효과적인 물환경관리계획을 수립하기 위해서는 다양한 기원의 유기물이 난분해성 유기물 농도 증가에 영향을 줄 수 있는지 여부를 파악하는 것이 중요하다. 특히 상당량의 광합성 산물은 식물플랑크톤에 의해 매일 생성되고 있지만, 이들이 수계 내 난분해성 유기물에 기여하는지에 대한 정보는 부족하다. 본 연구에서는 13C 및 15N 추적자 첨가 실험을 통해 조류기원 유기물이 생분해 (60일, 암배양) 및 산화제 (과망간산칼륨) 처리 후 분해되지 않고 잔존하는지 여부를 확인하였다. 생분해 실험 결과 광합성을 통해 생성된 총 유기탄소 (TO13C), 입자성 유기탄소 (PO13C), 입자성 질소 (P15N)는 각각 26%, 20%, 17%가 비 생분해성 유기물로 잔존하였다. 또한 상당량의 PO13C가 과망간산칼륨에 의해 산화되지 않고 잔존하였다 (초기: 12%, 60일 암배양 후: 38%). 이는 미생물에 의해 사용된 후 남아있는 조류 기원 유기물이 난분해성 유기물에 기여할 수 있음을 의미 한다. 또한 미생물에 의해 변형된 조류기원 유기물의 양은 COD 산화율 및 유기물 지표 간 격차에 영향을 줄 것으로 사료된다.
This study was conducted to screen for superior strains for preparation of Cheonggukjang and identify the optimal fermentation time based on fermentation of lentils by various Bacillus subtilis strains. Bacillus count was significantly high at 48 hrs of fermentation (9.22-9.51 log CFU/g). In addition, the pH was significantly high in the range of 7.60-7.92 at 48 hrs fermentation, and the reducing sugar content was significantly high (0.89-1.45). The amino-type nitrogen content and ammonia-type nitrogen content were significantly increased with fermentation time. Additionally, the amylase activity was significantly high (3.05-4.22) at 48 hrs of fermentation, as was the protease activity (4.80-5.63). Bacillus subtilis S3 (5.63), S4 (5.60) were higher than S1 (4.80), S2 (4.92). The viscous substances and DPPH radical scavenging activity increased at 48 hrs, then decreased. Sensory evaluation revealed that lentil Cheonggukjang fermented by S3 showed the highest scores in color, smell, savory taste, sweet taste, viscous substance and overall acceptability. Therefore, 48 hrs of fermentation should be suitable for lentil Cheonggukjang fermented by Bacillus subtilis S3.
This study was conducted to examine the effects of local food value perception on purchasing and experience inconsumers. χ2-test, ANOVA, and linear regression analysis were conducted. The findings are summarized as follows: Themost common place for buying agricultural products was ‘hypermarkets’ (41.7%), and the most important factor forpurchasing local food was ‘local government’s certification products’ (23.7%). The most important value recognition itemfor local food was ‘I think that local food is a high-quality agricultural products.’ (3.74 points), followed by ‘I think that localfood have a value of respect for customers’ (3.61 points) and ‘I have a faith for the local food.’ (3.61 points) in that order.The main tourism experience activity was ‘food experience’ (49.0%), and information source of local food experiencetourism was ‘mass media (TV, newspapers, etc.)’ (37.3%). As age increased, experience of local food also increased. Themost effectual value recognition item for purchasing local food was ‘I think that local food have a value of respect forcustomers’. The most effectual value recognition item for increasing intake experience of local food was ‘I think that the localfood is high-quality agricultural products’.
This study was conducted to analyze the differences in consumer behavior of coffee product according to monthly income in franchised coffee shop's consumer in Korea. A total of 293 questionnaires were used out of the 330 that had been distributed for analysis; those that lacked reliability were excluded. Frequency, ANOVA, and Duncan's multiple range test was conducted to analyze the hypotheses of the study. The findings are summarized as follows. There were significant differences in consumer behavior with regard to seeking health, eco-friendly products, product brand, and product taste as well as preferred coffee menu and coffee consumption expenditures. High income consumers rather than low income groups showed much higher score for concerning health, concerning diet, concerning calorie, concerning instant, concerning caffeine and concerning nature, organic in coffee consumer behavior. In amount spent on purchasing coffee products according to income, low income consumers rather than high income groups had much higher financial expense burden.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a set of 16 nutrition education lessons on the eating behaviors and nutrition knowledge of middle school students. The target was a group of 128 boys in the first year of middle school in Changwon, who took the classes from the 29th of August, 2011, to the 17th of February, 2012. The education was performed for 16 weeks using the e-learning textbook, 'Health and nutrition of youth', and a teacher's guidebook developed by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. The results were summarized as follows. Students demonstrated significant changes in their knowledge about nutrition and in their dietary behavior due to the nutrition education, and the effects were observed to be maintained for one year after education. The average nutrition knowledge score before, immediately after, and 1 year after the education was significantly increased from 13.0 before the education to 18.8 after education (p＜0.001), maintaining the score of 18.5 1 year later. The eating-related questions of 'I will practice healthy eating habits in life' and 'Nutrition education is necessary to build healthy eating habits', were given a high score by the students at the last survey conducted one year later. Of course, it is not easy to change the dietary behavior of students through dietary education in schools. Nevertheless, the results of this study demonstrated that such educatcan is necessary since the habits can indeed be changed, as observed in the present study.
수심이 얕고 부영양화 특성이 강한 신구저수지에서는 강우시기에 집중 호우등으로 인하여 유입수로를 통하여 외부기원 유기물이 유입되는 경향이 있다. 이러한 외부기원 유기물은 환경변화(탁도, 수온약층, POC/PN), 입자성 유기물의 δ13C 및 δ15N 값으로 특성 지어진다. 동물플랑크톤의 경우, 강우기 이전에는 내부기원 유기물을 먹이원으로 하는 것으로 여겨지나 강우기 이후에는 내부기원 유기물 이외에 외부에서 유입된 외부기원 유기물을 섭식하고 있는 것으로 나타나고 있다. 특히 B. longirostris이 다른 동물플랑크톤 (D. brachyurum, D. thmoasi)에 비하여 기원이 다른 입자성 유기물을 섭식하고 있음을 시사하고 있다. 이러한 변화는 상위섭식자인 어류의 먹이원 변화를 야기하며, Z. platupus은 내부기원유기물 혹은 이를 먹이원으로 하는 하위 소비자를 섭식하지만, C. carpio와 P. parva은 강우기 이후에는 외부기원 유기물 혹은 이를 먹이원으로 하는 하위 소비자를 섭식하는 것으로 여겨진다. 수심이 얕고 유입 수로가 존재하는 농업용 저수지의 경우에는 강우 후 외부기원 유기물이 수생태계 에너지 흐름에 크게 영향을 주는 것으로 사료된다.
This paper studied why middle-aged group is using active wear as casual wear. First, we can think of 'comfort', 'ideal body shape', 'trend', 'functionality', 'economy' for the reasons. We categorized the incentives as 'comfort/functionality pursuits', 'trend/economy pursuits', and 'ideal body shape pursuits'. Studies showed that statistically significant number of men pursue comfort and functionality, and statically significant number of women pursue trend and economy. Second, this study shows that the number of consumers who use the active wear in daily lives is greater than that of those who use it only for outdoor activities. The difference was statistically significant in T-shirts and pants. The most frequent usage was in social activities, and the next frequent usage was in cultural activities. The reason is that currently, middle-aged consumers are actively participating in social gatherings than any other activities. Especially, considering that the men wear active wear more than the women do, development of the product as men's casual wear that is compatible with other apparels will be necessary. We expect this study will be used as the preliminary data for a marketing strategy targeting the middle-ages.
본 연구는 영산강하구역 입자물질 유입원의 시∙공간 적인 변화를 추정해 보고자 몽탄대교에서 영산강 하구둑 에 이르는 영산강하구역 세 정점에서 연 6회에 걸쳐 수 층 부유 물질의 탄소 및 질소 안정동위원소 비를 비교하 였다. 모든 정점에서 8월에 강우를 통한 외부기원 유기물 의 유입이 증가하였으며, 이 때 암모니아성 질소 및 규산 염의 유입 역시 함께 증가하였다. 탄소 안정동위원소 비 측정 결과 11월과 8월에 정점 별 유기물의 기원이 크게 차이 났으며, 안정동위원소 비 값을 이용하여 주요 유입 원 추정이 가능하였다. 11월에 모든 정점에서 질소 안정 동위원소 비가 무거운 값을 보였고, 인산염의 농도가 가 장 높게 나타났는데 이는 축산폐수 및 농경지를 통한 유 입이 영향을 준 것으로 판단된다. 또한 다른 정점에 비해 영산강 하구둑에서 모든 조사 기간 동안 비교적 높은 질 소 안정동위원소 비를 보였으며, 이를 통해 축산폐수 및 농경지를 통한 유기물 유입이 다른 정점에 비해 높을 것 으로 추정된다. 본 연구 결과를 통해 안정동위원소 비 분 석은 입자성유기물의 기원을 추정하는데 유용한 방법임 을 확인할 수 있었다.
본 연구는 탄소 및 질소 안정동위원소비를 이용하여 하천에서 환경변화의 지표로 활용할 수 있는 부착조류의 먹이원으로서 기여도를 파악하고자 하였다. 연구지역인 탐진강은 지류를 통해 유입되는 외래기원물질의 영향으 로 상류에서 하류로 갈수록 높은 영양염의 농도를 나타 냈으며 이와 더불어 상위섭식자인 어류의 질소 안정동위 원소비의 증가가 관찰되었다. 또한 탐진강에서 채집된 저 서성대형무척추동물과 어류의 δ13C 값이 상류에서 하류 로 이동하면서 무거워지는 경향을 나타내었다. 이는 탐진 강 하류 수역에서 무거운 δ13C 값을 보였던 암석 부착조 류가 먹이원으로서의 기여도가 높아진 결과로 판단된다.
섬진강 하구역의 계절별 일차생산력의 변화는 하계 8월 에 가장 높은 일차생산력을 보이고 있으며, 수온과 광 조 건이 향상되고 주변 육지로부터 유입되는 영양염의 영향 으로 높은 결과를 보이고 있다. 특히 섬진강 하구역의 상 류정점들은 육상기원 영양염의 유입이 다른 정점들에 비 해 활발하게 이루어 짐으로 더 높은 생산력을 보이고 있다. 식물플랑크톤 색소 조성 결과 diatoms의 지표색소인 Fucoxanthin이 조사시기와 정점에 상관없이 높은 농도 를 나타냈다. 이는 현미경 종 동정 결과와 일치함을 보이 고 있으며 일차생산력과 보조색소 분석 결과 그리고 종 동정 결과를 비교하여 볼 때 규조류 (Skeletonema costatum) 가 일차생산력에 가장 크게 기여하는 것으로 사료 된다. 본 연구를 통해 자연형 하구인 섬진강에서 시 공간적 일차생산력 변동을 확인할 수 있었으며 또한 식물플랑크 톤의 대략적인 군집구조와 일차생산력 계절 변동을 평가 할 수 있었다. 이러한 연구결과는 향후 섬진강 하구 내 생태 모니터링에 대한 기초자료로 활용될 수 있을 것으 로 판단되며 수계 내 건강성 평가 및 수질관리를 위한 연구에 유용한 자료로 활용될 것으로 사료된다.
This study was conducted to examine the effects of a healthy dietary life and purchase of environmental-friendly food materials according to a mother's lifestyles of health and sustainability (LOHAS) attitudes. The subjects consisted of 295 mothers. The findings are summarized as follows. The mother's LOHAS attitude index averaged 3.39 points out of 5 points. High LOHAS attitude items were "I participate actively in separating the trash collection" (4.16 points), and "I recycle dresses that I do not wear by taking them to the recycling center" (4.08 points). In contrast, LOHAS attitude items for "I do community service activity on the weekend" (2.57 points), and "I try to serve in the local community" (2.63 points) scored very low. A high LOHAS behavior index occurred for mothers who were "resource saving", whereas "social welfare" scored low. Mother's intention to purchase environmental-friendly food materials averaged 3.61 points. Mother's health dietary life attitude score averaged 3.52 points. When age, monthly income, and the environmental-friendly food materials purchase ratio of the mother was high, the health dietary life performance was high. The LOHAS attitude index of mothers had an impact on the purchase intention of environmental-friendly food materials in resource saving and environmental-friendly oriented propensity groups. The LOHAS attitude index of mothers impacted healthy dietary life in environmental-friendly, family and health oriented propensity groups.
This study was conducted to examine the effect of globalization of Korean food according to well-being value perception and the foreign visitor Korean food experience. An analysis of variance and a linear regression analysis were conducted to analyze the hypotheses. The findings are summarized as follows: (1) The most important quality when eating Korean food was "taste" (37.3%). (2) The most important well-being value recognition items for Korean food were "kimchi" and "bulgogi". "Bibimbap is well-being food" (3.82 points) and "Korean food is healthy because it consists mainly of cereals and vegetables" (3.56 points). (3) The subjects highly recognized the "improvement in service quality of Korean restaurants" (3.59 points) with regard to the importance of a globalization strategy for Korean food. (4) High-intake Korean foods were "bibimbap", "baechookimchi", "galbigui", "pajeon", and "bulgogi", in that order. In contrast, the intake frequency for "songpeon", "sikhei", and "guksu" was very low. (5) The subjects thought that the globalization possibility for Korean food was high, as foreigners ingested a lot of baechookimchi. (6) The most effective well-being value recognition item for globalizing Korean food was "Korean food is nutritious and good for the health" followed by "I have much interest in Korean well-being food". and "Korean food is a well-being food because it contains many fermented and seasonal items", in that order. (7) The most effective food for globalizing Korean food with a high-intake frequency was "baechookimchi", followed by "galbigui", "guksu", and "bibimbap".
This study examines the impact of the perception that employees of contract foodservice management companies have of internal marketing on service quality. Questionnaires were delivered to 291 employees employed in foodservice management companies. High perception item of internal marketing was 'value of formula education program' (3.36 points), whereas 'adequate allowance disbursement' (2.62 points) and 'various vacation benefits' (2.66 points) scored low. High service quality items for customers were 'kindness to customers' (3.89 points) and 'willingness to help customers' (3.89 points), whereas 'comprehension of customers' special requests' (3.63 point) and ['meeting customer expectations'] (3.64 points) scored low. The internal marketing conceived by employees of contract foodservice management companies has a positive influence on service quality. The most influential internal marketing variable to affect service quality was 'communication' followed by 'education/environment' and 'fringe benefits/[decisive] delegation'.
The principal objective of this study was to determine how the internal marketing of the contract foodservice management company affects job satisfaction and organization immersion, as well as the influence of the satisfaction of internal customers (employees) has on job satisfaction and organization immersion, and the function as a preceding variable that improves service quality. T-test, ANOVA, and linear regression analysis was conducted to analyze the hypotheses of the study. The summary of study as per the result of this corroborative study is presented as follows: It was verified that internal marketing affects organizational immersion and the job satisfaction of employees, and job satisfaction plays a crucial role in organizational immersion. Moreover, it was also confirmed that the higher the internal marketing is, the higher the job satisfaction and organization immersion will be, thereby improving the service quality provided by employees. If enterprise regards employees as internal customers and constantly and efficiently conducts internal marketing activities such as internal communication, training, welfare, compensation, delegation of power, supporting the management, etc, the organizational immersion and job satisfaction of employees will be heightened, thereby enhancing loyalty and pride in the organization to provide services with better quality.
The purpose of this study is to provide useful information for establishing efficient marketing direction of globalization and commercialization of Korean foods by investigating the performance(satisfaction) and importance of food-coordinators' role. The results of the survey are summarized as follows: The most influential improvement variable of Korean food for globalization was 'hygiene'(23.6%) followed by 'taste', 'price', and 'shape and color'. Interest degree about food-coordinators showed 3.68 points in 5 points, and necessity of food-coordinators' job and education was 4.15 points. Food-coordinators' quality for globalization of Korean food was "a skill should be excellent"(4.51 points), "it must be original troubleshooting ability."(4.43 points) and "It must be professional ethics consciousness."(3.99 points) in the order. They were highly important of "freshness of food"(4.75 points) and "cleanliness of food and tableware" (4.65 points) in terms of the quality of korean food for globalization. The role importance of food-coordinators for globalization of Korean food was 'ability of development of Korean dish and Korean menu'(4.22 points), 'coordinate ability for various Korean special diet'(4.14 points) and 'knowledge for wann welcome service that consider table manners, service method and other person(4.12 points) in the order. The most influential unsatisfied variable of food coordinators' role was 'consulting ability connected with management of Korean restaurant' followed by 'ability of presenting concept connected with restaurant development of Korean style' and 'production ability for banquet party plan and representation in a Korean style'. In terms of IPA analysis on food-coordinators' role for globalization of korean food, it was noteworthy that items with high importance but low performance included "ability of development of Korean dish and Korean menu", "event coordinate ability connected with a Korean-style dish", and "production ability for banquet party plan and representation in a Korean style".