This study was conducted to assess the recognition and consumption of meal alone and processed food according to major of college students in Seoul Metropolitan area and Chungcheong province, Republic of Korea. To accomplish this, a survey was conducted to investigate 353 college students (171 food & nutrition majors and 182 non-majors) regarding their general characteristics, dietary behaviors, meal alone issues, and the purchase and consumption of processed food. Most major and non-major students skipped breakfast. The main reason for skipping was not having time. Majors and non-majors put great importance on their lunch and evening meal, respectively. Nutrition information routes for majors were ‘college class’ (62.5%) and ‘TV radio’ (17.5%). However, the routes for non-majors to obtain nutrition information were ‘internet smart phones’ (41.1%) and ‘TV radio’ (28.3%). These results suggest the need to provide correct information concerning nutrition to college students. Most major and non-major students tend to have 0 to 2 times of meal alone per week. The main reason for meal alone was schedule unsuitable for eating with family or friends. The most critical factors for majors and non-majors when they chose menu to have meal alone were personal taste and money, respectively. The primary consideration for choosing processed food was price and the main purchase route was convenience store. The main reason for consuming processed food was easy-to-cook. Of processed foods, the most favored ones were noodles and fish products. Meal alone frequency was positively correlated with age (p<0.05), grade (p<0.05) and monthly allowance (p<0.05). Preference and consumption frequency of processed food were negatively correlated with concern about nutrition (p<0.05) and meal frequency (p<0.05), respectively. Based on these results, greater efforts should be made to provide meaningful information regarding programs for nutrition education to improve their dietary habits. Research and development of processed food specifically for college students eating alone should be increased.
This study was conducted to assess the recognition and consumption of health functional food (HFF) of the college students in the Northern Gyeonggi-do area (Republic of Korea). To accomplish this, a survey was conducted to investigate 360 college students (183 males and 177 females) regarding their general characteristics, as well as the recognition, knowledge, considerations, purchases and consumption of HFF. Most male and female students (68.9% and 61.6%, respectively) were unaware of the HFF certification mark, however, more females(58.8%) were aware of the legal HFF definition compared to males (36.6%). The HFF advertising routes for males and females were ‘TV radio’ (43.2% and 43.5%, respectively) and ‘internet smart phones’ (19.7% and 27.1%, respectively). The main factor considered for selection and the most serious problem concerning HFF by males and females were ‘effectiveness’ (36.1% and 43.6%, respectively) and ‘hype (exaggerated advertisement)’ (35.0% and 55.9%, respectively). The main purchase route by males and females was ‘pharmacy’ (35.2% and 27.8%, respectively). The main reason for HFF product purchase by males and females was ‘health promotion’ (38.8% and 29.4%, respectively) and the main reason for not purchasing an HFF product was ‘no health problem’(34.8% and 36.7%, respectively). The percentage of HFF consumption was 46.0% in males and 69.8% in females. The main HFF product consumed by males and females was ‘vitamin mineral’ (36.9% and 43.5%, respectively). The main reason for HFF consumption by males was ‘health promotion’ (31.0%) and females was ‘recovery from fatigue’ (21.8%). The main reason for not consuming HFF by males and females was ‘no health problem’ (38.4% and 41.5%, respectively). These results suggest the need to provide correct information concerning HFF to college students. Based on these results, greater efforts should be made to provide meaningful information regarding factors affecting purchase and consumption patterns for college students related to the research and development of HFF in the Northern Gyeonggi-do area.
Black tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) is known to have more β-carotene, lycopene, and vitamin C than general redcolored tomatoes. In this study, we evaluated the quality properties, antioxidant activities and sensory characteristics of black tomato cookies. Cookies were prepared by replacing 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7% of flour with black tomato powder. Density of black tomato cookies tended to be decreased between control (1.20) and 3% added groups (1.12). pH value was decreased from control (6.66) to 7% added group (5.16). Spread factor and loss rate were increased with increasing amounts of black tomato powder. Hardness was gradually increased from 107.77 g/cm2 in control to 170.50 g/cm2 in 7% added group. Color measurement indicated that L-value (brightness) was highest in control (70.46) and lowest in 7% added group (45.23); whereas, a-value (redness) increased while b-value (yellowness) tended to decrease with increasing amounts of black tomato powder. Total polyphenol contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities were directly proportional to the amount of black tomato powder. Consumer preference scores in color and flavor of black tomato powder added group were higher than those of control. Characteristic strength test was not significantly different among the groups. Overall, the results indicated that adding 5% black tomato powder is desirable for making black tomato cookies.
본 연구에서는 기능성 제빵제품 개발의 일환으로 라디치 오 분말을 첨가하여 스펀지 케이크를 제조하고, 분말 첨가 비 율(1~7%)에 따른 스펀지 케이크의 품질 특성 및 항산화 활성을 분석하여 적절한 라디치오 분말 첨가량을 제시하고자 하 였다. 라디치오 스펀지 케이크의 pH는 라디치오 분말을 첨가 함에 따라 유의적인 차이를 보이지 않았다으나, 감소하는 경 향이 나타났다. 스펀지 케이크의 비중은 유의적으로 증가하 는 결과를 보였다. 수분 함량은 감소하였으며, 굽기 손실률은 증가하는 경향을 보였다. Crust의 색도는 라디치오 분말의 첨 가 수준에 따라 L, a, b값이 유의적으로 감소하였고, Crumb의 색도는 L값과 b값이 감소하고, a값은 증가하는 경향을 보였 다. 조직감 측정에서는 경도와 씹힘성이 점차 감소하였고, 응 집성과 탄력성은 유의적인 차이가 없었다. 라디치오 분말 첨 가량에 따라 총 폴리페놀 함량이 유의적으로 증가하였고, DPPH 라디칼 소거능 측정에서 IC50은 점점 감소하여 라디치 오 분말을 첨가할수록 스펀지 케이크의 항산화력이 높아지 는 것으로 나타났다. 관능검사 결과, 향미, 단맛, 촉촉함, 씹힘 성 등이 분말 첨가에 따라 감소하였으나, 3% 첨가군에서 색 상 및 전반적인 기호도에서 높은 점수를 받아, 라디치오 분말 을 첨가한 스펀지 케이크 제조 시 밀가루의 3%를 라디치오 분말로 대체하는 것이 가장 적절한 것으로 사료된다.
본 연구의 조사대상자인 경기 북부(의정부, 양주, 동두천)에 거주하는 노인을 성별을 기준으로 구분하여 노인의 급식 서비스 이용 현황 및 만족도를 조사하였다. 일반적 특성을 보면, 평균 연령은 76.7세이며, 남성과 여성이 각각 35.7, 64.3%, 배우자 사별은 남자노인은 46.9%, 여자노인은 85.0%로 나타났다. 학력은 중학교졸 이하가 전체의 88.1%로 대다수를 차지하였고, 과거 직업은 대부분 무직(33.6%)이거나 자영업(13.4%)에 종사하였다. 남자노인과 여자노인 각각 78.1, 79.2%로 비교적 자유로운 일상 활동이 가능하였고, 건강정보 출처는 남자노인과 여자노인 각각 건강전문가(49.0, 45.7%), 대중매체(34.4, 33.5%)의 순이었고, 건강정보 출처 신뢰도 역시 남자노인과 여자노인 각각 건강전문가(65.6, 59.8%), 대중매체(19.5, 20.8%)의 순이었다. 운동 횟수는 남자노인은 '1주일에 1~2회'(43.8%), '매일'(21.9%)의 순이었으나, 여자노인은 '거의 하지 않는다'가 63.0%로 가장 많다고 응답하여 성별에 따른 차이를 보였다. 노인들이 현재 앓고 있는 질환은 남자노인은 '고혈압'(27.1%), '당뇨병'(21.9%), '뇌졸중'(19.8%)의 순이었고, 여자노인은 '고혈압'(32.4%), '당뇨병'(24.9%), '관절염'(15.0%)의 순으로 응답하였다. 급식서비스를 이용하는 이유로는 남자노인은 '혼자 차려먹기 귀찮아서'(28.1%), '친구를 만날 수 있어서'(25.0%), '경제적인 이유'(14.6%)의 순이었으나, 여자노인은 '경제적인 이유'(25.4%), '친구를 만날 수 있어서'(23.1%), '혼자 차려먹기 귀찮아서'(23.1%)의 순으로 응답하였다. 노인의 복지시설 급식서비스의 시행을 알게 된 경위는 남자노인과 여자노인 각각 전체의 36.5, 68.8%가 '집 가까이 있어서' 자연스럽게 알게 되었고, 30.2, 8.7%가 '가족의 소개로 알게 되었다고 응답하였으며, 남자노인과 여자노인의 65.6, 43.4%가 질환별 급식서비스가 '필요하다'고 응답하였다. 남자노인과 여자노인 각각 전체의 56.3, 72.3%, 52.1, 86.7%, 53.1, 89.6%가 급식의 맛, 위생 상태, 온도가 '만족한다'고 응답하여, 특히 여자노인의 만족도가 남자보인보다 훨씬 더 높다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 복지 시설 만족도는 남자노인과 여자노인 각각 전체의 78.1, 69.9%가 '만족한다'고 응답하였고, 이들 중 만족한다고 응답한 노인들을 대상으로 조사한 만족 이유로는 남자노인과 여자노인 각각 '식사를 제공하여서'(28.0, 37.2%), '노인들과 어울려 노는 것이 좋아서'(20.0, 22.3%), '시설이 좋아서'(18.7, 18.2%)의 순으로 응답하였다. 시설종사자 만족도는 '기타 및 무응답'이 남자노인과 여자노인 각각 49.3, 67.8%이었으며, 남자노인은 '시설 행정직원'(13.3%), '간호사'(9.3%), 여자노인은 '간호사'(12.4%), '시설 행정직원'(8.3%)의 순으로 응답하였다. 이상과 같은 결과들을 토대로 복지 관련 시설을 이용하는 노인들의 급식 및 복지서비스의 향상을 위한 기초자료로 제공 및 활용하고, 향후 경기 북부 실버산업의 활성화를 도모하고자 하였다.
1. 본 연구의 조사 대상자인 경기 북부(의정부, 양주, 동두천)에 거주하는 대학생을 성별을 기준으로 구분하여 대학생의 식생활 습관을 알아보기 위하여 먼저 아침식사와 점심식사의 식습관 등에 대하여 조사하였다. 이들 중 ‘매일 먹는다’ 라고 응답한 학생들(38.2, 31.6%)을 제외한 나머지 학생들을 대상으로 조사한 아침 결식의 가장 큰 이유로 ‘시간이 없어서’라고 응답하였고, 아침식사의 종류는 남학생과 여학생이 각각 ‘밥과 반찬’ 79.7, 84.0%로 주식이 쌀인 우리나라는 아침식사의 형태가 밥을 먹는 경우가 월등히 많았다. 점심식사는 아침식사와 달리 규칙적으로 하고 결식률이 낮은 것은 기존의 연구 결과와 유사하였다. 점심식사 장소는 남학생과 여학생 모두 교내 식당보다 외부 식당 이용이 훨씬 많았고, 점심식사의 종류는 남학생과 여학생이 각각 ‘밥 위주 한식’ 70.8, 56.3%, ‘주먹밥 및 볶음밥류’ 16.9, 7.5%, ‘국수 면류’ 3.4, 23.0%의 순으로 나타나, 주로 밥을 먹는 경우가 많았으나, 남학생은 여학생과 다르게 ‘주먹밥 및 볶음밥류’의 섭취가 많았고, 여학생은 남학생과 달리 ‘국수 면류’의 섭취가 많았다. 조사대상자의 점심식사 비용은 남학생과 여학생이 각각 ‘4,000~ 7,000원 미만’ 67.4, 70.1%로 조사되고, 조사 대상자의 한 달 용돈 금액이 남학생과 여학생 각각 ‘20~30만 원’ 24.7, 31.6%, ‘10~20만 원’ 21.3, 27.6%인 것을 볼 때 용돈에서 점심식사 비용이 대부분 차지하는 것을 알 수 있다. 2. 조사 대상자의 간식 습관을 알아보기 위하여 간식 섭취빈도를 조사한 결과, 간식 섭취 횟수는 남학생과 여학생 각각 ‘하루 1회’ 47.2, 51.7%, ‘하루 2~3회’ 31.5, 39.7%의 순으로 나타냈다. 간식을 먹는 시간은 남학생과 여학생 각각 ‘점심~저녁 사이’ 67.4, 67.8%, ‘저녁식사 후’ 21.3, 8.6%, ‘아침~점심사이’ 7.9, 14.4%로 나타났다. 간식을 하는 주된 이유를 살펴보면 남학생과 여학생 각각 ‘배가 고파서’ 46.1, 28.2%, ‘심심해서’ 15.7, 15.5%, ‘습관적으로’ 9.0, 22.4% 등으로 다양하게 나타났다. 주로 먹는 간식의 종류를 살펴보면 남학생과 여학생 각각 ‘과자류’ 25.8, 19.0%, ‘음료수’ 18.0, 14.4%, ‘빵류’ 16.9, 13.2% 순으로 과자류를 가장 선호하는 것으로 나타났고, 야식 섭취 횟수를 조사한 결과, 남학생과 여학생 모두 ‘일주일에 1~2회’가 56.2, 62.1%로 가장 많았다. 3. 향후 젊은 세대가 선호하는 실버타운이나 노인복지 시설의 급식에 대한 기초 자료 조사를 위하여 만 65세 이상의 노인이 되었을 때를 가정하여 조사한 식사 형태는 남학생과 여학생 각각 ‘직접 조리하여 먹기를 원한다’ 48.9 48.9%, ‘주로 외식하기를 원한다’ 20.2, 10.9%, ‘전문급식업체로부터 국이나 반찬을 배달하여 먹기를 원한다’ 11.2, 21.8%의 순으로 나타났다. 노인이 되었을 때 정기적으로 음식을 제공받을 의향은 남학생과 여학생 각각 52.2, 55.7%이었으며, 이들 중 정기 배달식 의향이 있다고 응답한 학생들을 대상으로 조사한 배달식의 고려 사항은 남학생과 여학생 각각 ‘맛’ 38.7, 24.7%, ‘위생’ 35.5, 47.4%, ‘영양’ 19.4, 22.7% 순이었다. 실버타운이나 노인복지시설의 시설급식 의향은 남학생과 여학생 각각 ‘예’ 47.2, 48.3%이며, 이들을 대상으로 조사한 시설급식을 원하는 이유로는 남학생과 여학생 각각 ‘비교적 저렴한 가격에 이용할 수 있어 경제적이다’ 30.9, 22.6%, ‘식사 준비에서 해방될 수 있다’ 21.4, 23.8% 순이었고, 시설급식 의향이 없는 남학생과 여학생들을 대상으로 조사한 시설급식을 원하지 않는 이유로는 남학생과 여학생 각각 ‘실버타운이나 노인복지 시설에 기거하고 싶지 않다’ 36.5, 45.6%, ‘다른 장소로 이동하여 먹고 싶지 않다’ 11.8, 10.0% 순이었다.
The purpose of this study was to analyze information about food and nutrition topics presented throughout the television broadcast media, thereby find out the optimal communication method to give desirable information to the general public. To perform this study were recruited and trained by monitoring education before and during the study. 3 domestic TV channels were selected to be monitored, for 3 months. Results of this study were as follows: First, the total reporting cases of information about foods and nutrition were 154, When each monitored contents was seen from the domain of programs, 128 cases(83.1%) were from current affairs and information program, and 26(16.9%) were from entertainment program. Second, according to survey by channel cases are 26(16.9%) from KBS, 54 cases(35.1%) from MBC, 74 cases(48.1%) from SBS, which means SBS reported the most about nutritional foods. Third, the frequency of reporting information on the overall diet and food & ingredient, cuisine & cookey, health & diet therapy and obesity & diet in order. Forth, among the 26 cases of positive or negative implications made by each cannel of KBS, 18 cases were delivered in positive ways, 7 cases had positive and negative point of views mix together, and 1 cases was negatively delivered. Finally, the most important thing is to organiae the advisory team by connecting mass media and specialist, and the educational program of nutrition should be developed for the communication of right information about foods and nutrition.
The effects of pH and temperature on degradation of anthocyanin in purple-fleshed sweet potato cultivars(Mokpo No.62, Borami, Jami, Sinjami and Ayamurasaki) were determined at pH ranges of 1 to 5 and temperature ranges of 20 to 80℃. The anthocyanin contents of five sweet potato varieties were 3.9, 3.8, 4.7, 4.1, 4.2 ㎎/g of dried sweet potato, respectively. Degradations of anthocyanins at different pHs and temperatures followed the first-order reaction. Our results clearly showed that the anthocyanin stability of purple-fleshed sweet potato was dependent on the source of the sweet potato cultivars. Anthocyanin obtained from Borami showed the highest stability. The half-life of antocyanin degradation of purple sweet potato cultivars(Mokpo No.62, Borami, Jami, Sinjami and Ayamurasaki) at pH 3 were 22.2, 28.3, 26.3, 23.4, 22.7 days at 60℃, respectively. A significant decrease in anthocyanin stability was observed at temperatures above 40℃. Activation energies of purple-fleshed sweet potato cultivars at different temperatures were 54.67, 60.93, 71.73, 59.35, 62.28 kJ/mol, respectively.
This study analyzes flavor ingredients according to types of whisky and maturation periods based on total 40 different types of whisky that are mainly distributed to Korea via imports. Whisky was classified into four categories based on origin, and also into different categories based on maturity period, ingredients such as fusel alcohol, fatty acid, and fatty acid esters and proportion of patterns were analyzed. As a result of an analysis for fusel alcohol, high qualified types of alcohol including 3-methylbutanol, 2-methylbutanol, iso-butanol, and 1-propanol were detected from all Scotch whiskys, America whiskys, and Canadian whiskys. In particular, the proportional sum of 3-methylbutanol and 2-methylbutanol, and the sum of 3-methylbutanol and 2-methylbutanol/iso-butanol were regarded as core factors to determine each type of whisky. Acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, and acetic acid increased as maturation and storage period became longer. As a result of the fatty acid and fatty acid ethyl ester analysis, the major fatty acids were dodecanoic acid and decanoic acid, both with detection of octanoic acid and hexanoic acid. However, dodecanoic acid, decanoic acid, and octanoic acid were lower than the detectable limit in American and Canadian whiskys, showing a unique phenomenon that hexanoic acid was detected only in very small amounts. Malt Scotch whisky showed higher significance than blended Scotch whisky, making it possible to classify types of whisky. Fatty acid ethyl ester contents showed significance with fatty acid either. In addition, changes in the whiskys based on maturation period were confirmed via proportions of fatty acids and fatty acid ethyl esters. In general, the proportion of fatty acids and fatty acid ethyl esters decreased as the storage period increased. This study provided basic data to classify types of whisky based on maturation periods by analyzing the proportion of flavor ingredients such as fusel alcohols, fatty acids, and fatty acid ethyl esters.
The objective of this study was to compare the anticancer activity of glucosinolates against four different cancer cells; SNU-251, SNU-354, SNU-C4, MCF-7 and to determine the amounts of glucosinolates in mustard leaves. Green and red mustard leaves were cultivated on the field of Rural Development Administration from May to July, 2010. After the leaves were harvest and lypophilized, the fine powder was extracted with boiling 70% methanol(v/v) for the measurement of anticancer activity and then applied to the cancer cells obtained from Korean Cell Line Bank(KCLB). The anticancer activity of red leaf mustard was higher than that of green mustard leaf, particularly in SNU-251 for 24 hr and in SNU-C4 for 48 hr. In both green and red mustard leaf, sinigrin was the most abundant glucosinolte and was determined as 4.71 and 3.06 ㎎/g dry wt., respectively, but glucoiberin only presented 0.14 ㎎/g dry wt. with minor amounts.
The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the perceived management performance and importance level of nutrition teachers by school administrators in the Chonbuk area. Self-administered questionnaires were collected from 142 school administrators. Statistical data analysis was completed using SPSS v. 12.0. Approximately 74.6% of the subjects were men. About 37% of subjects were principals, 33% were vice principals, and 35% were administrative directors, with over 60% aged 40-50 years(p<0.05). Among the 142 schools evaluated, 82.7% were located in urban areas and 17.3% were in ml areas. About 98% of the schools served meals in the dining room(pd0.05). Approximately 68% of the schools employed nutrition teachers and 33.4% had school dietitians(p<0.001). The result indicated that the overall importance level(4.24) was higher than the performance leve1(3.97)(p<0.001). In a survey of the degree of task performance by nutrition teachers, administrators regarded sanitation management was evaluated as the most important performance parameter(4.49), other management attributes as very important parameters(4.41), with nutrition counseling being much less important(2.76) and meal service being least important(3.29; except for classroom teachers). According to the tide of the subjects, evaluations of administrative directors were lower than evaluations of principals and the vice principals. The results indicate that nutrition teachers should not only have meal service management as their main duty, but should also be involved in constructing a life-long health management system for students and teachers by conducting nutrition education and counseling, and should be active in the development of nutrition education programs and in the duties of sanitation management of school meals.