This study was conducted in an effort to investigate the effect of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) on enzymatic browning of burdock and their anti-oxidant activity. The MRPs were prepared by heating glucose and amino acids at 90°C, which served to produce a strong inhibitory effect on burdock polyphenol oxidase. As the reaction time of the solution containing glucose and amino acid increased at 90°C, the production of MRPs increased and intensity of the brown color deepened. When MRPs were prepared by heating at 90°C for five hours, the absorbance of MRPs from glucose and lysine was 6.44, while those of glucose and glycine was 1.95. The MRPs synthesized from the glucose and lysine also reduced the pH of MRPs from 5.60 to 4.51, but those from glucose and glycine decreased slightly from 5.57 to 5.33. The Michealis-Menten constant value (Km) of burdock PPO with pyrocatechol as a substrate was 16.0 mM, and MRPs were a non-competitive inhibitor against burdock PPO. The anti-oxidant activity of MRPs was measured by evaluating its radical scavenging activities of DPPH radicals, ABTS radicals and reducing power. The color intensity of MRPs produced by lysine and glucose were deeper than that produced by glucose and glycine. It was also found that MRPs produced from glucose and lysine exhibited stronger anti-oxidant properties than those produced by glucose and glycine.
This study was conducted to assess effects of addition of walnuts on soy sauce quality. The pH was significantly increased by adding more than 4 percent of walnuts. As the addition of walnuts increased, Hunter’s color values and brown color increased. Total solid of soy sauce did not change significantly with the addition of walnuts. Crude fat content increased by two times in the 2 percent added walnuts group compared to the control group, but it was not dependent on the addition of walnuts. DPPH radical scavenging activity was significantly increased with the addition of walnuts. The addition of walnuts decrease saturated fatty acids and increased unsaturated fatty acids. Composition ratio of linoleic acid was highest in the control group and all the additions. These results revealed that soy sauce made with walnuts have a positive effect on functionality and preference.
This study investigated the factors affecting problematic drinking amongst the male university students of the Changwon area (n=367). The participants were divided into 3 groups, and undertook the self-report questionnaire survey. Based on the AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) guidelines, problematic drinking were rated as ‘no problem’ (28.8%), ‘at-risk drinking’ (41.7%), and ‘alcohol abuse’ (29.5%). Our study revealed that students living alone, indulged in more club activities, and drank more than 3 cans of carbonated drinks a day; this was significantly high on the AUDIT score (p<0.05). Participation in education was significantly higher (p<0.05), but intention to reduce the monthly alcohol consumption was significantly lower (p<0.001) in the alcohol abuse group. Recognition level of drinking cultures, drinking habits, AUDIT, and nicotine dependence were significantly higher in the alcohol abuse group (p<0.001). Recognition level of drinking cultures and nicotine dependence by the FTND (Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence) positively correlated with problematic drinking, whereas dietary guidelines and self-esteem showed a negative correlation with problematic drinking (p<0.05). Based on the results of multiple linear regression analysis, the factors affecting problematic drinking were recognition level of drinking cultures (β=0.47, p<0.001) and nicotine dependence (β=0.23, p<0.001). We conclude that implementation of health education for university students, would aid in rectifying the incorrect perception of drinking. Furthermore, both drinking and smoking should be considered simultaneously.
Palatability and texture analysis of nine Korean rice cultivars were investigated to select the most appropriate rice variety for the cooked-rice processing. The rice cultivars studied consisted of Samkwang, Seonpum, Wolbaek, Andabyeo, Dasan-1, Ilpum, Haiami, Jungsanggold and Chindle. They revealed the moisture, protein, amylose and starch contents of 10~12, 5~6, 12~19, and approximately 90%, respectively. Among the evaluated rice varieties, WB exhibited the lowest amylose content (12.7%) and Jungsanggold the next (17.2%). In the rapid-visco analyzer test, Jungsanggold, Chindle, Wolbaek and Seonpum revealed a low value of final and setback viscosities than other varieties. Using a toyo meter analyzer, Chindle, Haiami, Samkwang were selected as having high toyo palatability values, while Dasan-1, Wolbaek and Andabyeo revealed low values. Toughness and adhesiveness of all nine cooked rice varieties were highest in Jungsanggold, Chindle and Ilpum. Also, palatability of cooked rice was highest in the following order: Chindle (80.03) > Samkwang (76.21) > Jungsanggold (74.08). The results of this study suggest that Chindle may be effectively used to produce processed cooked rice.
To investigate the quality characteristics of domestic rosé wines marketed in Korea, 11 kinds of wines were purchased at the Korea Wine Festival in 2016. The color, physiological activity, aroma component and sensory evaluations were conducted. The hue value of rosé wines ranged from 0.592 to 1.990, with the Ro7 of Delaware having the highest value. The brightness of rosé wines ranged from 42.96 to 94.99, the redness from 3.20 to 59.37, and the yellowness from 8.43 to 24.83. Of the 11 rosé wines evaluated, 1 was a dry wine and 10 were sweet wines. The average sugar content of the sweet wines was 73.89 mg/mL. Among the organic acid contents, malic acid ranged from 0.214 to 2.903 mg/mL, and lactic acid content ranged from 0 to 3.423 mg/mL. Malolactic fermentation differed, depending on the source. The total polyphenol content of rosé wines ranged from 50.55 to 99.55 mg%, the anthocyanin content was 2.12 to 213.30 mg/L, and the DPPH radical scavenging activity of rosé wines was between 73.75 to 90.41%. A total of 41 volatile components were detected, including 7 alcohols, 22 esters, 4 terpenes, 3 acids and 5 other compounds. Of these, 9 compounds had odor activity value(OAV) greater than 1; these were identified as 1-propanol (alcohol, pungent), 3-methyl-1-butanol (harsh, nail polish), ethyl butanoate (strawberry, lactic), isopentyl acetate (fresh, banana), ethyl hexanoate (green apple, fruity), ethyl octanoate (pineapple, pear, floral), ethyl decanoate (fruity, fatty, pleasant), linalool (flower, lavender) and limonene (lemone, orange). As a result of the sensory evaluation, the Ro5 wine made from Campbell Early grape, and having a good color, flavor and taste, was the most preferred.
This study was performed to investigate the body fat-lowering effect of garlic powder in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1 α (PGC-1α)-luciferase transgenic mice (TG). In this study, we generated transgenic mice with a PGC-1α promoter (—970/+412 bp) containing luciferase as a reporter gene. Mice were fed a 45% high-fat diet for 8 weeks to induce obesity. Subsequently, mice were maintained on either a high-fat control diet (CON), or high-fat diets supplemented with 2% (GP2) or 5% (GP5) garlic powder for an additional 8 weeks. Dietary garlic powder reduced the body weight in the GP2 and GP5 groups, compared to the CON group. Furthermore, garlic supplementation significantly decreased the plasma levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and leptin in the GP5 group, compared to the CON group. Specifically, luciferase activity in liver, white adipose tissue (WAT), and brown adipose tissue (BAT) was increased by garlic supplementation in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the body fat-lowering effect of garlic powder might be related to PGC-1α by the increase in luciferase activity in liver, WAT, and BAT. Furthermore, transgenic mice might be useful for evaluating the body fat-lowering effect of various health functional foods.
This study was performed to determine the effects of different processing methods (AD: drying at 50°C for 15 h; ADR: roasting after drying; SAD: drying after steaming; SADR: roasting after steaming and drying) on the quality characteristics, total phenolic content, anthocyanin content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and reducing powder of red radish (Bordeaux and watermelon radish) tea. The pH of red radish tea was the highest with SAD. In terms of the total sugar content, Bordeaux radish tea showed the highest level with AD, ADR, and SAD, and watermelon radish tea showed the highest level with SADR. The a value of Bordeaux radish tea was higher with AD and ADR. The b value of Bordeaux radish tea was increased with steaming and roasting treatment. In terms of measuring the colors of watermelon radish tea, the L value was decreased while the b value was increased with roasting treatment. The total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and reducing powder with ADR and SADR were higher than those in samples prepared by different processing methods. AD and SAD resulted in higher anthocyanin contents than ADR and SADR. In terms of sensory evaluation, the appearance and color were rated higher with AD and SAD, whereas the flavor and taste were ranked higher with ADR and SADR than in the other samples. The results suggest that red radish (Bordeaux and watermelon radish) tea prepared by ADR and SADR processing methods can be utilized as health functional tea material with antioxidant activity.
This study was conducted to investigate changes in organoleptic properties and taste components including free sugar, organic acid and free amino acid with addition of walnut. Changes in total nitrogen were insignificantly different with addition of walnut. Amino type nitrogen content was decreased in proportion to supplemental level of walnut. Content of organic acids, of which three kinds were detected, such as citric acid, malic acid and lactic acid increased more than two times with addition of walnut. Contents of free sugar and amino acid were decreased with addition of walnut. The proportion of essential amino acid was 40.6~41.4 percent. Glutamic acid in total amino acid was increased in proportion with addition of walnut. The highest sensory evaluation score was recorded in soy sauce with addition of 2 percent walnut. Together, it was expected that 2 percent addition of walnut to soy sauce has a positive effect on the taste of soy sauce.
The purpose of this study was to provide the basic information for developing sugar related nutrition education programs for children in child-care facilities and their parents. The results showed that the total score of parent’s dietary attitudes towards sugar-rich foods was 17.94 and the total score of parent’s nutritional knowledge was 3.67. A positive relationship was observed among items of parent’s dietary attitudes (p<0.01), and some correlations were also observed between the total score of parent’s nutritional knowledge and the total score of parent’s dietary attitudes (p<0.05 or p<0.01). The total average score of children’s eating behaviors for sugar-rich foods was 23.98, and the item with the highest score was ‘I often eat candy, chocolate and jelly’. For children, food that received the highest preference was chocolate, and soft drinks received the lowest preference. The most frequently consumed food item was candy or caramel, and the least frequently consumed food item was soft drinks. There were positive correlation among the total score of children’s eating behaviors, food preferences, and food intake frequency (p<0.01). When parent’s tried to reduce the sugar intake, children’s total score of eating behaviors (p<0.001) and food intake frequency (p<0.001) for sugar-rich food was lower. We conclude that parent’s dietary attitudes may influence children’s eating behaviors, food preferences, and food intake frequency for sugar-rich foods.
In the present study, kohlrabi-kimchi was prepared for assessment of changes in sensory qualities and measurement of changes in quality characteristics according to the storage period for the purpose of using kohlrabi as an ingredient of kimchi. Examination of the physicochemical properties of kohlrabi-kimchi according to the storage period showed that the acidity increased steadily throughout the storage period, while soluble-solids content, pH and hardness decreased as the storage period elapsed. Meanwhile, the L value increased and then it decreased as the storage period elapsed, but, the a value increased and the b value gradually decreased after day 14 of storage. Reducing sugars increased up to day 10 of storage, and then they decreased slowly after day 15 of storage. Measurement of changes in lactic acid bacteria in kohlrabi-kimchi according to the storage period showed bacterial growth showing typical tendencies of Kimchi with a rapid increase on day 5 of storage and a decrease thereafter. Assessment of sensory qualities of kohlrabi-kimchi according to the storage period showed that the highest scores for appearance and sourness, odor, texture, and overall scores were obtained on day 15 of storage. Based on the above results, it was determined that the optimal maturity period of kohlrabi-kimchi is day 15 of storage.
This study was conducted to survey the perception and preferences of customers that have dined at Korean restaurants in China and investigate the importance and performance level of quality attributes, customer satisfaction, revisit intention and recommendation intention. The survey was conducted January 31~March 1, 2016 in China. The 293 questionnaires (97.7%) were analyzed using SPSS(Ver. 23.0) and AMOS(Ver. 21.0). Results of this study are as follow: Customers that dined at a Korean restaurant in China were composed of 157 women and 136 men. Regarding the reason for preferring Korean cuisine, taste, hygiene and nutritional value of Korean food were the most significant quality factors. Regarding complaints about Korean food, Chinese people placed much emphasis on freshness of ingredients when dining out, based on the majority of complaints about ingredients that were not fresh. The main reason for leftover food were personal eating habits and that of customers revisiting food taste and nutrition. Path model among customer satisfaction, revisit intention and recommendation intention revealed the factor of menus and attributes of menu items regarding customer’s age that had an impact on customers’ satisfaction, and association with customers’ satisfaction, revisit intention and recommendation intention as well.
The objectives of this study was to investigate the properties and stability of the wet noodles added to nanoemulsion as a industrial model system, and in so doing, survey practical applicability in the food industry. In order to test out these objectives, the characteristics and stability of the wet noodles added to nanoemulsion were investigated and their cooking characteristics and capsaicinoids loss were examined. As a result, the test results showed that the findings indicated that the post-cooking loss of capsaicinoids in the wet noodles added to double-layer nanoemulsion covered with chitosan was less than the losses in the wet noodles added to any other noodles. More especially, this demonstrates that the noodle added to double-layer nanoemulsion covered with chitosan scored significantly higher than the others with reference to their cooking properties, color, texture, stability for storage stability, and sensory evaluation. These results show that the findings of this study demonstrated that the noodles added to nanoemulsions could be produced as a food-grade merchandise because they could provide enhanced encapsulation capacity of capsaicinoids and higher acceptability.
Gastrodia elata Blume often has been used for the treatment of headaches, convulsions, hypertension, and neurodegenerative diseases. The main active constituents are gastrodin, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, vanillyl alcohol, 4-hydroxybenzylaldehyde and parishin A, B, C and E. Because Gastrodia elata has also unacceptable off-odor (swine barnyard-like) for food, there is a need to reduce it as well as allow for greater utilization as a functional food materials. In this study, a major off-odor producing substance of Gastrodia elata was fractionated by steam distillation and silica gel column chromatography. The substance was identified as p-cresol(4-methyl phenol) by GC-MS analysis and comparison of the retention time with that of an authentic compound in GC. The content of p-cresol in fermented Gastrodia elata was decreased. A fermented sample of Latobacillus sakei for 2 days was reduced to 54.7%, when compared with a unfermented sample. The five parishin derivatives in Gastrodia elata were identified by HPLC-MS analyses, and a comparison of HPLC retention times with those of authentic compounds. When compared with parishin derivatives of an unfermented Gastrodia elata, those of Gastrodia elata fermented by L. sakei, increased to 18.3% for 2 days. Increases of about 14.0~38.4% of the total phenolic compounds and 57.4~77.3% total flavonoids were found in fermented extracts, by 3 lactic acid bacteria strains. They were compared with 97.1±2.9 μg/g and 40.9±2.0 μg/g in the unfermented control, respectively. The extracts of Gastrodia elata Blume that were fermented by lactic acid bacteria had higher DPPH free radical scavenging activity and FRAP reducing power than the unfermented control.
The purpose of this study was to investigate self-esteem, body image, body cathexis and body attitude of female middle school students. A total of 298 subjects were included in this study. Subjects were classified into weight control group and a non weight control group. As a result of analyzing body shapes satisfaction was higher in the non weight control group 2.83 than in the weight control group 2.28 (p<0.001). The weight control group revealed lower body satisfaction than the non weight control group. The result of the reason for weight control was the ratio of ‘weight loss’ 84.6%, respectively (p<0.001). Factors impacting physical image of female middle school students were analyzed as friends (3.46), internet (3.22), and TV (3.13). Results suggest that educational program should be combined with a positive emphasis on physical image and self-esteem for female middle school students. Also, there was a high correlation between body weight and self-esteem. Results indicate that female middle school students are interested in weight loss with the wrong body image. Therefore, female middle school students should be provided with an educational approach to such issues so that they have a realistic perception of their body and form realistic values about self-esteem and body.
This study was performed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of osteoarthritis in the elderly using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013~2014 KNHANES VI). A total of 2,148 (936 males, 1212 females) elderly participants aged 65 years or older were selected. Prevalence of osteoarthritis was higher in 460 female (80.7%) and 167 rural (29.1%) groups, than in 110 male (19.3%) and 404 urban (70.9%) groups. While the mean values of LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride level, and waist circumference were significantly higher in the osteoarthritis group than the normal group, other parameters including height, HDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin and hematocrit values were not. Quality of life (EQ-5D) was also significantly lower in the osteoarthritis group. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that smoking, alcohol intake, obesity, hypercholesterolemia and energy intakes were significantly different in regards to the prevalence of osteoarthritis. This study suggests that obesity and energy intakes were associated with osteoarthritis, whereas risk factors of chronic disease, such as hypertension, Hypo-high density lipoprotein, hypertriglyceridemia, anemia, diabetes, vigorous physical activity, moderate physical activity and walking were not. Long-term prospective study is necessary to investigate the effects of these factors on osteoarthritis.
To compare functional Chinese cabbage(‘Amtak’ baechu; F1 hybrid cultivar between Brassica rapa and B. perkinensis, AB) with general Chinese cabbage (‘Chunkwang’ baechu; general spring cultivar, CB), two kinds of kimchi(ABK and CBK) prepared with AB and CB cultivar were fermented at 10°C for 10 days. Their fermentative characteristics and anti-proliferative activities against mouse carcinoma cell lines were investigated. General kimchi(CBK) showed mature pH on the 6th day of fermentation, whereas functional kimchi(ABK) reached pH on the 9th day. CBK also exhibited acidity of mature stage on the 6th day, but ABK reached mature acidity on the 9th day. Although ABK and CBK were salted in the same condition, ABK had lower salinity than CBK, throughout the fermentation time. The highest total bacterial and lactic bacterial counts of CBK showed on the 8th day of fermentation, but ABK showed the highest total bacterial and lactic bacterial counts on the 10th day. The texture of ABK was harder than CBK for fermentation time. This seems to be corrleated with the slower fermentation rate of ABK. ABK showed significantly higher anti-proliferative activity (54.6% cell viability of control) in B16BL6 at 1,000 μg/mL. ABK was also higher in anti-proliferative activity than CBK throughout the fermentation time. However, there was no significant difference in the anti-proliferative activity of ABK between the fermentation times. In conclusion, fermentation of ABK showed a better texture, due to the slow fermentation rate and more anti-proliferative activity against mouse carcinoma cell line than those of CBK.
In order to verify the quality characteristics of soybean milk added chickpeas, the following characteristics were investigated: pH, solid contents, color, DPPH radical scavenging, as well as electric nose and sensory evaluation. Physicochemical and the sensory characteristics were analyzed based on the experimental data. The pH value was different in the control and the treatments (p<0.005). As the quantity of chickpea content increased, the solid content was augmented (p<0.0001). The L value was 56.86 in the control, and with the amount of chickpea addition increasing, the L value increased to 57.43 in 100% chickpea soybean milk (p<0.0001). The a value and b value also increased significantly (p<0.0001). However, the DPPH radical scavenging in the control was the lowest but the antioxidant activity of 100% chickpea milk was more than 2.5 higher than that of the control (p<0.0001). In the electric nose experiment, the flavor component of 20%, 30% and 100% chickpea treatment showed a significant difference compared to the control in the flavor components. In the sensory evaluation, for the score of flavor (p<0.001) and taste (p<0.0001), the score was higher in the treatments where 20% and 30% of chickpeas were added. In the sensory test of texture, there was no significant difference in the different experimental conditions except for the 100% chickpea addition treatment. In the overall acceptability test, the scores of 20% and 30% chickpea treatment were the highest results, compared to other treatments (p<0.0001). According to the correlation analysis, both antioxidant activity (0.797) and solid content (0.834) had shown high correlation to pH among the physiochemical characteristics (p<0.01). In the sensory evaluation, color, flavor, taste, texture and overall acceptability had shown a positive correlation to the amount of the soy bean milk added chickpea (p<0.01). In particular, the overall acceptability had shown the highest correlation to the taste (0.803), and it was the texture which resulted in the next highest correlation for overall acceptability (0.666).
As the consumption of wheat has increased recently, the number of people who have digestive problems resulting from gluten in wheat has also increased. Teff has an attractive nutritional profile, as it not only gluten-free but also high in dietary fiber, protein, iron, and calcium. Seven samples were prepared for this study. The quality characteristics of gluten-free noodles were evaluated based on pH, salinity, water absorption, turbidity, color, texture properties, tensile strength, and SEM. The pH value was the highest in TF100 with a pH of 6.66 and the lowest in the control with a pH of 6.42. Salinity showed no significant difference among all samples, and it ranged from 0.02~0.04% (p<0.05). Water absorption was the highest in TFX with a value of 66.11%, and the lowest in the control with a value of 44.81%. Turbidity showed no significant difference among all samples, and it ranged from 0.14~0.21 O.D. (p<0.05). While the lightness and yellowness values decreased with an increase in teff flour content, the redness value tended to decrease. The color difference value was the highest in the sample group without gluten. Based on the texture profile analysis, the hardness was highest in the control with a value of 46.74 N and lowest in TF100 with a value of 18.34 N. The springiness showed no significant difference among all samples. The cohesiveness was highest in the control with a value of 0.92 N. The chewiness decreased with an increase in teff flour content. Although the control with gluten had the highest tensile strength at 3.42 kg/cm2, TFX had considerable tensile strength at 2.30 kg/cm2. This study demonstrated the processability of gluten-free noodles using teff flour.
(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a major catechin found in green tea. It is reported that EGCG possesses various health benefits including anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-diabetes, and anti-obesity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of EGCG on adipogenesis via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In order to determine the effects of EGCG on adipogenesis, preadipocyte differentiation was induced in the presence or absence of EGCG (0~100 μM) for a period of 6 days. EGCG significantly inhibited fat accumulation and suppressed the expression of adipogenic specific proteins including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. Also, EGCG markedly increased the activation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, any pretreatment with a specific AMPK inhibitor, compound C, abolished the inhibitory effects of the EGCG on PPARγ expression. This study suggests that EGCG has anti-adipogenic effects through modulation of the AMPK signaling pathway and therefore, may be a promising antiobesity agent.
In order to improve the usability of mealworm and the nutritional quality of acorn Mook mostly composed of carbohydrates, we prepared acorn Mook using with different levels of mealworm powder, and the physico-chemical and sensory evaluation were investigated. In the content of proximate chemical composition, moisture content did not show any significant difference. But crude protein, crude ash, and crude fat contents were increased with increasing mealworm content. Carbohydrate content was reduced as mealworm content increased. Lightness showed no significant difference among treatments, redness was increased, and yellowness was decreased as the amount of mealworm powder increased. In physiological properties, hardness, gumminess, chewiness, and springiness were significantly increased as the amount of mealworm powder decreased. However, adhesiveness and cohesiveness were not significantly different. Ascorbic acid content, activities of DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were decreased with increasing amount of mealworm in acorn Mook. In sensory evaluation, acorn Mook containing 0.75% of mealworm powder showed highly preference compared with the control.