 낮은 수치를 나타내는 것을 볼 수 있었다. 두부의 저장기간 동안 호기성 세균수는 대조구에서 7일 후 6.00 log CFU/g을 초과하였으나 0.1% AC와 0.15% AC 처리 시에는 미생물의 증식이 효과적으로 억제되어 저장기간이 연장되는 결과를 보였다. 이와 같은 결과로 볼 때, AC의 침지처리는 10oC에서 7일 동안 가공두부의 선도유지 기간을 연장할 수 있는 효과를 기대할 수 있었다.
여러 종류의 coumarin 유도체가 광화학 반응에 의하여 OH^- 라디칼을 생성하는 반응을 ESR ?I 레이저 섬 광분해 반응으로 진행시키고 반응속도 상수를 구하여 반응성과 메카니즘을 알아보았다. 본 연구에서 사용된 9종류의 coumarin 유도체는 모두 OH^- 라디칼 생성반응 메카니즘으로 반응이 진해이되었으나 1-ethyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine은 광조사에 의해 OH^- 라디칼 생성반응이 일어나기 전에 분해하여 카르벤 중가체로 변하였다. 9개의 coumarin 유도체는 DMPO-OH스핀부가 생성물에 해당하는 시그날을 나타내었다. OH^- 라디칼을 소진시키는 NAN_3, EtOH, HCOONa등은 강한 광증감제로 작용하였다. 수화된 전자의 소멸 속도 상수는 N_2O를 첨가했을 때가 K_3Fe(CN)_6를 첨가했을 때보다 크게 나타났다.
This research aims to find the information concerning nutritional status and food intake in Korean diabetic men. Thus, the survey was made on 202 NIDDM patients over 35 age at University Hospital. The data were analysed using F-test and mutiple comparison in SAS package program. Main results were as follows: Incidence of diabetes is high in their forties and fifties. Most of them are salary men, administrators, and proffesionals in middle class, who reside in metropolitan area including Seoul. They used to take light exercise and were founded NIDDM by subjective symptoms. 36.6% of them have other diseases simultaneously such as hypertension, cancer, etc. Food intake pattern prior to incidence was that intake frequency of grains, sugars, protein foods, and liking foods was higher than of proccesed foods. Amounts of calorie intake were shown to be lower than normal persons, so that it seemed to be controlled by doctors. In addition, the calorie ratio derived from fat was lower than RDA. Thus protein and carbohydrate ratio was relatively higher than RDA. Total mean fatty acid intake was 32.15g and it is no significance among weight groups in various fatty acid intakes. With respect to the physical standards of the diabetic men, weight, PIBW, BMI, BMM, TST, arm circumference, and waist/hip ratio were higher than in normal. Therefore it seemed that these factors would be related to the diabetics. From now on, it is reqiured to research the correlations of fatty acid intakes on the diabetes and their influence to serum lipid profiles.
To examin ripening in peach types, cell wall contents and Polygalacturonase activity were compared in Changbang, Daegubo and Yumyung peaches. Among peach types, the hardness of Daegubo was the lowest. Yumyung peach had the highest content of alcohol-insoluble substances and Changbang peach of cell wall. The contents of total and insoluble pectic substances were little different between Changbang and Yumyung peach, while the lowest in Daegubo. Daegubo peach had the highest activity of polygalacturonase, Changbang and Yumyung peach in succession.
A bacterial strain SY-97 that showed algicidal activity against Cochlodinium polykrikoides was isolated from coastal water of Uljin (eastern coast of Korea) in August, 2005. The isolated strain was identified as Brachybacterium sp. by morphological and biological tests, and analysis of 16S rDNA sequence. The optimal culture conditions for the growth of strain SY-97 were 30℃, initial pH 7.0, and salinity 2.0%. From the result of cell culture insert experiment, Brachybacterium sp. SY-97 is assumed to produce secondary metabolites which have algicidal activity. When 10% culture filtrate of this strain was applied to C. polykrikoides (1.2 × 104 cells/㎖) cultures, 100% of C. polykrikoides cells was destroyed within 15 hours. The released algicides were heat-tolerant to 100℃ and stable in pH 6.0～10.0. These results suggest that Brachybacterium sp. SY-97 is potentially useful for controlling outbreaks of C. polykrikoides.
To investigate correlation between the distribution of marine bacteria and environmental characteristics in the surface sediments of Kamak Bay, chemical oxygen demand(COD), acid volatile sulfide(AVS), ignition loss(IL), total organic carbon(TOC), and total organic nitrogen(TON) were measured and analyzed at 7 stations in winter and summer. In winter, COD and AVS ranged from 13.45 mg/g to 30.06 mg/g(average: 23.58 mg/g) and from 0.03 mg/g to 1.04 mg/g(average: 0.63 mg/g), respectively. IL, TOC, and TON ranged from 8.03% to 11.41%(average: 9.41%), from 1.17% to 2.10%(average: 1.62%), and from 0.09% to 0.18%(average 0.15%), respectively. In summer, COD, AVS, IL, TOC, and TON ranged from 14.06 mg/g to 32.19 mg/g(average: 24.71 mg/g), from 0.03 mg/g to 1.11 mg/g(average: 0.66 mg/g), from 9.00% to 12.15%(average: 10.96%), from 1.27% to 2.12%(average 1.77%), and from 0.12% to 0.19%(average: 0.16%), respectively. These values were relatively higher than those in winter. Kamak Bay had high C/N ratio that might be resulted from the input of terrestrial sewage and industrial wastewater. The number of marine viable bacteria was 8.9 × 104 cfu/g in winter and 9.7 × 105 cfu/g in summer. The most abundant species were Pseudomonas spp., Flavobacterium spp., and Vibrio spp. in the surface sediments of Kamak Bay. It was found that the concentration of organic matters and viable bacterial cells in the inner part were relatively higher than those in the outer of Kamak Bay. The distribution of viable bacterial cells was closely influenced by environmental factors.
The aerobic photosynthetic bacterium, which produces bacterial carotenoids was isolated and identified from coastal marine environments. This bacterium was identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and designated as Erythrobacter longus SY-46. E. longus SY-46 was Gram negative and rod shape, and the optimal culture conditions were 25℃, pH 7.0, and 3.0% NaCl concentration, respectively. The carbon and nitrogen sources required for the optimal growth were lactose and tryptone, respectively. Fatty acid compositions of E. longus SY-46 were C18:1(78.32%), ν-linolenic acid(C18:3n9.12.15c: 3.83%), margaric acid(C17:0: 3.38%), palmitic acid(C16:0: 3.07%), and docosahexaenoic acid(C22:6n3: 2.21%). In addition, E. longus SY-46 showed the characteristic absorption peaks of bacterial carotenoids(in the region of 450 to 480 nm) and bacteriochlorophyll(770 to 772 nm). Major carotenoids of E. longus SY-46 were polyhydroxylated xanthophylls such as fucoxanthin and zeaxanthin.
본 연구에서는 참다래 식초 개발을 위하여 초산발효 조건 및 올리고당 첨가에 따른 품질 특성을 조사하였다. 그 결과 초기알코올 농도 6%, 초기산도 1%에서 7일 동안 발효시켰을 때 총산이 가장 높게 나타났다. 올리고당 첨가에 따른 영향에서 총산은 올리고당 15% 첨가구에서 5.03%로 가장 높게 나타내었다. 참다래 식초의 유리당은 fructose, glucose 및 maltose가 확인되었으며 총 유리당은 올리고당 첨가량이 많을수록 높게 나타났다