This study evaluated the antioxidant activity and quality characteristics of rice cookie with added butterbur powder in a ratio of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% to confirm the possibility of butterbur as a functional food. The moisture content, spread factor, leavening rate, and hardness of rice cookies increased with an increase in the amount of butterbur powder; whereas a decrease in the pH and baking loss rate was observed. The L and b values d ec reased as the amount of butterbur powder increased, but the value was the lowest when 5% of butterbur powder was added. The sensory liking score showed the highest preference for 10% butterbur powder regarding appearance, flavor, taste, texture, and overall preference. In the principal component analysis (PCA), the addition of 10% butterbur powder positively affected the measure of food acceptance in terms of organoleptic properties of butterbur. Besides, as the amount of added butterbur powder increased, the antioxidant activity of rice cookies increased. Based on these results, it appears that the addition of butterbur powder to rice cookies in a 10% ratio can produce rice cookies with excellent antioxidant activity, overall quality, and high preference.
This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant activities and quality characteristics of jelly added with Orostachys japonicus juice. The moisture content and the soluble solids content of the jelly samples decreased significantly with increasing content of O. japonicus. The pH was highest in the control samples, and the pH significantly decreased with the addition of increasing amounts of O. japonicus. In terms of the chromaticity measurements, the lightness value and redness value was highest in the control sample, and it decreased as the amount of added O. japonicus increased, whereas the yellowness value increased with increasing levels of O. japonicus added. The gumminess and chewiness of the jelly increased with the addition of increasing amounts of O. japonicus. On the other hand, the cohesiveness and adhesiveness of the jelly did not show statistically significant changes. The total polyphenol and DPPH radical scavenging activities of the jelly with 100% O. japonicus added were significantly higher than those of the jelly with 0% O. japonicus added. Regarding the sensory evaluation, the sample with 75% O. japonicus added was perceived to have the best color, flavor, O. japonicus flavor, chewiness, and overall preference.
Myrosinases (thioglucosidases) catalyze the hydrolysis of a class of compounds called glucosinolates, of which the aglycones show various biological functions. It is often necessary to minimize the loss of myrosinase activity during thermal processing of cruciferous vegetables. Myrosinase was isolated from a popular spice, white mustard (Sinapis alba), and its thermal inactivation kinetics was investigated. The enzyme was extracted from white mustard seeds and purified by a sequential processes of ammonium sulfate fractionation, Concanavalin A-Sepharose column chromatography, and gel permeation chromatography. At least three isozymes were revealed by Concanavalin A-Sepharose column chromatography. The purity of the major myrosinase was examined by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and on-gel activity staining with methyl red. The molecular weight of the major enzyme was estimated to be 171 kDa. When the consecutive step model was used for the thermal inactivation of the major myrosinase, its inactivation energy was 44.388 kJ/mol for the early stage of destruction and 32.019 kJ/mol for the late stage of destruction. When the distinct two enzymes model was used, the inactivation energy was 77.772 kJ/mol for the labile enzyme and 95.145 kJ/mol for the stable enzyme. The thermal inactivation energies lie within energy range causing nutrient destruction on heating.
After ethanol (BM-E and RW-E) and hot-water (BM-HW and RW-HW) extracts were fractionated from two herbal mixtures (BM and RW), their physiological activities were investigated. All extracts consisted of more than 50% of neutral sugar, with their total polyphenol levels higher than flavonoid levels. Radical scavenging activities of EtOH extracts remained significantly higher compared to that of hot-water extracts, and in particular, RW-E showed consistently higher antioxidant activity than BM-E. When anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts were evaluated by LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at 10~500 μg/mL non-cytotoxicity doses, BM-E showed significantly higher levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and nitric oxide inhibitory activity than those of hot-water extracts and RW-E. Murine peritoneal macrophage cells were shown to be enhanced in crude polysaccharides (BM-CP and RW-CP fractionated from BM-HW and RW-HW) compared to hot-water extracts and polysaccharide K (PSK, positive control). Especially, RW-CP exhibited higher activity than BM-CP, and component sugar analysis showed that BM-CP mainly contained galacturonic acid, glucose, arabinose, galactose, and xylose (34.5%, 33.9%, 16.1%, 7.1%, and 6.3%, respectively), whereas RW-CP showed different measurements (29.5%, 59.2%, 5.0%, 4.5%, and 0.2%). In conclusion, two herbal mixtures could contain varying sets of physiological activities dependent on different extraction and fractionation methods.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the regular selling price and nutrient contents of foods used for special medical purposes in Korea. This study investigated the regular selling price and nutritional composition of 114 enteral nutrition (EN) foods on the manufacturer’s internet homepage. The average price of the total products was 1,156.0 won/100 mL. The price of foods used for calorie and nutrient supplementation (CNS) was significantly higher compared to that of the other EN food types (p<0.01). With respect to the nutritional content per 100 mL of the product, EN foods for CNS had significantly higher contents of energy, protein, 5 minerals, and 7 vitamins than the other EN food types. On comparing the nutritional contents of foods according to the price, the balanced nutrition foods showed significantly higher contents of energy, carbohydrate, protein, 3 minerals, and 7 vitamins in high-priced products than in low-priced foods. Summarizing these results, foods for CNS were approximately twice as expensive as the other EN foods, and the energy, protein, mineral, and vitamin contents were also high. Balanced nutrition foods had higher nutrient contents in high-priced products, which showed the relationship between the product price and nutrient content.
This study investigated the microbial community and quality characteristics of traditional soybean pastes (doenjang) based on the aging period in Gyeongnam province. The samples were collected from seven regions in Gyeongnam Province (Goseong, Hadong, Haman, Hamyang, Sacheon, Sancheong and Uiryeong). Contents of moisture, salinity, pH, and acidity of doenjang after 210 days aging were 56.40~65.21%, 9.05~16.08%, 4.88~6.86 and 0.64~2.14%, respectively. Lightness significantly decreased over the aging period, while the redness tended to increase over the aging period. Yellowness was from 21.39~26.81 to 21.10~28.36. Reducing sugar content was from 0.31~1.45% to 0.11~3.13%. The amino-type content increased from 141.87~495.13 mg/100 g to 328.53~823.67 mg/100 g. In contrast, the ammonia-type content declined from 136.74~364.70 mg/ 100 g to 128.62~331.00 mg/100 g. The overall total microbial count did not significantly differ, but it tended to decrease in sample GD4. Fungus declined overall or was not detected. Coliform groups were not detected in all samples. Lactobacillus and Bacillus cereus tended to decrease over the aging period. The common fungus and bacterium were Aspergillus oryzae and Tetragenococcus halophilus, respectively. After the aging period, the predominant fungi were Candida versatilis, Candida apicola, and Debaryomyces hansenii. The predominant bacteria were Tetragenococcus halophilus and Cronobacter sakazakii.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic data of Cirsium setidens Nakai fine powder (FPC), which will then be used in the development of functional fooditems. We measures and evaluated the level of pectolinarin content, phenol content, flavonoids content, antioxidants and anti-obesity properties of FPC. Our results from the study showed that the pectolinarin, phenol, and flavonoids contents of FPC measured at 10.95±0.15 mg/g, 12.92±0.18 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 26.47±0.77 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g, respectively. The exhibited antioxidant activity of FPC increased significantly depending on the dosage, and additionally. FPC did not show any cytotoxicity up to the dosage level of 500 μg/mL. During adipocyte differentiation, FPC significantly inhibited ROS production and lipid accumulation, compared with the control substance. These results suggest that FPC could be considered a promising resource of natural antioxidants and could serve a variety of health-improving roles in the production of functional food ingredients.
This study was conducted in order to investigate the quality characteristics of MBA wine resulting from treatment with different oak barrel maturation methods. This study focused on the maturation of wine in five different types of barrels, including a stainless-steel maturation barrel, a foreign medium-toasted oak barrel, and domestic light, medium and heavy toasted oak barrels, and looked at the resulting differences in quality characteristics between the wines. All oak barrels used for this study had a capacity of 100 liters. The results of the study revealed that the pH content increased by up to 3.86~3.93% after 9 months, and then decreased after this point. The total anthocyanin content increased up to 152.52~174.95 mg/L during a 6 month maturation period, and thereafter began decreasing in concentration, with overall anthocyanin levels tending to be higher after maturation in foreign oak barrels. Overall, functional elements tended to measure higher after maturation in foreign oak barrels as opposed to maturation in domestic oak barrels. Therefore, these results indicate that it is necessary to improve the production of domestic oak barrels in the future in order to reliably produce wines with higher levels of functional elements.
This study compared the lifestyle patterns, dietary patterns, and health care practices of Korean middle-aged people by household type, and ultimately analyzed their relationship with different risk factors for the prevalence and severity of metabolic syndrome. We analyzed the data from 4,755 subjects who were from 40 to 64 years old, and gathered our sample from participants of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2013 to 2015. Our results showed that single-person households had lower economic income levels, lower subjective health statuses, and higher levels of food instability than households with two or more individuals. The incidence of metabolic syndrome was 1.64 times higher in single-person households than in households with two or more individuals. After adjusting for potential confounding factors (sex, age, education, household income, smoking status, health status, and dietary factors), single-person households showed 1.75 times higher hypertriglyceridemia ORs than non-single-person households. In the conclusion of our study, we suggest that middle-aged people in single-person households may be at greater risk for metabolic syndrome and hypertriglyceridemia.
The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in the quality of dietary and life across age groups of Korean adults. According to life cycle, four age groups (20~29, 30~49, 50~64, ≥65) were created. Anthropometric indices showed significant differences according to age group (p<0.001). Energy intake significantly decreased according to age group as a result of decreased protein and fat intake (p<0.001). The intake levels of minerals, vitamins, and dietary fiber per 1,000 kcal were the lowest in the 20~29 age group (p<0.001). Whereas saturated fatty acids, MUFA, and PUFA intake levels were the highest for those in the 20~29 age group (p<0.001). The quality of dietary (DQI-I) increased with age group, but the quality of life (EQ-5D index) decreased (p<0.001). The quality of dietary showed 5.8% explanation power on the quality of life (p<0.001). Additionally, diet moderation was shown as having a negative effect, but the diversity and balance of diets had a positive effect on the quality of life. By age group, the relationship between quality of dietary and quality of life was the highest in ≥65 age group. These results suggest that practical dietary education is needed from the 20’s to ensure the quality of healthy life for the elderly.
This study was investigated the contents of total polyphenol, flavonoids and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Codonopsis lanceolata extracts according to different steaming times. The contents of total polyphenol and flavonoid proportionally increased from 6.45 mgGAE/g to 18.26 mgGAE/g and 2.01 mgRE/g to 6.12 mgRE/g according to ethanol extracts at EDS7. DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to have been 15.26~65.2% and showed the highest level of antioxidant activity at EDS7 was 65.2%. The activity of ABTS radical scavenging and SOD-like activity were also the same result. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity was related to the number of steaming, and the scavenging activity was increased up to 7 times of steaming. The antimicrobial activity of EDS7 had strong antioxidant activity. Antimicrobial activities were examined against 5 microorganisms related to pathogens and food poisoning. The antimicrobial Activity was different depending on the bacteria, but it was effective at the concentration of 300 mg/mL rather than 150 mg/mL. These results showed that Codonopsis lanceolata extracts with a different number of steaming would be conducted to confirm the possibility of developing antimicrobial and antioxidant. It will be helpful in the study of component analysis of Codonopsis lanceolata extracts processed products.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate of black carrot on the antioxidant activity and quality characteristics of Sulgidduk. Sulgidduk was prepared with different amounts (0, 1, 2, 3, 4%) of black carrot. As the amount of added black carrot increased, the moisture content (p<0.05) and pH were decreased (p<0.001). Sugar content results showed the increase with the addition of black carrot (p<0.01). L (lightness) values and b (yellowness) values decreased whereas a (redness) values increased with an increased concentration of black carrot powder (p<0.001). The mechanical texture of Sulgidduk was decreased by the addition of black carrot considering hardness, chewiness and gumminess (p<0.001) while those of springiness, cohesiveness increased. Consumer acceptability test revealed that the 2% black carrot groups had a higher score than the other groups in respect to color, flavor, taste, texture, overall palatability. To examine antioxidant activities of Sulgidduk, total phenolic, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and total anthocyanin were tested. Total phenolic, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and total anthocyanin showed good vitality as amounts of black carrot powder increased (p<0.001). Based on the various aspects of results, 2% of black carrot added into Sulgidduk showed the best functionality and sensory qualities.
This study investigated the current status of foodservice management and the importance and performance of foodservice management according to the level of knowledge of workers. A survey was conducted between February 2015 and March 2015 for 329 foodservice workers at Community Child Centers in Chungbuk Area. Of these respondents, the majority (78.4%) of them were females. Most of them were in their 40s (40.4%) or 50s (33.4%). If the respondent's correct answer rate of knowledge was 0~50% or 51~100%, the respondent was classified into a ‘Low Group (LG, n=175)’ or a ‘High Group (HG, n=154)’. Among a total of 14 foodservice management questions, 6 items (personal hygiene: 1 item; food material: 2 items; and food processing: 3 items) had relatively higher performance scores for workers in HG than for workers in LG. As a result of Importance-Performance analysis, ‘Use different knives and cutting boards for fish, meat, and vegetables’ was a variable of high importance but low performance. It was found that improvement was most urgently needed. Results of this study can be used to derive important items for improving foodservice management and policy development for foodservice workers at Community Child Centers.
The purpose of this study is to measure the levels of eluted and dissolved CO2, and CO, volatile organic substances and radiation composition of Cheongsong mineral water which were collected from November 2019 to July 2020 during the autumn, spring, and summer seasons at collection points located in the upper, middle and lower spring waters. Data of the upper, middle and lower spring waters include the following: the amount of eluted water (average value±standard deviation, mL/min) was 30.07±0.52, 15.03±0.16, 23.73±0.42, and the amount of CO2 gas was 1,000 ppm or more. In addition, there was no detection of CO or total volatile organic substances (TVOC) and the radiation dose was 0.08 to 0.13. μSv/h. A blank test value of 0.08 to 0.10 μSv/h, when compared with the median value, showed a high value of 0.02 μSv/h, and the uranium test results provided by the Cheongsong-gun Office were 0.0118 mg/L (date 2019.06.18) and 0.0091 mg/L (date 2020.06.04.) respectively, which was less than the permission limit of 0.03 mg/L. However, it is believed that further research using more precise devices is needed in order to guarantee the safety and health of the water.