In this study, a safety evaluation was conducted to confirm if the Enterococcus faecium CKDB003 strain obtained by selection from a mixed fermentation of fruit and milk is suitable for use as a probiotic. The MIC value for the 10 antibiotics specified in the EFSA guidance was below the acceptable cut-off value. The antibiotic resistance genes aac(6')-li, eatAv, and msr(C) exist by whole genome sequencing, but are in the chromosome and not in the plasmid, thus confirming that there is no possibility of transmission to other microorganisms. It was confirmed that cytolysin (cylA, cylB, cylI, cylL-l, cylL-s, cylM, cylR1, cylR2), aggregation substance (asa1, asp1), collagen adhesion (ace), enterococcal surface protein (esp), endocarditis antigen (efaA), hyaluronidase (hyl) and gelatinase (gelE) were not present in the genome by examining the genes of factors related to virulence. Also, the biochemical analysis showed no toxic enzyme activities, and no virulence genes were detected by the PCR method. Thus, the E. faecium CKDB003 strain can be safely used as a health functional food probiotic, based on the results of the safety assessment.
In this study, the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2016 examined the nutrient and food intake of women in their 20s and 30s according to the number of meals a day, and the results were as follows: The study included 256 women in their 20s and 474 women in their 30s. Women in their 20s and 30s ate two meals a day, indicating that the notion of three meals a day was gradually changing to two to three meals a day. Those in their 20s and 30s who eat one, two or three meals a day were consuming less than the estimated energy requirement of the DRI for Koreans 2015. The vitamin A and C were eating less than the recommended intake in all meals. In the case of minerals, calcium was taken less than the recommended intake in all meals, but sodium was taken above the goal intake in all groups. Women in their 20s and 30s must reduce their intake of saturated fatty acids and sodium, and increase their intake of vitamins A, C, calcium, and potassium. Women in their 20s and 30s drank a lot of coffee, ate baechu-kimchi and rice frequently per week.
The aging treatment was applied to Rehmannia glutinosa rhizome (RGR) to improve the digestibility by the enzymatic hydrolysis of undigestible sugars. However, RGR spoils easily during the aging treatment. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of ethanol addition as preservatives on sugars and microbial growth of aged RGR. The RGR was treated with the addition of ethanol (0~10%) at 55℃ for eight days. Reducing, free sugars, and total bacterial counts of RGR with ethanol concentrations were analyzed during the aging periods. The aged RGR with 0-2% ethanol appeared spoiled in appearance, and total bacterial counts of these samples increased from 1.1×105 to 2.2×107 CFU and then decreased again. When treated with 4~10% ethanol, the total bacterial counts of aged RGR decreased by more than 99.9% at eight days. In all samples, reducing and digestible sugars increased, and stachyose decreased by the aging treatment. Sucrose content was highest in the 6% ethanol sample (18.2% at six days). These results indicate that the ethanol addition can be applied to the aging treatment of the RGR for improving qualities (sweetness, digestibility, and microbial growth), and can be considered for the stable production of high quality aged RGR.
This study investigated the volatile flavor composition of essential oils from Solidago virga-aurea var. asiatica Nakai with different harvesting area. The essential oils obtained by the hydrodistillation extraction method from the aerial parts of the plants were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Ninety-five (91.61%) volatile flavor compounds were identified in the essential oils from the S. virga-aurea var. asiatica Nakai harvested in Koheung, Jeolanamdo. The major compounds were hexadecanoic acid (29.22%), 7-hexyl eicosane (9.12%), spathulenol (7.701%), 3,8-dimethyl decane (6.48%), caryophyllene oxide (4.52%) and α-copaene (4.23%). Fifty-seven (97.43%) volatile flavor compounds were identified in the essential oils from the S. virga-aurea var. asiatica Nakai harvested in Seoguipo, Jejudo. The major compounds were 2-carene (40.95%), α-copaene (10.77%), α-muurolene (5.81%), and spathulenol (3.11%). The chemical composition of the essential oils was significantly different in quality and quantity with the different harvesting area. The quantitative variations of hexadecanoic acid, 7-hexyl eicosane, spathulenol, 3,8-dimethyl decane, caryophyllene oxide, 2-carene, and α-copaene according to different harvesting area can serve as a quality index of the S. virga-aurea var. asiatica Nakai essential oils in food industries.
This study was conducted with 375 workers in Changwon to examine the effects of working patterns on dietary habits and health. A self-administered questionnaire was conducted July 22 October 30, 2019. According to the results of the dietary habits and health related factors analysis, non-shift administrative workers showed significantly higher rates of green tea intake (p<0.05), and shift production workers showed significantly higher smoking rates (p<0.001) and waist circumferences (p<0.01). According to the results of the Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis, work hours showed negative correlations with job satisfaction (r=0.22, p<0.01) and positive correlations with perceived stress level (r=0.14, p<0.01). Temporary workers showed negative correlations with feel job satisfaction(r=0.14, p<0.01), perceived stress level (r=0.12, p<0.05), and concern about health (r=0.13, p<0.05). Diabetes showed positive correlations with hypertension (r=0.20, p<0.01), low HDL cholesterolemia (r=0.22, p<0.01), abdominal obesity (r=0.13, p<0.05), and hypertriglyceridemia(r=0.22, p<0.01). Based on these results, this researcher proposes that continuous attention and support of industries and communities are necessary for nutritional education and counseling relative to improving workers’ dietary lives as well as disease prevention and control.
In this study, the properties of the substances fermented soybean producted by manufacturing with several Aspergillus strains were investigated. The five soybean cultivar that includes miso, jinpung, pyeongwon, cheonga and chamol were used in this experiment. The pH and total acidity were 6.30~6.66%, and 0.27~0.48%, respectively with differences depending on the samples. The color values for L value, a, and b value were 60.28~69.80, 0.64~3.68, and 11.48~31.21, respectively. The amylase activities, protease activities, and amino-type nitrogen of the jinpung samples were the highest among all cultivars. The mold counts the fermented soybean products by cultivars were 6.18~9.14 log CFU/g, and miso was the highest. Free amino acid and organic acid contents were highest in the jinpung and showed different composition depending on each sample. A total of 18 volatile aroma-compounds, including two acids, four alcohols, four ketones, three phenols, one furan, three pyrazines, and one miscellaneous compounds. In conclusion, it is expected that manufacturing A. oligze inoculation fermented soybean products using jinpung cultivar will improve quality.
When producing rice products, it is very important to select suitable raw materials. Therefore, in this study, the quality characteristics of 16 rice cultivars were quantified to determine the criteria for evaluating the machinability of raw rice. The L value, which can affect the color of porridge prepared from rice, was the greatest for Hwaseonchalbyeo (84.17). The water-binding capacity, related to water interaction, was high in Hyangcheola (113.2%), and water solubility was high in Shingil (22.3%). Dodamssal (42.3%, 70.7 RVU) and Hwaseonchalbyeo (4.7%, 27.8 RVU) showed lower final viscosity compared to the cultivars in which the amylose content was medium groups (16.4~21.2%, 173.6~277.2 RVU). Specifically, cultivars with high or low amylose content had a low viscosity. The characteristics of the distribution of raw rice quality data were confirmed through 11 histograms. Furthermore, amylose content vs. water solubility, water solubility vs. peak viscosity, and peak viscosity vs. final viscosity showed high correlations (r=0.542, －0.569, and 0.836 respectively, p<0.01), and clear cultivar discrimination by the standard error of the mean (0.765~10.811). In conclusion, amylose content, water solubility, and peak viscosity were considered the most suitable characteristics for the quality evaluation of raw rice.
This study investigated the quality characteristics of black soybean sediments to diversify the availability of soybean. The cooking method selected for black soybean sediment preparation was a pressure cooking process without soaking, considering the isoflavone content. The black soybean sediments were prepared by the addition of 0, 10, 30, 50 and 100% (w/w) black soybean. When 0% to 100% black soybean was added to the black soybean sediments, the moisture and crude protein contents increased from 53.17% to 54.41% and from 12.07% to 21.68%, respectively. The total isoflavone content of the black soybean sediments was increased from 2.69 μg/g to 696.09 μg/g, respectively, by the addition of black soybean. The anthocyanin content of the black soybean sediments ranged from 279.29 μg/g to 387.8 μg/g by the addition of black soybean. The total polyphenol content and the total flavonoid content of the black soybean sediments range from 1.72 mg/g to 2.00 mg/g and 0.89 mg/g to 0.92 mg/g, respectively, by the addition of black soybean. Given the isoflavones, total polyphenol, and anthocyanin content of the black soybean sediments, it is appropriate that the ratio of added black soybeans is at least 50% after the pressure-cooking process, regardless of soaking.
In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Ulva lactuca methanol extracts against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced DNA damage in HaCaT cells. First, the contents of general and antioxidative nutrient contents of Ulva lactuca were measured. The moisture, carbohydrate, crude protein, crude fat and ash were 14.01%, 44.80%, 23.19%, 3.10% and 14.90%, respectively. Magnesium that acts as DNA repair enzyme cofactor was the most abundant mineral followed by Ca, P and Fe. The total phenolic and anthocyanoside contents of Ulva lactuca were 2.69 mg/g and 0.13 mg/g, respectively. Cells treated with Ulva lactuca methanol extracts for 24 hours post UVB exposure increased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner compared to the non-treated control. Also, Ulva lactuca methanol extracts decreased the levels of UVB-induced DNA damage such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer and DNA damage response (DDR) proteins such as p-p53 and p21. These results suggest that Ulva lactuca methanol extracts comprising physiological active substances such as Mg, polyphenols and anthocyanosides promote DNA repair by regulating genes related with DDR.
Pumpkin sweet potato (Ipomoea batas L.) has been known as a traditional remedy and food source, not only in South Korea but worldwide. It is rich in fiber, potassium, vitamin C, and other minerals and vitamins, making it a nutritional food loved by many. showed that pumpkin sweet potato had antioxidant biological effects. The in vitro study showed that both splenocytes and cytokine production byactivated peritoneal macrophages increased when water extracts were supplemented at 100 and 250 μL/mL. Notably, the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ by splenocytes was significantly increased at 100 μL/mL. The results suggest that supplementation with pumpkin sweet potato (Ipomoea batas L.) water extract may enhance immune function by stimulating splenocyte proliferation and improving cytokine production, activating macrophages in vitro.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the comparison of nutrient intake and metabolic syndrome between single person households and non-single person households in elderly subjects. We analyzed data from 2,903 subjects ≥ age 65 who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2013~2015. As a result, single-person households had lower income and economic ability, overall nutrient intake was deteriorated, and the proportion of high-carbohydrate intake was high, compared to non-single person households. After adjusting for potential confounders (sex, age, education, household income, economic activity, smoking status, alcohol consumption, walking frequency, health status, depression status, and dietary factors), the singleperson household showed a tendency of 1.22-fold higher ORs of metabolic syndrome and 1.3-fold higher ORs of hypertriglyceridemia than the non-single-person household. We suggest that the single-person household may be associated with increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome and hypertriglyceridemia in the elderly subjects.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of noni (Morinda citrifolia) powder on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of ground pork meat. Four samples of ground pork meat were prepared as follow: CON without noni powder, NP0.5 with 0.5% noni powder, NP1.0 with 1.0% noni powder, and NP1.5 with 1.5% noni powder. The moisture content of CON was the highest (p<0.05). The ash, fiber, fat retention, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, lightness, and yellowness increased with the addition of the noni powder (p<0.05). The protein, fat, water holding capacity, cooking yield, moisture retention, springiness,and redness of the cooked meat were not significantly different among the samples. The pH of CON was the highest among the samples (p<0.05). The TBARS of CON, NP0.5, NP1.0, and NP1.5 were 0.48, 0.41, 0.36 and 0.34 mg/kg, respectively, and the NP1.5 was the lowest (p<0.05). The DPPH radical scavenging activity of CON, NP0.5, NP1.0, and NP1.5 were 10.4%, 20.8%, 34.6% and 45.3%, respectively, and the NP1.5 was the highest (p<0.05). Consequently, these results support the possible use of noni powder for meat product industry, as addition of noni powder enhances the antioxidant activities of ground pork meat.
Although aronia (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott) contains higher levels of polyphenols and more antioxidant activity than other berries, it is a berry that is difficult to eat raw due to its strong astringent taste and lack of sweetness. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of tannin reduction of aronia by bioconversion method using mushroom mycelia cultures. Aronia and liquid cultures of Lentinula edodes and Phellinus linteus mycelia were mixed and then treated for 48 hours at 60°C. Tannin content, total polyphenol, total flavonoid and antioxidant activities (DPPH, ABTS radical-scavenging activities and FRAP activities) were investigated. The tannin content decreased from 64.2 mg ECE/g to 57.9 mg ECE/g (9.8% reduction) when treated with liquid culture of L. edodes and from 77.3 mg ECE/g to 47.9 mg ECE/g (38.1% reduction) from treatment with a liquid culture of P. linteus. Therefore treatment with mushroom mycelia culture solution may improve the palatability of aronia reducing the astringent taste.
Cognitive impairment is considered to be key research topics in the field of neurodegenerative diseases and in understanding of learning and memory. In the present study, we investigated neuroprotective effects of Schisandra chinensis (SC) and Ribes fasciculatum (RF) extracts in hydrogen peroxide-induced neuronal cell death in vitro and scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in Sprague Dawley® (SD) rat in vivo. Apoptotic cell death in neuroblastic PC12 cell line was induced by hydrogen peroxide for 1 hour at 100 μM. However, mixture of SC and RF treatment prevented peroxide induced PC12 cell death with no neurotoxic effects. For in vivo experiment, the effect of SC and RF extracts on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in SD rat was evaluated by spontaneous alternation behavior in Y-Maze test. After 30 min scopolamine injection, the scopolamine-induced rats presented significantly decreased % spontaneous alteration and acetylcholine level, compared to non-induced group. However, treatment of SC+RF extracts rescued the reduced % spontaneous alteration with acetylcholine concentration from hippocampus in scopolamineinduced rats. These results suggested that mixture of SC and RF extract may be a potential natural therapeutic agent for the prevention of cognitive impairment.
This study was performed to provide fundamental data on the convenience foods purchase according to the food-related lifestyle. This study was conducted on 398 Chinese international students residing in Gyeonggi area between October and December 2019. Among the total 373 survey subjects, gender was 183 male students (49.1%) and 190 female students (50.9%). This study was conducted by questionnaire method with reference to previous studies. There are significant differences in economic pursuit and taste pursuit for delivery food use, economic pursuit and taste pursuit for delivery food information, health pursuit and taste pursuit in delivery food ordering method, and economic pursuit and convenience pursuit for delivery food use (p<0.05). Delivery food usage time was significantly different in convenience pursuit, health pursuit, eating out pursuit, and taste pursuit (p<0.05), and the delivery food preference menu was significantly different in economic pursuit, health pursuit, eating out pursuit, and taste pursuit (p<0.05). The menu positive factors among satisfaction factors showed statistically significant differences in economic pursuit (β=0.188, t=3.531) and health pursuit (β=0.160, t=3.099) among food related lifestyle factors. In conclusion, this study presented the desirable direction of delivery food usage in Chinese students.