To confirm the applicability of crab apple, the composition and content of amino acids and minerals with ‘Fuji’ apple were measured. Apple and crab apple were extracted with water, 70% and 100% ethanol, respectively. The contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, and ascorbic acid, antioxidant activities of these extracts were measured. The amino acid composition of apples comprised a total of 17 amino acids. The total amino acid contents of apple and crab apple were 2,050.45 mg/kg and 900.05 mg/kg, respectively. For minerals, the total mineral content of apple and crab apple were 489.14 mg%, 529.77 mg%, respectively. The contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, and ascorbic acid of apple and crab apple extracts were highest in 70% ethanol extracts. The content of polyphenols, the crab apple extract, showed a generally higher content than the apple extract. The content of flavonoids, apple and crab apple extracts revealed no difference between extracts. The content of ascorbic acid, apple extract showed a generally higher content than the crab apple extract, but there was no significant difference between extracts. In the case of DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging abilities, 70% ethanol extract showed the highest antioxidant activity, and crab apple showed higher activity than apple extracts.
To improve the shelf-life of Centella asiatica, Centella asiatica was treated with gel packs containing slow-released chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas at 3-5 ppm for 20 days at 4℃. The weight loss rate, as well as the changes in pH, color, and texture of the treated samples, were investigated. The weight of the control and ClO2 gas-treated samples was decreased during the storage period. The change in weight of the control was slightly faster than that of the samples treated with 3 and 4 ppm ClO2 gas. The pH of the control and the ClO2 gas treated samples were decreased during the storage period and there was no significant difference between the control and ClO2 gas treated samples. Concerning color (lightness, redness, and yellowness) changes of Centella asiatica during the storage period, there was no significant difference between the control and ClO2 gas treated samples. The change in shear force in the leaf and stem of Centella asiatica during the storage period was slightly lower in the 4 ppm ClO2 gas treated samples (in the leaf) compared to the control and 3 and 4 ppm ClO2 gas treated samples (in the stem) compared to the control and 5 ppm ClO2 gas treated sample.
The purpose of this study was to assess consumption and satisfaction with fresh-cut produce in Korean adults. In this study, an online survey November 9~13, 2020 was conducted with 982 Korean adults age 19~64 (490 males and 492 females) with experience in purchasing fresh-cut produce in the past year. Among all respondents, the percentage with experience in buying ‘washed or peeled vegetables’ was the highest (71.18%), followed by those in buying ‘packaged salads/sprouts/ssam vegetables’ (64.15%), ‘pre-cut fruits/fruit cups’ (59.98%), ‘pre-cut or minced vegetables’ (56.01%), and ‘washed or peeled fruits’ (53.67%), respectively. Among the types of fresh-cut produce, ‘packaged salads/sprouts/ssam vegetables’ showed the highest satisfaction score at 3.73 pts, and the overall satisfaction score of fresh-cut produce consumption was also 3.73 pts. Compared to male respondents, female respondents showed a significantly higher percentage of respondents that purchased ‘packaged salads/sprouts/ssam vegetables’ (p=0.0409), significantly higher satisfaction scores (p=0.0124), and a higher percentage of respondents considering ‘freshness’ important when purchasing (p<0.0001). Additionally, the group with high household income comprised a significantly higher ratio of respondents considering ‘eco-friendly or organic status’ important. The study results may facilitate identify areas for improvement of fresh-cut produce in the future.
To increase the utilization of Centella asiatica (CA), enzymes such as cellulase and pectinase were added and the physicochemical properties of the treated CA were analyzed. In addition, apple-CA jam was prepared using the enzyme-treated CA, which had the best antioxidant properties, and the physicochemical and sensory qualities of the jam were measured. There was a high content of ascorbic acid, polyphenols, flavonoids, reducing sugar, amino acid, minerals and DPPH radical scavenging activity in the enzyme-treated group. The antioxidant component and activity in the jam prepared by adding enzyme-treated CA increased with an increase in the amount of enzyme-treated CA. In the soluble solids, the higher the amount of enzyme-treated CA, the higher the value, but there was no significant difference in pH. The sensory evaluation of the jam, in particular the taste, showed that the highest preference was observed when the enzyme-treated CA was added in the range of 5.0~6.7%, and the control group showed the lowest preference. There was no significant difference in flavor and spreadability among the treatment groups, however, the control group showed the highest color preference. In the overall acceptability, when 5.0% of enzyme-treated CA was added, the highest acceptability was shown.
To utilize Malus pruniforia Borkh. as a functional material, cold-water (CW), hot-water (HW), and 70% ethanol (EtOH) extracts were prepared, and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were compared. The antioxidant activity of the HW extract evaluated by ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP activity was significantly effective. The total polyphenol content of the HW extract was also higher by 15.5±0.7 mg GAE/g extract compared to other extracts. The EtOH extract showed significantly decreased TNF-α (39.8%), IL-6 (65.5%), and NO (34.9%) levels in RAW 264.7 cells compared to the LPS-induced control group. The levels of IL-6 (21.1%) and IL-8 (19.3%) were significantly decreased by treatment of EtOH extract in HaCaT keratinocytes induced with TNF-α and IFN-γ. The UHPLC-MS results indicated that the EtOH extract might have chlorogenic acid and phlorizin as the major compounds. This was validated using HPLC-DAD, which showed that the EtOH extract had higher levels of chlorogenic acid and phlorizin (1,185±58 and 470±10 μg/g extract, respectively). In conclusion, the present study suggested that the anti-inflammatory activity of the EtOH extract was more effective than the CW and HW extracts, and chlorogenic acid and phlorizin could be used as indicator compounds and functional substances.
Centella asiatica (CA) is a vegetable that has been used for medicinal purposes for a long time, but it is not well known in Korea. In this study, the approximate analysis, physicochemical properties, free sugars, free amino acids and minerals of native and improved CA cultivated in Chungju area were measured. And the antioxidant contents and activities of CA solvent extracts were measured. There was no significant difference between native and improved species. As for the characteristics of CA, it was confirmed that the improved species had a large weight, size and a tough texture. Glucose was detected in native CA, fructose, glucose and sucrose were detected in improved species. A total of 15 free amino acids were detected and the content was slightly higher in improved species than in native species. The mineral content in CA was slightly higher in the improved species, and the detected minerals were Na, P, Ca, K, Mg and Fe. Polyphenols, ascorbic acid and flavonoids in each extraction solvent (water, 70% and 100% ethanol) were all higher in the improved species than in native species. And it was found that the antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts were higher than that of water.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between eating speed and nutritional status among Korean high-school students using Nutrition Quotient for Korean Adolescents (NQ-A). In this study, a questionnaire survey was conducted in 453 high-school students (227 boys and 226 girls) from September 2019 to October 2019 in Chungbuk area. Based on the self-reported speed of eating data, subjects were classified into a fast group (n=180), a medium group (n=184), and a slow group (n=89). NQ-A scores for each group were measured in each speed group. In the environment section, girls showed a significant difference in usage time of electronic devices, such as TVs and smartphones: the fast group spent significantly more time than the medium group (p=0.035). In the practice section, among boys, the slow group had significantly higher scores for washing hands before eating than the medium and the fast groups (p=0.022). This study suggested that eating speed of high school students is associated with health-related environment factor and practice factor of NQ-A, such as time spent on smart devices or washing hands before eating. The study results can provide baseline data for nutrition education on health management of high school students.
This study used a food-frequency questionnaire to estimate fruit consumption by sex, age, and type of fruit to analyze the association between fruit type and metabolic factors. Using food-frequency-questionnaire data from 3,091 adults aged 19~64 years (1,184 men and 1,907 women) in the 2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, this study analyzed weekly fruit consumption and the consumption frequency of strawberry, oriental melon, watermelon, peach, grape, apple, pear, persimmon/ dried persimmon, tangerine, banana, orange, and kiwi by sex and age groups. Apple was the most-consumed fruit (459.45 g/wk), followed by pear (165.80 g/wk), watermelon (124.80 g/wk), and banana (115.32 g/wk). After adjustment for confounding factors, ED: Please give examples. in the women who ate more than the median consumption of apple, the prevalence of hyperglycemia was 27.4% (OR: 0.726, 95% CI: 0.539~0.979) (p=0.0362), and of high triglycerides, 25.7% (OR: 0.743, 95% CI: 0.564~0.978) (p=0.0340). These rates were lower than those of women who ate less than the median consumption of apple. The results of this study suggest that apple consumption helps improve metabolic indicators in Korean adults.
Centella asiatica (CA) has been widely used as herbal plants. It is a valuable resources. The aim of the present study was to evaluate physiological activities of solvent extracts from CA cultivated in Chungju, Korea (Good tiger care). After preparing water (cold-water, CA-WE; hot-water, CA-HWE) and EtOH extracts (50% EtOH, CA-50E; 70% EtOH, CA-70E), their total polyphenol, flavonoid, and triterpenoid contents, and anti-oxidant activities, and anti-inflammatory activities were examined and compared. CA-70E showed the most potent anti-oxidant activity based on ABTS radical scavenging activity and reducing ability assays, while CA-50E and CA-70E showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity. Among major triterpenoid glycosides present in CA, madecassoside and asiaticoside contents were found to be the highest in CA-70E, and madecassic acid and asiatic acid were the highest in CA-50E. In LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, CA-70E showed the highest TNF-α inhibitory activity, although CA-50E and CA-70E similarly inhibited nitric oxide production. Ethanol extracts significantly inhibited IL-6 and IL-8 production more than water extracts using TNF-α/IFN-γ-stimulated HaCaT cells, indicating its better inhibitory against skin inflammation. Therefore, Chungju-CA EtOH extract, especially 70% EtOH extract, has high physiologically active ingredients and potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, suggesting its industrial application as a functional material.
To analyze the quality characteristics of soybean (Glycine max), the approximate analysis, physical properties, mineral and free sugar content of domestic soybean cultivars were analyzed. The moisture content was about 9.15~11.84%. The fat content of Cheonga, Taekwang, and Jinpung cultivars were 17.93~18.37%, which was significantly higher than that of others. Protein content of Cheonga and Seonyu were 36.15~36.70%, significantly higher than that of others. As for the weight and shape of soybeans, the Daewon was the largest allele, and the seed cover ratio was the highest in the Seonyu. In terms of water absorption rate, the Seonyu showed the highest absorption rate at 246.19%, and the Daewon showed the lowest absorption rate. Soaked soybeans had a hardness of 2.80~4.73 kg/cm2, which did not show low hardness in the sample with high moisture absorption. The grinded soybeans showed higher lightness and yellowness values than the raw soybeans, and the redness was decreased. Soybean minerals contained high K, P, Mg, and Ca content. Overall, The Taekwang contained more minerals than others. Stachyose, sucrose, glucose and fructose were detected as free sugars in soybeans. The total free sugar content of Taekwang was the lowest at 3.47%, and the Cheonga (6.80%) was the highest.
In this study, fingerroot (Boesenbergia pandurata) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were extracted with water, 70% and 100% ethanol, respectively. The contents of polyphenols, flavonoids and ascorbic acid, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of these extracts were measured. With respect to the polyphenol compound content, both fingerroot and ginger extract showed the highest in 70% ethanol extract, and the fingerroot extract showed a generally higher content than the ginger extract. The content of flavonoids, fingerroot and ginger extracts showed values of 1,247.14~1,259.93 μg%, and there was no big difference between extracts. The content of ascorbic acid was the highest in 100% ethanol extract in both fingerroot and ginger. Fingerroot extract was slightly higher than ginger extract in all extracts. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of fingerroot and ginger extracts showed the highest antioxidant activity in 100% ethanol extract, and fingerroot showed a slightly higher activity than ginger. The ABTS radical scavenging activity was high in 70% and 100% ethanol extracts of both fingerroot and ginger. In the activity between fingerroot and ginger extracts, ginger was higher in water extract and fingerroot was slightly higher in ethanol extract. Fingerroot and ginger extracts showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus.
In this study, a survey was conducted among university students (119 men and 134 women) in Chungbuk province using questionnaires to investigate the variables and eating patterns related to the use of food delivery apps. A survey was conducted from March 22, 2019 to April 3, 2019. Of the total respondents, 77.2% reported that they had ordered food at least once using food delivery apps on smartphones. Further, 63.3% of the total subjects had ordered food delivery through smartphone apps once or twice a month, and the most preferred cuisine for food delivery was fast food, followed by Bunsik (Korean street food/snack), western food, and Chinese food. The average satisfaction scorefor food delivery apps was 3.8 points, and the satisfaction score was the highest with the convenient ordering process (4.0), followed by good taste (3.9) and good portion (3.8). The subjects who used smartphone food delivery apps three times or more a month showed a significantly higher frequency of instant food intake (p=0.0132), dining out (p=0.0282), and late-night eating (p=0.0047) than the subjects who ordered food using delivery apps less than three times a month. In conclusion, these study results may be applied as baseline data for dietary education among university students.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors related to milk consumption in university students. A questionnaire, comprised of general questions and factors related to milk consumption, was administered to 269 male and female university students (134 males, 135 females). The results show that the proportion of males reporting that they drink milk because “for good nutrition” was higher than that of females (p=0.0200). Additionally, males initiated more effort to drink milk than females (p=0.0192). Analysis of the groups classified according to milk consumption shows that the proportion of respondents exercising regularly was significantly high in the milk consumption group (p=0.0199). The proportion of respondents often consuming carbonated drinks as snacks was significantly low in the milk consumption group (p=0.0219). Whereas, the proportion of respondents consuming fruits as their main snack was significantly higher in the milk consumption group than in the non-milk consumption group (p=0.0063). Also, the milk consumption group shows significantly higher awareness of the importance of milk than the non-milk consumption group (p<0.0001). These results can be used as a valid foundation to provide university students with nutritional education relative to milk consumption and its associated benefits in the future.