This study was conducted to explore the potential of Pungsannamul-kong, which did not germinate from soybean to bean sprouts and was discarded, and to find out the changes in composition and bioactivity during roasting treatment. The functional effectiveness of isoflavone contents, as well as their antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities, were analyzed with Pungsannamul-kong roasted at various temperatures: 100oC (RoJP100), 120oC (RoJP120), 140oC (RoJP140), 160oC (RoJP160), and 180oC (RoJP180). The aglycone content of isoflavones was the highest (87.58 μg/g) in RoJP180 and was correlated with the increase of genistein. As the roasting temperature rose, total polyphenol content increased to 410.32 μg GAE/mg, flavonoid content to 56.04 μg QE/mg, DPPH radical scavenging activity to 76.59%, ABTS radical scavenging activity to 51.97%, and SOD-like activity to 52.63%. NO production was significantly suppressed in 500 μg/mL of all the roasted Pungsannamul-kong groups (p<0.05). TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 expressions were suppressed in a concentrationdependent manner as the roasting temperature increased. Western blotting also showed that iNOS and COX-2 expression were suppressed after roasting at 180oC, confirming an anti-inflammatory effect. This study concluded that non-germinated soybeans were still valuable in terms of nutritional and functional properties. Moreover, roasting treatment increased the isoflavone content and improved physiological bioactivities such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
This study was conducted to survey the perception and preferences of customers that have dined at Korean restaurants in China and investigate the importance and performance level of quality attributes, customer satisfaction, revisit intention and recommendation intention. The survey was conducted January 31~March 1, 2016 in China. The 293 questionnaires (97.7%) were analyzed using SPSS(Ver. 23.0) and AMOS(Ver. 21.0). Results of this study are as follow: Customers that dined at a Korean restaurant in China were composed of 157 women and 136 men. Regarding the reason for preferring Korean cuisine, taste, hygiene and nutritional value of Korean food were the most significant quality factors. Regarding complaints about Korean food, Chinese people placed much emphasis on freshness of ingredients when dining out, based on the majority of complaints about ingredients that were not fresh. The main reason for leftover food were personal eating habits and that of customers revisiting food taste and nutrition. Path model among customer satisfaction, revisit intention and recommendation intention revealed the factor of menus and attributes of menu items regarding customer’s age that had an impact on customers’ satisfaction, and association with customers’ satisfaction, revisit intention and recommendation intention as well.
This study was conducted to examine the effects of Chinese perceptions of quality attributes on customer’s satisfaction, revisit intention and recommendation intention for coffee shops in Beijing, China. Subjects of this study included 200 customers who had visited a coffee shop at least once during the last year. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS v23.0 and AMOS v21.0. In this study, the majority of customers visited a coffee shop once or twice a week with friends. Respondents preferred tall-sized warm coffee in the store. The coffee shop quality attributes of were derived from five exploratory factors identified upon analysis of 30 observational variables. It was important to maintain and strengthen the quality attributes of coffee shops in this area because IPA(Importance Performance Analysis) analysis showed that “Doing great, keep it well” part was a desirable area because it had high importance and performance. Finally, path analysis revealed that customer satisfaction was influenced by employee attitude and affected revisit intention and recommendation intention.
This study examined the traditional edible basis and ingredients of Song-gi used for Pyeon of Jong-ga ancestral ritual food. Through an investigation of references, a case study, and ingredient analysis for traditional edible basis of Song-gi, the nutritional value and availability as food material were reviewed. Among the 4 kinds of pine trees from 4,705 types of edible materials usable as food listed in the 《Korea Food Standards Codex》, ‘Pinus radiata D. Don’, in which the husk is acknowledged as an edible food, was applied in this study. This study processed the Song-gi following the method of jongga and divided into pine inner bark (PIB) and pine inner bark powder (PIBP) to analyze the general composition and dietary fiber. The main composition of PIB was carbohydrate, in which the content was 88.7% per 100 g. The content of dietary fiber was 73.7% per 100 g and the insoluble dietary fiber reached 92.3% in total dietary fiber. In conclusion, the edibility of Song-gi, which has a considerable amount of insoluble dietary fiber caused constipation because it absorbed the moisture in the intestine due to the lack of nutrients but may be developed as a functional food that helps the digestive activation of the intestine and improve the health of the intestine if taken with balanced nutrition.
This study was conducted to optimize the conditions of a sweet rice paste as a replacement of red bean paste recipe using the central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). Ten experimental recipes with two reference points (rice flour and sugar), were selected, and the physical and sensory characteristics of a sweet rice paste were measured. In the Rapid Visco Analyzer test, breakdown value was the highest in rice flour (105.73 RVU). Sweetness significantly increased with addition of sugar contents (p<0.0002) and viscosity increased with addition of rice flour contents (p<0.0185). Moisture contents decreased with increasing contents of rice flour and sugar, whereas yellowness and redness tend to increase. In the sensory evaluation test, quadratic models for color (p<0.01865), sweetness (p<0.0399), thickness (p<0.0073), and overall acceptability (p<0.0249) were approved as independent for the rice flour and sugar contents. In conclusion, the optimal mixing ratio of sweet rice paste was determined to be 45.38 g of rice flour and 77.95 g of sugar.
This study was conducted to investigate the bioconversion of ginsenosides as well as anti-inflammatory activities of fresh ginseng Kkakdugi during fermentation. Fresh ginseng Kkakdugi reached proper ripeness, pH 4.30, and acidity 1.69% at 15oC after 10 days. Lactic acid bacteria grew until reaching 1.10×109 CFU/mL after 20 days of fermentation, and β- glucosidase activity increased from 1.154 to 1.885 units/g. The bioconversion of ginsenosides was confirmed based on increased content of Rg3, an aglycone, from 0.13 to 0.17 mg/g during fermentation through HPLC. Fresh ginseng Kkakdugi did not display cytotoxicity up to the concentrations of 80 μg/mL, regardless of ripening period. Nitrite production and expression of inflammation-related proteins, iNOS and COX-2, decreased in a dose-dependent manner regardless of ripening period. From these results, fresh ginseng Kkakdugi showed the bioconversion of ginsenosides to aglycone during the lactic acid fermentation as well as an anti-inflammatory effect through the reduction of NO production and iNOS and COX-2 expression
Antioxidant activity of dropwort fermented extract (DFE) was measured according to fermentation period, and liverprotective effects were examined using Sprague-Dawley rats. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents as well as DPPH andABTS radical scavenging activities increased up to 60~80 days and then decreased slightly. Proper fermentation time forDFE was more than 60 days and less than 80 days. Administration of alcohol to rats for 10 days at 10mL/kg/day raisedserum AST, ALT, total cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) levels, which were then lowered by DFE and sugar liquid with thesame soluble solids. While sugar liquid increased the blood lipid profile, especially TG levels, DFE had no effect due to itsantioxidant activity. When TBARS content of the DFE group in liver tissue significantly decreased in a concentration-dependent manner compared to that of the ALH group (p<0.05). Liver damage was recovered by DFE treatment and wasconfirmed by hamatoxylin-eosin staining. These results suggest that DFE has a protective effect against alcohol-inducedhepatotoxicity in SD rats.
This study was conducted to develop the unique native local foods of Namwon and to provide basic data needed to reinvigoratethe tourist industry and local economy. Perception and satisfaction with native local foods of Namwon were surveyed in 483 tourists (246 men and 237 women 53% visiting Namwon for the first time). Of the participants, 41.2% did not stay or eat in Namwon. Most tourists visited with other family members and spent approximately 20,000 won per capita on food. Of the foods sampled for the first time, preferred foods were (in order of preference and intention to order again) Chueo-tang, Hanjeongsik, wild edible greens-jeongsik, and black pork. The degree of food satisfaction was relatively favorable (3.54±0.08 points on a 5-point satisfaction scale), with taste being the most important factor affecting the degree of satisfaction for 92.9% of the subjects. However, willingness to revisit Namwon on the basis of the local foods was not as high as the degree of satisfaction with the foods. Insufficient information and publicity concerning Namwon local foods were cited as impediments, and suggested improvements included taste, sanitation and food-based tourism. The degree of satisfaction was higher in men than in women. Age, residence, and occupation were not related to the degree of satisfaction. But, the willingness to revisit Namwon to sample local foods was related with gender (men more willing) and occupation (public service personnel, business owners, salaried employees, professionals, and housewives more willing, in order). Women in general and housewives in particular were most critical in food assessment.
The purpose of this study was to examine parents' perceptions towards, and the importance and performance levels of, foodservices in child-care centers and to suggest ways to increase foodservice quality and promote efficient operations in the future. A questionnaire survey was provided to 540 parents and the return rates 82%. The survey period was from June 20 to July 27,2007. The collected data were statistically analyzed with the SAS package program using descriptive statistical analysis, t-tests, ANOVA, Duncan's multiple comparisons, factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis. The results were as follows: The parents perceived that foodservice operations promoted their children's health and helped them form desirable dietary habits. The parents also had a high level of perception toward the need for foodservice, earning greater than 4.5 points out of 5 points. Their perceptions of foodservice quality were examined by four dimensions of importance and performance levels. While the parents gave 4 points or greater of 5 points to most quality attributes of importance level, they gave 4 points of less out of 5 points to most quality attributes of performance level. As for the importance and performance levels of the quality dimensions of meal service, the parents regarded sanitation as the most important dimension. IPA showed that 'organic food materials' was included as a 'focus here' area. The overall satisfaction level for foodservice was 3.59 out of 5 points. A higher level of satisfaction was shown when a dietitian was present as well as in public childcare centers. According to multiple regression analysis, 53.51% of the variance in the respondents' overall satisfaction scores was explained by factors such as food, sanitation, environment, and foodservice effects.
The purposes of this study were to identify the students’ perception and to evaluate the satisfaction with the quality of school foodservice in Chungbuk Province. A questionnaire survey of 900 students was conducted and 370 completed questionnaires were available for the purpose of the statistical evaluation. Statistical analyses were performed on the data utilizing the SAS V8.2 program. Importance, performance and satisfaction scale were composed of 5-Likert scales. The main results of this study were summarized as follows: The degree of importance and performance on twenty three attributes and the degree of satisfaction with four dimensions and overall satisfaction were measured according to type of school, location of school, place for eating, type of foodservice system and type of foodservice operation. The importance score was significantly higher than the performance score at all quality attributes except for the food appearance. The performance score of ‘waiting time’ and ‘atmosphere’ was less than 3 point out of 5 scale. The average satisfaction score for the quality dimensions of food, sanitation and service was 3.35, 3.19 and 3.10 point out of 5 scale, respectively. The satisfaction score for dimension of environment was 2.93 point out of 5 scale. The score for overall satisfaction was 3.27 point out of 5 scale. The satisfaction score for elementary school foodservice management was significantly higher than middle and high school foodservices. The satisfaction score for commissary foodservice operations was significantly higher than conventional foodservice operations. Using survey results as a base, the dieticians of school foodservice are required to meet the needs of the students and increase students’ satisfaction.
The purposes of this study were to (a) measuring attitude and satisfaction of Yonsei university students towards contracted vs. rented university foodservices, (b) determine university students' overall satisfaction & perception regarding the factors improved towards university foodservice and (c) provide recommendation on marketing strategies for university foodservices. Questionnaires were hand delivered to 600 Yonsei University students by designated coordinators. A total of 549 questionnaires were usable; resulting in an 93% response rate. The survey was conducted between October 12 to October 18, 1995. Statistical data analysis was completed using the SAS Programs for descriptive analysis, T-test, χ2-test, ANOVA, Factor Analysis and Stepwise Multiple Regression. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: 1. Performance mean score for contracted foodservice management in terms of food, menu, price, hygiene, facilities was higher than for rented foodservice management. 2. The average satisfaction score for contracted foodservice management in terms of price was lower than for rented foodservice management. There was no gap between contracted foodservice management and rented foodservice management in overall satisfaction score and price satisfaction score. 3. Perception regarding the factors improved of thirteen factors to be improved except operating hours, waiting time, price, food quantity were perceived as better by students. 4. Perception regarding the factors improved have correlation with foodservice qualify attribute's performance. 5. According to multiple regression analysis, 92.05% of the variance in respondents' satisfaction score could be explained by procedure after meal, purchasing procedure, operating hours, availability of breakfast, waiting time, atmosphere, price, facilities, service endeavor to survey satisfaction in foodservice, availability of kitchen and wall space, portion size, taste of food, change of cafeteria name, the number of seats, and variety of menu.