This study compares and analyzes inorganic components of four different Pu-erh tea species consumed in Korea. The criteria for the inorganic components was based on the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) recommendations. Out of the 19 general items: potassium, manganese, silicon and fluorine were detected in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable concentration by 5~23, 57~91, 1.6~1.8 and 9~18 times respectively. Out of the 15 potentially harmful elements: aluminum and nickel were exceeded the Maximum allowable concentration by 9~14 times and 0.8~1.2 times respectively. To reduce the concentration of inorganic elements in excess of the maximum allowable concentration, the extraction time of tea should be less than 1 minute in addition to limiting the amount. The amount of Pu-erh tea for extraction was about 0.1 g manganese, about 0.3 g potassium, about 0.5 g fluoride and about 2 g silicon. Therefore, the maximum amount of tea for extraction should be 0.1 g in regards to the safety of Pu-erh tea. Based on the recommended maximum daily intake of inorganic ingredients by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, it is desirable that the number of extractions be less than three.
This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of processed (Beopje) curly dock (Rumex crispus L.) in LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 cells. The experimental group was classified into five groups : LPS no treatment, CD (curly dock), CD-B (CD processed through Beopje), LPS, LPS+CD-B (LPS+CD processed through Beopje) and LPS+CD (LPS+CD). Treatment of the Raw 264.7 cell lines using LPS led to a significant increase in NO production, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β), and inflammation related genes (COX-2 and iNOS). Investigation of the inhibitory effects of CD and processed CD on NO production and expression of iNOS and COX-2 was done in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. There was significant inhibition of NO production by LPS+CD and LPS+CD-B in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). Particularly, LPS+CD-B exhibited reduced mRNA expression of iNOS and COX-2 and NO production as compared to LPS+CD in Raw 264.7 cell lines (p<0.05). These results may explain some known biological activities of curly dock including the anti-inflammatory effects. CD-B in particular exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory effects of inhibiting production of NO, through the regulation of inflammatory related genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results of Beopje processing might help decrease the anti-biological effects and increase several active substances of curly dock
The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of the polysaccharide (GLP) obtained from the liquid cultured Ganoderma lucidum on the lipidperoxidation in a rat liver microsome and hepatotoxicity in the primary cultured rat hepatocytes. It is well known that the polysaccharide of Ganoderma lucidum exhibits hepatoprotective activity, antitumor activity etc., which many suggest a relationship to lipidperoxidation. The effect of GLP on CCl4- and galactosamineintoxicated cytotoxicity in the primary cultured rat hepatocytes were reduced the GPT value. In order to the estimate the effects of anti-lipidperoxidation of the polysaccharide, enzymatic and nonenzymatic reaction assays were performed, in vitro, in the rat liver microsome. An enzymatic lipidperoxidation reaction by ADP＋FeCl3＋NADPH and CCl4＋NADPH, GLP (1 mg/mL) inhibited 77.4% and 39.4%, respectively, and the nonenzymatic reaction displayed a 97.4% strongly inhibition. In the enzymatic and nonenzymatic inducers treated with GLP, the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) progressively decreased by raising the GLP concentration. These results suggest that the anti-lipidperoxidation and radical scavenging activity of GLP may play an important part in the liver protection action.
Sikhye is a traditional rice beverage, produced from steamed rice, barley or wheat malt and water. Nine varieties of barley and seven varieties of wheat cultivars were investigated and compared quality characteristics, diastatic power, and activities of α- and β-Amylase. For barley malt, the crude lipid and protein content of malt 1.74~2.42% and 10.71~14.36%, respectively. Also, the crude lipid and protein content for wheat malt 1.57~1.71% and 10.07~13.59%, respectively. The ‘Dahyang’ barley showed the highest diastatic power with 117.61 °L, while for wheat, ‘Baegjoong’ produced the highest diastatic power with 85.25 °L. The enzymatic activities, α- and β-Amylase for barley cultivar was 110.17~214.70 μnit/g and 869.73~1,638.43 μnit/g, respectively. Likewise, α- and β-Amylase for wheat cultivar was 73.19~132.23 μnit/g and 726.70~ 889.30 μnit/g, respectively. The highest sugar content of Sikhye from barley was 11.10 °Bx (‘Hyeda’), while from wheat, was 10.20 °Bx (‘Baegjoong’). Among the four free sugar components analyzed from Sikhye, maltose was the highest in all cultivars. The highest maltose content was produced in ‘Dahyang’ Sikhye at 6.91%. There was significant positivecorrelation among the diastatic power and enzymatic activities of malt and free sugar components in Sikhye.
In this study, we analyzed the nutritional composition properties of soybeans and the organic acids, amino acids and volatile flavor compounds of fermented soybean products. We used five soybean cultivars including Pyeongwon, Jinpung, Saedanbaek, Saeolkong and Cheonga for this experiment. Physicochemical analysis of soybeans, showed that the cured protein and fat contents were 35.12∼45.12 and 14.26∼20.14%, respectively. The rank order of major organic acids was lactic acid > acetic acid > fumaric acid, with Saedanbaek being the highest. Total amino acid content of the samples was 358.12∼657.28 mg/100 g, and glutamic acid, alanine, cysteine, valine, leucine, histidine and arginine were the major amino acids. We identified a total of 34 volatile aroma-compounds, including 7 alcohols, 7 acids, 7 ketones, 5 phenols, 2 esters, 1 furan, 4 pyrazines, and 1 miscellaneous compounds. As a result of this, could be applied to determine the suitability of cultivars and the quality for the process of the fermented soybean products.
The purpose of this study was to compare differences in the main food components between Korean and imported quinoa from Peru, the U.S., and Thailand. Proximate composition of Korean quinoa showed highest crude protein and crude ash, while Korean quinoa had lowest moisture. Total amino acid content was higher in Korean quinoa than in imported quinoa. Fatty acid content was highest in quinoa cultivated in the U.S. and Wonju. Quinoa cultivated in Wonju was rich in palmitic acid, lignoceric acid, linoleic acid, eicosadienoic acid, erucic acid, and nervonic acid. Mineral content was higher in Korean quinoa than in imported quinoa. Quinoa cultivated in Wonju showed highest contents of P, Mg, Zn, while quinoa cultivated in Hongcheon showed the highest content of Na. Citric acid was found the major organic acid in quinoa. Citric acid content was highest in quinoa imported from the U.S. and lowest in quinoa cultivated in Hongcheon. Among free sugar, raffinose and glucose contents were highest in quinoa cultivated in Hongcheon, The results of this study show Korean quinoa has high contents of protein, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals and free sugar, offering essential amino acids in an excellent balance.
This study was carried out to investigate the chemical properties of safflower seeds cultivated at some areas in Korea. Safflower was used as one of the functional foods and medicinal plants for many centuries. Porximate compositions of safflower seeds were moisture, 4.8~8.1%, crude protein 16.5~19.5%, crude ash 2.7~3.3%, curde fiber 38.5~43.4%, and crude fat 16.6~24.4%, respectively. Glutamic acid, aspartic acid and arginine were the major amino acids and their contents were 2,587.4~3,143.5 mg%, 1,315.8~1,654.8 mg%, and 1,171.9~1,484.2 mg%. K, P, Ca, and Mg were major minerals and their contents were 611.6~886.3 mg%, 501.5~596.7 mg%, 208.5~641.2 mg%, and 530.6~639.5 mg%, respectively. The free sugars that were identified include raffinose, sucrose, glucose, fructose. α-tocopherol content was 0.14~3.82 mg%. Contents of vitamin C was 0.43~3.39 mg%. The safflower seeds fatty acids were palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linoleic acid. The major fatty acid was linoleic acid it’s content was 74.8~82.9%.
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the quality characteristics of Brassica juncea cultivated in Jeongseon (BJJ), South Korea. We analyzed the nutritional components and antioxidant activity of BJJ. As a result of the free sugar analysis, the contents of glucose and fructose in BJJ were 0.29±0.02 g/100 g and 0.10±0.00 g/100 g, respectively. The major fatty acids were palmitic acid, octadecenoic acid and stearic acid. The palmitic acid was the highest at 31.22% of all fatty acids. The major minerals were identified as Ca, P, K, Mg and Na. The contents of vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin C and vitamin E in BJJ were 0.02±0.00 mg/100 g, 0.087±0.01 mg/100 g, 0.02±0.00 mg/100 g, 0.56±0.06 mg/100 g and 0.20±0.03 mg α-TE/100 g, respectively. As a result of the free amino acid analysis, total amino acid contents in BJJ were 2,801.21±115.38 mg/100 g. L-proline content was the highest (744.30±119.06 mg/100 g) in BJJ. BJJ extract inhibits reactive oxygen species production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Also, BJJ extract exhibits a protective effect on oxidative stress in H2O2-induced human dermal fibroblast. These results indicate that BJJ comprises various valuable nutrients which can be used as functional food ingredients.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors related to milk consumption in university students. A questionnaire, comprised of general questions and factors related to milk consumption, was administered to 269 male and female university students (134 males, 135 females). The results show that the proportion of males reporting that they drink milk because “for good nutrition” was higher than that of females (p=0.0200). Additionally, males initiated more effort to drink milk than females (p=0.0192). Analysis of the groups classified according to milk consumption shows that the proportion of respondents exercising regularly was significantly high in the milk consumption group (p=0.0199). The proportion of respondents often consuming carbonated drinks as snacks was significantly low in the milk consumption group (p=0.0219). Whereas, the proportion of respondents consuming fruits as their main snack was significantly higher in the milk consumption group than in the non-milk consumption group (p=0.0063). Also, the milk consumption group shows significantly higher awareness of the importance of milk than the non-milk consumption group (p<0.0001). These results can be used as a valid foundation to provide university students with nutritional education relative to milk consumption and its associated benefits in the future.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics and volatile flavor components of Doonuri wine, using freeze concentration. The freeze concentration can increase the sugar concentration in grape juice by reducing its water content. In this study, after eight days od fermentation, the alcohol content of freeze-concentrated Doonuri wines was 12.5~14.1%. The pH of the wine was 3.42~3.50 and the total acid content was 0.68~0.94 g/100 mL, respectively. The brghtness of freeze-concentrated Doonuri wines was 19.28~54.42, the redness was 41.98~49.58, and the yellowness was 36.16~42.36. The organic acid analysis of Doonuri wines was that most of the organic acids contain tartaric and malic acid. By using freeze concentration with grape juice, significant increase in the total polyphenol content of Doonuri wines was 122.40~137.26 mg/mL, the total anthocyanin content was 117.06~ 118.40 mg/L and the tannic acid content was 66.23~83.70 mg%. In GC/MS analysis, the volatile flavor component analysis of Doonuri wines identified six alcohols, five esters, two ketones, on acid, two alkanes, and four other compounds.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality and antioxidant properties of three fermented sweet potato cultivars (Shinyulmi, Hogammi, and Shinjami) using lactic acid bacteria. During the fermentation, the pH was lowered and the titratable acidity increased. The viable cell counts of lactic acid bacteria increased 8.44-9.62 log CFU/g. Organic acid content (especially lactic acid) of sweet potatoes increased by fermentation. Also, γ-Aminobutyric acid increased more than 8.6 times by fermentation in all samples. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of sweet potato, showed insignificant changes in all samples by fermentation. ABTS radical scavenging activity of all samples slightly decreased by fermentation, but not significantly. DPPH radical scavenging activity decreased slightly by fermentation except Shinyulmi. However, when compared with the varieties, Shinjami showed the highest activity. The reducing power of Shinjami decreased slightly by fermentation, but activity was the highest among all samples. Based on these results, most of the chemical properties and functionality of fermented sweet potato are retained after fermentation, although some antioxidant activity decreases. We suggest that three fermented sweet potato cultivars (Shinyulmi, Hogammi, and Shinjami) using lactic acid bacteria can be used in various applications because of their effective functional properties.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of soaking and ultrasonic extraction by observing the change of contents with extraction time of physicochemical properties (solid content, colorness, caffeine, chlorogenic acid, total polyphenols, DPPH, and ABTS). As a result of the analysis, solid content increased with longer extraction time and the whiteness tended to decrease with longer extraction time. Conversely, the extraction of functional materials showed a tendency to increase as the extraction time increased. Caffeine reached the maximum value after two hours soaking, but showed the same result as one hour for sonication. Chlorogenic acid did not show difference from the content of coffee extracted for one hour soaking only by sonication extraction for 30 minutes. The total polyphenols eluted with approximately two hours of soaking even after 30 minutes of sonication. DPPH and ABTS were insignificant in their concentrations, but their antioxidative effect was more than two hours of soaking with only 30 minutes of sonication. Sonication has a short time extraction from a functional aspect (caffeine content, chlorogenic acid, polyphenol content, and antioxidant capacity) and this experiment can provide basic data for the development of innovative recipes.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of enzyme activity and anti-proliferation of human cancer cell lines (HCT 116, NCI-H460 and MCF-7) of peanut skin depending on cultivars (Arachis hypogaea L. cv. K-Ol, cv. Sinpalkwang, cv. Daan, cv. Heuksaeng) and extraction solvent. Peanut skin was extracted with 80% ethanol, 80% methanol, 80% acetone, and distilled water, followed by analysis of the enzyme inhibitory activity and anticancer activity. Methanol extract of Daan cultivar most effectively inhibited α-gluosidase (65.08%, 0.025 mg/mL), tyrosinase (82.49%, 2 mg/mL) and ACE (73.61%, 10 mg/mL). The inhibitory effect of peanut skin extracts on colon cancer cell (HCT-116), lung cancer cell (NCI-H460) and breast cancer cell (MCF-7) growth were investigate using MTT assay. The highest anti-proliferation of cancer cell line of peanut skin extracts was observed in the methanol extract of Daan cultivar. The cell viability on HCT 116, NCI-H460 and MCF-7 cell lines of methanol extracts from peanut skin of Daan cultivar was 48.13%, 41.03%, and 36.02% at 200 μg/mL, respectively. These results suggest that peanut skin extracts may mediate physiological activity, and provide valuable information for the use of peanut byproduct as a functional food material.
The purpose of this study was to develop a dietary education program, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the education program for children from low-income families. A total of 242 children (122 education groups and 120 control groups) were run six times a dietary education program from April to December 2018, and a questionnaire was administered before and after the education to evaluate effectiveness. Elementary school students were the most prevalent in the education and the control group. In the education group, the body height and weigh were 137.27 cm and 33.69 kg, respectively, and in the control group the body height and weight were 143.48 cm and 40.64 kg, respectively. The education group showed positive change in dietary self-efficacy and dietary knowledge compared to the control group. In particular, ‘I can have meals regularly’ (Education Group: 4.00 points from 3.71 points) and 'I can choose fruits instead of cookies candies as snacks (Education Group: 4.01 points from 3.70 points) The score increased after participation in the program. In the change of nutritional and hygiene knowledge of children, the education group scored 3.63 of 10 points before education, but the score significantly increased to 5.70 points after education(p<0.001).
In this study, the quality characteristics of 30 kinds of long-term matured soy sauce collected from all over Korea classified according to ripening period were analyzed. The longer the soy sauce had to matured, the closer the pH was to neutrality. Acidity decreased as the ripening period increased. Total nitrogen and amino nitrogen content increased as the soy sauce matured. Moisture content decreased with the increasing soy sauce ripening period, and the content of pure extracts increased in proportion to the ripening period. The numbers of bacteria, fungi, and yeast increased in proportion to the maturation period. The content of P was highest in all soy sauce analyzed, followed by K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn. Mg and Ca contents decreased with maturing, whereas K increased with maturing.
The purpose of this study was to develop a standardized job description for dietitians using the DACUM technique. To examine the validity of job description through DACUM, dietitians were surveyed relative to importance, performance, and difficulty. The survey was conducted April 1-30, 2014. A total of 217 questionnaires were used in the analysis. The final developed job description for dietitians included six duties, 38 tasks, and 210 task elements. DACUM’s findings include six duties: nutrition management, food service operation management, hygiene safety management, community food and nutrition program management, organization management, and professionalism strengthening. There were 5.1 points regarding importance, 4.1 points regarding performance, 4.9 points regarding difficulty, and statistically significant differences (p<0.001). Dietitians responded that ‘nutrition management’ and ‘hygiene safety management’ were the most important. ‘Hygiene and safety management’ showed the highest performance, and ‘community food and nutrition program management’ and ‘professionalism strengthening'' showed the highest difficulty. Thus, it is considered that the job analysis results can be used to evaluate and improve the subjects’ training program. Dietitians’ jobs are subject to various environmental changes, such as demographic changes, health care system changes, and the development of the food industry, and thus, should be reviewed and analyzed periodically.
To investigate the effects of antioxidant activities and hair loss prevention of extracts from Platycodon grandiflorum, we’ve prepared chloroform (CF) and ethylacetate fractions (EA) extracted from P. grandiflorum. In the results of DPPH radical scavenging assay, the two fractions showed dose-dependent antioxidant activities. Furthermore, in the ABTS assay, the two fractions exhibited the inhibitory effect over 90% at 10, 50, 100, 200 mg/mL. To investigate the inflammation inhibitory effect, we used RAW264.7 cells, these extracts were inhibited inflammatory reaction by suppressing the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in dose-dependent manner. In the assay of HaCaT cells’ proliferation, the 24 hr treatment of the extracts significantly accelerarted cell proliferation in the range of concentrations used. The two fractions inhibited the proliferation of Malssezia furfur, the bacteria induce the dandruff. Finally, the CF could significantly inhibit the DHT production at 1, 10, 50, 100 μg/mL, but EA showed the inhibitory effect at the concentration over 50 μg/mL. The overall results of this study suggest that the chloroform (CF) and ethylacetate fractions (EA) from P. grandiflorum could be a useful raw material for the hair loss prevention products.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of the pre-treatment method on the measurement of probiotic cell counts. The probiotic cell count was not significantly different in the pre-treatment method such as experimenters, diluted solution, medium, and homogenization duration. The mean value of probiotic cell count with capsule was 2.2×1010±9.5×109 CFU/g. This probiotic cell count was converted into 2.8×1010±1.2×1010 CFU/g based on the net weight. The mean value of probiotic cell count without capsules was 4.3×1010±1.8×1010 CFU/g. As a result of this comparison, probiotic cell count showed significant difference with and without capsules. Thus, it is suggested that the probiotic cell count is measured by removing the capsule in capsule probiotics.
Proteasome inhibitors can improve the efficiency of cancer treatments by inhibiting nuclear factor κB(NF-κB) activation in cancer cells. Lentils are a type of beans of which consumption of such beans is increasing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of lentils extract (LE) on the proteasomal activities, NF-κB activation, and cell cycle in HepG2 human liver cancer cells. LE treatments inhibited proteasomal activities at concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 μg/mL respectively, and repressed NF-κB activation at concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 μg/mL respectively, in HepG2 cells. LE treatments at concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 μg/mL respectively, increased sub-G1 cell population in HepG2 cells, which may be the result of apoptosis. The results suggest that LE inhibited NF-κB activation partially with its proteasome inhibitory activities, and the increase of sub-G1 cell population was induced partially, by inhibition of NF-κB activation in HepG2 cells.
For the purpose of promoting the consumption of rice powder, 5 cultivars were applied differently to establish the optimal manufacturing conditions and measured Hunter color values, hardness and expansion rate of Yakgwa for the optimal conditions. Looking into the optimal manufacturing conditions of Yakgwa, the commercial flour-facilitating Yakgwa is shown to have a great shape when the mold is made with a thick paste for C-2 manufacturing method, Hangaru 100 mesh for H100-2 manufacturing method, Hangaru 200 mesh for H200-2 manufacturing method, Shingil 100 mesh for S100-2 manufacturing method, and Shingil 200 mesh for S200-1 manufacturing method. It also showed a trend of chewy taste after frying without cracks. Hunter color values (L) and red chromaticity and value b of yellow chromaticity indicated a lower value for the commercial flour and Hangaru 200 mesh in its entirety. The hardness of Yakgwa is within the range of 1,981.41~3,756.45 g and the degree of hardness is shown differently for each rice powder exclusive cultivars. Rice flour developed as rice powder 5 cultivars, and as a result of measuring chromaticity, hardness and expansion rate of Yakgwa for the quality characteristics, the item of hangaru 200 mesh had outstanding quality characteristics for Yakgwa.