Barley’s nutritional value as a health food is increasing due to its excellent nutritional functionality. In this study, the levels of β-glucan, total polyphenols, and total flavonoids were analyzed in the ethanol extracts of different barley cultivars (Hinchalssal, Heuksoojeongchal, Betaone, Ganghochung, and Saechalssal). Also, the free radical scavenging abilities of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) and 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzo-thiaxoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) were measured to determine their antioxidant activity. The results confirmed that Betaone extract contained highly activefunctional components and exhibitedantioxidant activity. Next, we evaluated the hepatoprotective and inhibitory effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by barley ethanol extracts after inducing oxidative stress with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) in HepG2 cells. Hinchalssal and Saechalssal extracts showed the most significant cytoprotective effect and also reduced ROS production significantly. These results suggest that Hinchalssal, Saechalssal, and Betaone represent potential natural antioxidant and hepatoprotective agents.
This study was conducted to investigate the intake status of beverages and water in Korean adults using data from the 8th National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The ‘total water’ intake was 2,250.6 g for men and 1,871.2 g for women. Men and women consumed an average of 314.9 g of ‘total beverages’, of which ‘coffee’ was the largest at 107.5 g, followed by ‘others’(65.4 g), ‘milk’ (44.8 g), ‘soda’ (44.1 g), ‘teas’ (20.9 g), and ‘fruits and vegetables’ (18.5 g). The intake of ’plain water’ was 1,059.9 g, and the intake of ’water from food’ consumed was 547.3 g. The ‘total water’ intake decreased with increasing age in males and females (p<0.001). Both men and women showed a tendency toward increased ‘total water’ intake as income levels increased. ‘Plain water’ intake accounted for 51.4% of the ‘total water’ intake in males and females. The intake of all nutrients significantly increased from the Q1 group to the Q4 group by quartile ranges of total water intake. The results of this study showed that the intake of healthy water should be considered, and care and educational programs are needed, especially for older people, to ensure adequate water intake.
This study was designed to investigate the intracellular signaling pathways and immunoenhancing effect of macrophage activation by crude polysaccharides (CPP) extracted from citrus peels. CPP did not affect the cytotoxicity of RAW264.7 cells, but showed dose-dependent effects on cell viability. Also, CPP showed high production of chemokine (nitric oxide (NO)) and cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α). CPP increased IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression dose-dependently. CPP also strongly induced the phosphorylation of the ERK, p38, and IκBα pathways in RAW 264.7 cells. In anti-pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) experiments, the effect of CPP on NO production was strongly suppressed by neutralizing toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4, and Dectin1 antibodies, whereas IL-6 and TNF-α production by CPP was mainly suppressed by mannose receptor (MR). Therefore, these results suggest that CPP treatment-induced NO production was regulated by the ERK, p38, and NF-κB pathways through TLR2, TLR4, and Dectin1 receptors, whereas IL-6 and TNF-α production was primarily regulated by the ERK, p38, and NF-κB pathways through MR receptors.
This study analyzed the nutritional composition (proximate composition, total dietary fiber, calories, minerals, fatty acids, and amino acids) of 10 noodle products (tteok ramyun, jjamppong ramyun, kimchi ramyun, instant udon, cup ramyun, jajangmyun, bibimmyun, cream spaghetti, ssalguksu, and milmyun), which account for 85% of the cumulative intake of one or more key nutrients, using data from the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The moisture contents of bibimmyun, jajangmyun, and cream spaghetti were lower than those of the other noodle products, whereas the crude fat, crude protein, carbohydrate, and calorie contents were the highest. Cream spaghetti had the highest mineral, fatty acid, and amino acid contents, followed by bibimmyun and jajangmyun. Ssalguksu had the lowest contents of most nutrients. These data could be used to populate a food composition database, which can provide consumers with the nutritional information about frequently consumed noodle products.
The effect of 16 cultivars on the quality of the rice porridge was investigated. The ‘Geunnun’ had the highest water absorption rate, but the ‘Segyejinmi’ yield (w/w) was the highest. The total sugar content of the rice porridge was 0.29~8.10%, showing significant variation among the cultivars. High amylose ‘Dodamssal’ and ‘Hwaseonchalbyeo’ glutinous rice displayed rotational viscosities of <20,000 cP. Rotational viscosities for boiled rice cultivars were 30,000~40,000 cP, representing an intermediate level, and the rotational viscosities of ‘Geonyang2’ and ‘Hanareum4’ were over 50,000 cP. These results suggest that the viscosity of rice porridge varies significantly among raw material cultivars. Among other variables affecting the texture profile of rice porridge, there were significant differences in hardness and gumminess among the cultivars. As a raw material, ‘Baekokchal’, a kind of glutinous rice, is known to be whiter than the non-glutinous rice, but after processing to porridge, it showed the lowest L value (71.1). Starch degrading enzyme activity was not significant in most types of rice porridges within 30 or 60 minutes. Therefore, enzymatic starch degradation is thought to be completed within 30 minutes. Among the tested raw materials, ‘Miho’ was 73.5 μg/mg, indicating the best digestibility in vitro.
In recent years, there has been an increase in the morbidity of gastritis in Korea due to lifestyle factors mostly changes in eating habits and stress. Gastritis is more likely to progress to gastric cancer, and therefore it is important to prevent and manage gastritis through lifestyle adjustment and treatment at an early stage. In this study, cabbage, which was found to be effective in gastritis, was mixed and fermented with other crucifer plants such as kale and broccoli to evaluate the overall efficacy of fermented brassica puree on alcoholic acute gastritis. Based on our results, fermented brassica puree alleviated gastric injury induced by 150 mM HCl/60% ethanol. In addition, it was confirmed that PGE2, a gastric mucosal protective factor, was increased, and other positive effects such as an increase of MUC1 and regulation of PKC were observed. The results of this study suggest that fermented brassica puree can relieve acute alcoholic gastritis by regulating PGE and the expression of MUC1, a gene related to mucus secretion, and activating PKC, which is related to mucosal cell activity.
To utilize Malus pruniforia Borkh. as a functional material, cold-water (CW), hot-water (HW), and 70% ethanol (EtOH) extracts were prepared, and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were compared. The antioxidant activity of the HW extract evaluated by ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP activity was significantly effective. The total polyphenol content of the HW extract was also higher by 15.5±0.7 mg GAE/g extract compared to other extracts. The EtOH extract showed significantly decreased TNF-α (39.8%), IL-6 (65.5%), and NO (34.9%) levels in RAW 264.7 cells compared to the LPS-induced control group. The levels of IL-6 (21.1%) and IL-8 (19.3%) were significantly decreased by treatment of EtOH extract in HaCaT keratinocytes induced with TNF-α and IFN-γ. The UHPLC-MS results indicated that the EtOH extract might have chlorogenic acid and phlorizin as the major compounds. This was validated using HPLC-DAD, which showed that the EtOH extract had higher levels of chlorogenic acid and phlorizin (1,185±58 and 470±10 μg/g extract, respectively). In conclusion, the present study suggested that the anti-inflammatory activity of the EtOH extract was more effective than the CW and HW extracts, and chlorogenic acid and phlorizin could be used as indicator compounds and functional substances.
To investigate the industrial availability of liquid fermentation (PL-ferment) by Phellinus linteus mycelium as a postbiotics for the inhibition of inflammation, PL-ferment was fractionated into culture supernatant (CS), hot-water extract (HW) from PL-ferment, EtOH-precipitate (CP) fractionated from HW, and the dialysate (DCP) of CP. Compared to the other fractions, DCP which is expected to contain exopolysaccharide (EPS) as the major component, significantly decreased the production of NO, IL-6, and MCP-1 in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, and IL-6 and IL-8 in TNF-α and IFN-γ-induced HaCaT cells. The general component analysis results showed that no significant difference in components was observed between the fractions, whereas sugar composition analysis revealed that DCP had decreased glucose and increased mannose contents compared to the other fractions. This suggests that mannose played an important role in the anti-inflammatory activity of the active fraction, DCP. Molecular weight distribution analysis revealed that DCP was mainly composed of low-molecular-weight material-removed high-molecular-weight polysaccharides of 18–638 kDa, suggesting that EPS originated from P. linteus EPS. In conclusion, our results suggest that the DCP of P. linteus mycelium fermentation using the anti-inflammatory activity could be used industrially as postbiotic material.
This study tried to develop Jinmal dasik using pine nuts leaf powder with antibacterial and antioxidant properties. After preparing the Jinmal dasik in proportions of 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% by varying the ratio of pine needle powder, the moisture, color, physical properties, antioxidant properties and sensory quality were measured. Except for the 8% Jinmal dasik, the L value of chromaticity significantly decreased as the amount of pine needle powder increased (p<0.001). In addition, the value significantly decreased with increased density (p<0.001). Based on our physical properties evaluation results, the hardness, cohesiveness, and elasticity decreased significantly as the amount of pine needle powder increased (p<0.001), but adhesion and chewiness increased significantly with an increase in the amount of pine needle powder (p<0.001). Total polyphenol content was significantly increased except for the 8% Jinmal dasik (p<0.001). DPPH and ABTS also increased significantly as the amount of pine needle powder increased (p<0.001). Our sensory evaluation, showed the 2% Jinmal dasik to have the highest degree of preference, however, there was no significant difference among the proportion groups (p=0.053).
This study aimed to investigate the association between interest in beauty care and dietary behaviors of 581 (analysis rate 96.0%) high school girls in Incheon using a survey done in May 2019. Based on the degree of interest in beauty care, subjects were classified as “Beauty care group (n=346)”, and "Non-beauty care group (n=235)”. The mean age of the subjects was 16.5 years old. The beauty care group had significantly lower BMI than the non-beauty care group (p<0.01). The beauty care group showed a significantly higher interest in weight control than the non-beauty care group (p<0.001). The most time-consuming preschool morning activity in the beauty care group was beauty care, while that of the non-beauty care group was eating breakfast (p<0.001). The beauty care group had significantly higher frequency of exercise than the non-beauty care group (p<0.05). The number of individuals who skipped breakfast was significantly higher in the beauty care group. In addition, the beauty care group had a significantly higher frequency of taking morning snack, convenience food (p<0.01), sweet snacks (p<0.05), and processed beverages (p<0.05) than the non-beauty care group. Our result findings provide important information on the priority groups for nutrition education based on beauty care interest.
In this study, vin chaud were manufactured with eight types of vin chaud-bomb containing different amounts of ingredients, and Campbell Early wine. Samples were analyzed for pH, total acidity, volatile acidity, ethanol content, total polyphenol, and anthocyanins, and radical scavenging activities for antioxidant effect. Based on the results of this study the pH of the samples ranged from 3.34 to 3.41 and the total acidity of wines ranged from 0.55 to 1.00%. The alcohol contents of the vin chaud samples ranged from 3.8~5.8% to and the color intensity of the vin chaud samples was higher than that of the wine. Total polyphenol content was 145.90~262.98 mg% and the tannin content of the C-1 (236.90 mg%) was the highest among the samples. The ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity of the samples were 57.39~75.10% and 63.71~80.00% respectively. α-Glucosidase inhibitory activity ranged from 21.54 to 33.49%, on the other hand, wine was not detected and tyrosinase inhibitory activity had the highest values (39.26%) in the C-1 sample. The findings of the present study provide insightful scientific information on vin chaud, and forms a basis for further innovations in the food and wine industry.
This study was conducted to investigate the anti-obesity effect of Discorea Japonica Thunb. fermented with Monascus After inducing obesity by feeding hight fat diet (diet induced obesity model: DIO) for four weeks, each 8 rats were assigned to normal (Nor), high fat diet (HF), high fat diet containing orlistat (PC), high fat diet containing different concentration of Discorea Japonica Thunb. fermented with Monascus (UPDM_L, UPDM_H) and Discorea Japonica Thunb. (UPD) extract. Although the UPD, UPDM_L (ultrafine pulverized Discorea Japonica Thunb. fermented with Monascus: 400 mg/kg) and UPDM_H (DIO oral administration ultrafine pulverized Discorea Japonica Thunb. fermented with Monascus: 800 mg/kg) showed weight gain inhibition effects, the results of poor obesity inhibition rather than PC were confirmed. However, it showed a more effective weight loss effect in UPDM_H than UPD, and significantly reduced the weight of epididymal fat and subcutaneous fat. Furthermore, the possibility of anti-obesity effects of Discorea Japonica Thunb. fermented with Monascus can be confirmed by observing the effects of reducing serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL concentrations, reducing ALT and AST levels, and inhibiting fat build-up in liver tissue. It is believed that Discorea Japonica Thunb. fermented with Monascus can be expected to utilize as a functional material that is important to improve anti-obesity and metabolic syndrome.
In this study, antioxidative activities of Jeolpyun containing Smilacis chinae R. extract powder (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%) were evaluated using total polyphenol contents, electron donating ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and decomposing ability of hydrogen peroxide. In chromaticity analysis, the brightness significantly decreased with increasing Smilacis chinae R. extract powder content. Jeolpyun containing 6% Smilacis chinae R. extract powder revealed the highest value (9.67±0.603) for the redness and 2% Smilacis chinae R. extract powder was the highest value (14.20±0.917) for the yellowness. Total polyphenol contents of Jeolpyun containing 8% Smilacis chinae R. extract powder were the highest content of 17,320±390.38 μg gallic acid equivalent/mL (GAE/mL). Total polyphenol contents were significant relation at p<0.05. Electron donating ability for Jeolpyun containing 8% Smilacis chinae R. extract powder revealed the highest electron donating ability (74.24±0.827%). Electron donating abilities revealed significant difference (p<0.05). Jeolpyun containing 6% Smilacis chinae R. extract powder revealed the most hydrogen peroxide decomposing ability (－3.38±1.44) and hydrogen peroxide decomposing ability revealed significant difference (p<0.05).
HAE-06 extract is a mixture of four medicinal plants, namely Lonicerae Folium et Caulis (Lonicera japonica), Scutellariae Radix (Scutellaria baicalensis), Adenophorae Radix (Adenophora triphylla var. japonica), and Polygonati Oddorati Rhizoma (Polygonatum odoratum var. pluriflorum). The HAE-06 extract demonstrated a concentration-dependent relaxing effect and enhanced cAMP production in bronchial smooth muscle that had been stimulated to contract with acetylcholine. Using a blocker, it was confirmed that the effect was through the β2-adrenergic receptor/cAMP/PKA pathway. In addition, it is thought that the HAE-06 extract has a bronchial smooth muscle relaxation effect by reducing the inflow of Ca2+ through the K+ and Ca2+ channels present in the sarcoplasmic membrane. If research continues in the future, it is believed that it will be possible to use it as a material for pharmaceuticals and functional foods.
The aim of study to investigate the phytochemicals and biological activities the bark of Betula schmidtii. The studies consisted of the solvent extraction, followed by the isolation of phenolic components 1~3 from ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of Betula schmidtii Bark. Their chemical structures were identified as arbutin (1), ρ-coumaric acid (2) and ferulic acid (3) using Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Spectrophotometer, Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) (negative ion mode), 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR, 1H-1H Correlation Spectroscopy (COSY) and 1H-13C Hetero Nuclear Multiple Quantum Correlation (HMQC) spectral data. Compounds 1~3 shows the anti-oxidant effect with IC50 values of 29.74±1.52, 21.32±1.07 and 34.41±1.24 in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, respectively. Also, compounds 1~3 exhibited mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 31.14±1.07, 42.54±1.46 and 69.22±1.43 μM, respectively.