The Republic of Korea reclaimed land to increase its food self-sufficiency rate, but the yield was reduced due to abnormal climate. In this study, it was hypothesized that rapid and continuous monitoring technology could help improve yield. Using the vegetation index (VI) analysis, the drought stress index was calculated and the drought stress for corn grown in Hwaong, Saemangeum, and Yeongsan River reclaimed tidal land was predicted according to drying treatment. The vegetation index of corn did not decrease during the last 20 days of irrigation when soil moisture rapidly decreased, but decreased rapidly during the 20 days after irrigation. The reduction rate of the vegetation index according to the drying treatment was in the order of Saemangeum>Yeongsan River>Hwaong reclaimed tidal land, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) decreased by approximately 50% in all reclaimed tidal lands, confirming that drought stress occurred due to the decrease in moisture content of the leaves. In addition, structure pigment chlorophyll index (SIPI) and photochemical reflectance index (PRI), which are calculated based on changes in light use efficiency and carotenoids, were reduced; drought stress caused a decrease in light use efficiency and an increase in carotenoid content. Therefore, vegetation index analysis was confirmed to be effective in evaluating and predicting drought stress in corn growing on reclaimed tidal land corn.
본 논문에서는 인장 좌굴 현상을 소개하고 이를 이용한 음의 포아송 효과를 가지는 구조물에 대한 분석을 다룬다. 일반적으로 널리 알려진 좌굴은 압축하중 하에서의 안정성 문제임에 반하여, 인장 좌굴은 인장에 의해 국소적으로 압축력이 생겨 발생하는 좌굴이다. 고전적인 좌굴에 비하여 비교적 최근의 연구이기 때문에 상대적으로 잘 알려지지 않았다. 이에 인장 좌굴 현상을 에너지 관점에서 고 찰하고, 해석을 위하여 비틀림 스프링을 가지는 비선형 트러스 유한요소의 정식화를 수행하였다. 비선형해석을 통해 후좌굴 거동을 분석하고 비틀림 스프링이 주요 인자임을 확인하였다. 이러한 후좌굴 거동은 음의 포아송 비를 가지는 구조물에 적용할 수 있으며, 기 계적 스위치 등의 장치에 적용할 가능성을 보였다. 얻어진 결과들의 정확성 확인을 위하여 해석해와 상용 유한요소해석 결과들과 비 교하여, 개발된 유한요소 모델이 기초 설계에 유용함을 보였다.
說文解字는 字典이다. 자전은 결국 특정 글자의 검색을 위한 글자들의 집합이다. 이는 곧 자전을 이용하는 독자들의 편의를 도모해야 하는 필연적인 사명을 갖고 있 다는 의미이다. 許愼은 9,353개의 글자를 1차적으로 540개의 주제별로 모둠화하는 데 성공하였다. 곧 部首다. 2차적으로는 이 540개라는 많은 부수의 순서를 정하는 것인 데, 결코 쉽지 않은 난제였다. 그가 택한 방식은 기본적으로는 形體에 근거하여 순차 적으로 부수들을 배열하는 방식이다. 그러나 이 형체만으로는 540개를 잇기에 완벽 하지 않기에 형체에 意味를 추가하는 방식으로 부수를 배열하였다. 곧 據形系聯과 共理相貫이라는 기준이다. 淸代의 段玉裁는 이를 形相次와 義相次로 분석하였다. 이 논문은 설문 권1의 14개 부수를 대상으로 形相과 義相을 세밀히 분석하였다. 그래 서 각각의 부수들이 어떻게 계련 되는지를 밝히고자 한다.
Steel brace strengthening is the most popular seismic rehabilitation method for school buildings. This is because the design can be conducted by using relatively easy nonlinear pushover analysis and standard modeling in codes. An issue with steel brace strengthening is that the reinforced building should behave elastically to satisfy performance objectives. For this, the size of steel braces should be highly increased, which results in excessive strengthening cost by force concentration on existing members and foundations due to the considerable stiffness and strength of the steel braces. The main reason may be the brittle failure mode of columns, so this study investigated the relationship between the efficiency of steel brace strengthening and column failure modes. The result showed that the efficiency is highly dependent on the shear capacity ratio of columns and structural analysis methods. School buildings reinforced by steel braces do not need to behave elastically when the shear capacity ratio is low, and pushover analysis is used, which means reducing steel material is possible.
The column-tree type steel beam-column connections are commonly used in East Asian countries, including Korea. The welding detail between the stub beam and column is similar to the WUF-W connection; thus, it can be expected to have sufficient seismic performance. However, previous experimental studies indicate that premature slip occurs at the friction joints between the stub and link beams. In this study, for the accurate seismic performance evaluation of column-tree type moment connections, a moment-slip model was proposed by investigating the previous test results. As a result, it was found that the initial slip occurred at about 25% of the design slip moment strength, and the amount of slip was about 0.15%. Also, by comparing the analysis results from models with and without the slip element, the influence of slip on the performance of overall beam-column connections was examined. As the panel zone became weaker, the contribution of slip on overall deformation became greater, and the shear demand for the panel zone was reduced.
The 2017 Pohang earthquake caused severe damage to low-rise piloti buildings. The damage was caused mainly by column shear failure, and some core walls were as well. The damaged piloti buildings in Pohang City could be relieved if they were designed correctly according to the standards at that time. However, the post-earthquake investigation revealed design, construction, and permission problems. To solve the problems, the Piloti Building Structure Design Guidelines that include strict specifications were published in 2018. Separately, KDS 41 17 00, the seismic design standard for buildings, was enacted in 2019 and it included the guideline contents. Therefore, at least after the publication of the guidelines, piloti buildings, designed by the standard and guidelines, can be expected to possess better seismic performance than existing piloti buildings. To confirm this, the probability of exceedance for several damage state thresholds was estimated for existing and designed piloti buildings. As a result, the probability of damage of designed piloti buildings was very low compared to existing ones. Consequently, it was confirmed that the guideline and standard adequately supplement the structural fragility of existing piloti buildings.
Current seismic fragility functions for buildings were developed by defining damage state threshold based on story drift concerning foreign references and using the capacity spectrum method based on spectral displacement. In this study, insufficient details and dependence on the core location of piloti-type buildings were not reflected in the fragility function because it was developed before the Pohang earthquake. In order to develop an improved one for piloti-type buildings, several types of core were selected, damage state threshold was determined based on the capacity of structural members, and three-dimensional analyses were utilized. As a result, seismic fragility functions based on spectral acceleration were developed for various core locations and different shear strengths of the column stirrup. The fragility of piloti-type buildings significantly varied according to core location, an additional single wall, and whether the contribution of column stirrup was included or not. To estimate fragility more reasonably, it is necessary to prepare the parameters to reflect actual state well.
한자의 구조에 있어서 形聲은 形符와 聲符로 이루어지는 복합적이면서도 다층적인 구조이다. 하나의 글자에 발음과 의미를 동시에 나타내고 있기 때문이다. 그렇기에 이 형성의 기원에 대해 의문을 품고 고찰하는 것은 의미가 있다. 추측건대 한자는 象形이 가장 먼저 발생하고 그 이후에 이 상형을 바탕으로 하여 나머지 한자를 만드 는 방법으로 발전하였을 것이다. 이 관점으로부터 形聲의 기원에 대해 논의가 시작 되었을 것이기에, 이 논문은 특히 唐蘭의 合文說과 聲化象意字說에 대해 그 타당함 과 그렇지 못함에 대해 논술하고자 한다. 결과적으로 許愼의 六書에 대한 이해를 높 일 수 있을 것으로 기대한다.
The Ministry of the Interior and Safety in Korea developed seismic fragility function for various building types in 2009. Damage states for most building types were determined by structural analyses of sample models and foreign references because actual cases damaged by earthquakes rarely exist in Korea. Low-rise, piloti-type buildings showed severe damage by brittle failure in columns due to insufficient stirrup details in the 2017 Pohang earthquake. Therefore, it is necessary to improve damage state criteria for piloti-type buildings by consulting actual outcomes from the earthquake. An analytical approach was conducted by developing analysis models of sample buildings reflecting insufficient stirrup details of columns to accomplish the purpose. The result showed that current spectral displacements of damage states for piloti-type buildings might be too large to estimate actual fragility. When the brittle behavior observed in the earthquake is reflected in the analysis model, one-fourth through one-sixth of current spectral displacements of damage states may be appropriate for existing low-rise, piloti-type buildings.
Most commercial buildings among existing RC buildings in Korea have a multi-story wall-frame structure where RC shear wall is commonly used as its core at stairways or elevators. The members of the existing middle and low-rise wall-frame buildings are likely arranged in ordinary details considering building occupancy, and the importance and difficulty of member design. This is because there are few limitations, considerations, and financial burdens on the code for designing members with ordinary details. Compared with the intermediate or unique details, the ductility and overstrength are insufficient. Furthermore, the behavior of the member can be shear-dominated. Since shear failure in vertical members can cause a collapse of the entire structure, nonlinear characteristics such as shear strength and stiffness deterioration should be adequately reflected in the analysis model. With this background, an 8-story RC wall-frame building was designed as a building frame system with ordinary shear walls, and the effect of reflecting the shear failure mode of columns and walls on the collapse mechanism was investigated. As a result, the shear failure mode effect on the collapse mechanism was evident in walls, not columns. Consequently, it is recommended that the shear behavior characteristics of walls are explicitly considered in the analysis of wall-frame buildings with ordinary details.
The methodology classifying structural types of concrete buildings in the existing seismic fragility functions is too simple to estimate the fragility of existing residential buildings and neighborhood living facilities, especially those below five stories. Their structural types are dependent on information contained in the building register such as main use, total floor area, story, permission date, and first story floor area of the individual building. All of this information is not considered for classifying types in the existing functions; therefore, the goal of this study was to suggest a methodology that classifies structural types of concrete buildings by utilizing such information. The results of this study showed that the suggested methodology can classify structural types better than the existing methodology. Nevertheless, there is still a need to simplify the methodology because fragility estimation demands quickness rather than accuracy.
Efforts on the continued increase of local government's fiscal spending related to improving the residential environment are desirable to counter the declining phenomenon of urban decline. At the same time, however, it is also important to know how to operate limited finances more efficiently to improve the residential environment. This study aims to contribute to the rational allocation of fiscal expenditure and the creation of productive results for the improvement of the settlement environment. To this end, this study analyzed the efficiency of financial expenditure related to the improvement of the residential environment in 225 local governments nationwide. The relationship between financial expenditure and residential environmental performance was also measured and the CCR, BCC and SBM models were used to measure efficiency. The analysis showed that most local governments need to scale back their fiscal spending related to improving the government environment. In addition, it was required to prepare feasible spending plans by bench-marking the processes of residential environment improvement projects in areas such as Haman-gun, Jongno-gu, Seoul, and Seocho-gu, which are considered to be under efficient operation.
Porous Fe-Cu-C alloy was sintered by Pulsed Current Activated Sintering(PCAS) method within 10 min from horizontal ball mill mixture. The relative density of Fe-20wt.%Cu-0.8wt.%C alloy fabricated by PCAS method was 91%. The average hardness of the Fe-20wt.%Cu-0.8wt.%C alloy was HRB 92. The phase analysis, microstructure and composition information of the sintered alloy were investigated by using XRD, FESEM, EDAX.
In this study, system modeling and dynamic analysis of crane are conducted. Especially, among many different kinds of a crane system, the issues on crane operating problems installed on the vessel are considered. As well known, marine systems including cranes are exposed to various disturbances such as vessel motions, hydrodynamic forces, wave and wind attack, etc. In order to analysis the system dynamic with environmental conditions, the authors derived the nonlinear dynamic model of offshore crane and derived a linear model which is used for designing the control system. Using the obtained nonlinear and linear models, simulations were conducted to evaluate the usefulness of the obtained models. By simulation and result evaluation, the usefulness of the linear model, which presents the dynamics, is effectively verified.
In this study, the authors introduce a newly developed flatfish grading system. Owing to the features of flatfish with and wide body, the general types of grading system are not easy to apply for it. Furthermore, the flatfish to be graded is alive such that the existing measurement and grading systems cannot be used for it as well. This study gives a solution for measuring and grading the flatfish with high speed and good accuracy. For this object, the authors developed flatfish measurement and grading system. This system consist of the feeding, conveying, measurement part and sorting part. Especially, the measurement part is made by vision based measuring technique which satisfies the given specification. The result from the experiment shows that the developed system is applicable for measuring and grading the flatfish sizes in variety.