Onion vinegar, which has an undesirable flavor and taste formed through alcohol and acetic acid fermentation, possesses additives that can improve sensory quality. Thus, the objective of this study was to present an optimized blending ratio using response surface methods for an onion vinegar beverage by adding Omija extracts. This study was performed to formulate an Omija-onion vinegar beverage (OOVB) and investigate its antioxidant properties and antimicrobiological effects. The experimental design was conducted using an optimal mixture model of response surface methodology which generated eighteen experimental trials with overall acceptance as the responses. According to the statistical analyses, OOVB demonstrated a ratio containing onion vinegar, water, brown sugar, apple extracts and Omija extracts of 10, 72.3, 4.4, 12.2 and 1.1 (weight ratio), respectively. The OOVB revealed desirable nutrition values (phenolics compounds 19.3 mg/100 g, total flavonoids 3.1 mg/100 g, quercetin 1.9 mg/100). The OOVB displayed antibacterial effects in Gram negative Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus. The findings revealed that OOVB was 18% in DPPH radical inhibitionand 11% in superoxide dismutase-like activity thus, OOVB has nutritional value and good quality as well as potential biological activities for functional beverages.
This research has attempted to investigate the volatile flavor compounds of onion products through acetic fermentation, and to create a natural beverage with beneficial biological properties which can also fulfill customer quality standards. Onion products (OAF (M): Onion extracts at five days of acetic fermentation, OAF (F): Onion extracts at ten days of acetic fermentation) were produced by acetic fermentation. Volatile flavor compounds from onion extracts, OAF (M) and OAF (F) were used by Mixxor liquid extractions and analyzed by GC/MSD. Compounds of 49, 75 and 69 were identified in onion extracts, OAF(M) and OAF(F) respectively. Among the major volatile flavor compounds classes, sulfur containing compounds (36.7%), acids (31.2%) and aldehydes (13.5%) in onion extracts were changed into acids (69.6%) and alcohols (24.6%) in OAF (M) and acids (80.6%) and alcohols (15.5%) in OAF (F). During acetic fermentation acetic acid, 1,3-butanediol (odorless) and 2,3-butanediol (onion flavor) increased remarkably, sulfur-containing compound such as 2,5-dimethylthiophene having anti-oxidant activities was detected by fermentation.
This study aimed to provide volatile flavor compounds of three onion products through thermal process and alcohol fermentation, to meet the quality standard of onion products. The identified components of onion extracts (OE) included 49 (18 sulfur-containing compounds, 5 alcohols, 8 acids, 3 ketones, 4 esters, 4 aromatic compounds, 2 aldehydes, 1 pyrazines and 4 miscellaneous compounds), and 55 (17 sulfur-containing compounds, 15 alcohols, 5 acids, 11 ketones, 3 aromatic compounds, 2 aldehydes and 1 pyrazine) in autoclave-sterilized onion extracts (SOE); and 69 (10 sulfur-containing compounds, 27 alcohols, 11 acids, 11 ketones, 6 esters, 1 aromatic compound and 3 pyrazines) in onion wine (OW), respectively. Among the major flavor classes, sulfur-containing compounds (36.8%), acids (31.3%) and aldehydes (13.6%) in OE were changed to alcohols (46.5%) and ketones (27.3%) in SOE whereas, alcohols (56.3%) and acids (26.6%) in OW. Moreover, 1,3-butanediol, 2,3-butanediol, and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone were highly detected in SOE whereas, acetic acid, 3-methylbutanol, 2-phenylethanol and 1,2,3-propanetriol in OW.
Commercialized production of onion vinegar, which has biological activities formed through alcohol and acetic acid fermentation, requires standardization. The objective of this study was to determine optimal conditions of sugar contents (11~15 °Brix) and agitation rate (100~300 rpm) of fermenter in the alcohol-acetic fermentation for producing onion vinegar. The alcohol and total acidity contents increased, whereas contents of total sugars decreased during alcohol fermentation. Contents of alcohol of 13 and 15 °Brix reactants were about 8% in 36 hr and total acidities of all samples were below 0.2% in 60 hr. During acetic fermentation, total acidity increased with highest value at 9 days (3.2% in 100 rpm), 10 days (4.1% in 200 rpm) and 8 days (4.3% in 300 rpm), respectively. From these results, sugar contents (13 °Brix) were measured for alcohol fermentation and agitation rate (300 rpm) for fast fermentation method of vinegar. The contents of total phenols, flavonoids and quercetin in onion vinegar were 33.3 mg/100 g, 3.0 mg/100 g and 2.0 mg/100 g, respectively. Onion vinegar showed an antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes. Antioxidant effect of onion vinegar was 26.23% in DPPH radical inhibition and 58.58% in superoxide dismutase like activity, respectively. Fibrinolytic activity was 1.51 plasmin unit/mL in onion vinegar. In conclusion, onion vinegar processed by alcohol and acetic fermentation had nutritional values and potential biological activities.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of health functional foods and preference for desired onion peel products. Questionnaires were distributed to 582 adults (34.2% male, 65.8% female) living in Gyeongnam province. The major information sources on biological effects of onions cited by respondents were TV/radio (37.1%), followed by nearby people (32.8%) and Internet (11.0%), in that order. Reducing cholesterol effect was the most important factor in terms of perception and concerns relating to biological function of onions. Over 73% of subjects had experience of eating processed onion products, and among all types of onion products, onion juice (53.5%) was the most frequently eaten. The most considered factors for processing onion peel-derived functional foods were taste & odor (29.6%), convenience of eating (28.9%), and nutrition value (27.1%), in that order.
This study analyzed purchasing characteristics of local agricultural products and processed products as well as evaluatedoperation programs for Changnyeon festival participants. The purchasing rates of local agricultural products and processedproducts at this festival were 63.6% and 49.1%, respectively, and the main purchased crops were onion (42.6%) and garlic(20.7%). Drinks (43.6%) were highly purchased processed products. The recognition (95.3%) and preferences (98.4%) forChangyeong local agricultural products were high at this festival. Subjects (72.5%) responded that public relations wereeffective for sale at this festival, and evaluation of the operation program for the festival was 3.51±0.74 (total score 5 points).Satisfaction with the experience event (37.7%) and exhibition event (33.6%) were high at this festival program, whereasparticipants gave low rates for art exhibition and sale events of local agricultural products (16.2%), cooking education(14.7%), direct education program (12.9%), and games (12.1%). This festival was an effective means of public relations,although purchase effects were not significant. This result suggests that the festival is necessary for planning a program toincrease purchasing.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among recognition, preference, and purchasing characteristics for Changnyeong onions and garlic as well as festival satisfaction among participants at agricultural product festivals in the Changnyeong region. Results showed that festival satisfaction of ‘place of festival’ was highest while ‘convenience facility & event contents’ earned the lowest scores. Most subjects (90.5%) had purchased Changnyeong agricultural and processed products. A major purchasing type was fresh agricultural products (66.7%). The pathways to recognize Changnyeong agricultural products were mostly ‘promotion by related institutions’ (22.0%), ‘family · relatives’ (20.8%), ‘mass media’ (16.6%), and ‘festivals and events’ (16.1%). The most considered factors for purchasing regional products were ‘geographical origin’ and ‘ingredients’. Changnyeong onion showed higher scores for recognition and preference and rate of purchase experience and intention than for garlic. The correlation coefficients of recognition and preference for onion and galic were 0.603 (p<0.001) and 0.598 (p<0.001), respectively. The explanation power (R2) of related variables for purchase of Changnyeong onions was 0.258. The regression coefficients (β) for ‘recognition’, ‘preference’ and ‘convenient facility & event contents’ were positive, whereas the regression coefficient for ‘price’ was negative. Recognition, preference, and convenient facility & event contents with garlic purchase showed a positive relationship (R2=0.253). The most effective promotion method to increase sales of Changnyeong agricultural products was ‘local festivals and events’ (27.8%).
향기를 가진 미니다화성계 품종을 육성하기 위해 강하 고 향기를 가지는 P. violacea 와 붉은색 화색을 가지는 중륜계 품종인 P. George Vasquize 간 인공교잡을 통해 잡종후대를 육성하였다. 무균파종과 조직배양을 통해 약 280개의 잡종후대를 얻어냈으며 각각의 개체들이 향기의 강도와 종류가 달랐지만 대부분 모든 잡종개체들에서 향 기가 있었다. 개화기에 화색과 화형 그리고 향기의 유무 등을 고려하여 7개체를 1차 선발하였고 2차 개화시기에 꽃배열, 화수, 생육속도 등을 조사하여 최종적으로 향기 가 강하고 화색이 밝은 적색인 미니다화성 한 계통(06- SC-29) 을 선발 육성하였다. SPME-CG/MS를 통한 향 기 분석에서 51개의 성분을 검출하였고 그 중 myrcene, sabinene, ocimene, cineolebergamototene, cardinene 과 linalool 등이 성분함량이 높게 검출되어 이 물질들이 주 요 향기성분 인 것으로 추정되었다. 향기발현 관련유전 자를 분리하기 위해 유향성 꽃에서 mRNA를 분리 후 NGS 분석을 시도하여 염기서열정보를 확보하고 이미 알려 진 향기관련 유전자의 정보를 통해 호접란 향기발현관련 유 전자 정보를 가진 contig와unigene을 찾아내었다. 꽃향기 발 현에 중요한 역할을 하는 4개의 효소 linalool synthase(LIS), geranyl diphosphate synthase(GDPS), ocimene synthase(OS), farnesol kinase(FNK)를 coding하는 유전자 염기서열정보를 확보하여 다른 식물의 향기 유전자와 homology를 비교 하고, 꽃의 발달단계별, 꽃의 화기조직별 향기관련 유전자들에 대한 발현 정도를 검정하였다. 꽃의 발달 단계별 향기유전자는 유향종에서는 정도 차이는 있지만 거의 모 든 단계에서 발현이 관찰되었으나 무향종에서는 발현되 지 않거나 아주 약하게 발현되었다. 유향종의 화기조직 별 발현유무검정에서는 4개의 유전자가 꽃잎, 꽃받침, 암 술, 꽃술대에서 모두 고르게 발현되었다.
은복의 일반성분 조성비는 수분함량 77.8%, 조단백질 17.1% 및 조지방 3.7%이고 북어통조림 제품의 수분함량 77.0%, 조단백질 18.4% 및 조지방 3.3%로 생시료와 통조림시료의 일반성분비는 거의 차이가 없는 것으로 나타났다. 복어 원료어와 통조림 제조 저장 중의 휘발성 염기질소, 아미노질소 및 산가의 변화는 매우 적은 변화가 나타났을 뿐 큰 차이는 없었다. 즉, 휘발성염기질소는 생시료 10.7mg/100g에서 통조림 제조 직후 19.3mg/100g으로 다소 증가하였으나 저장기간이 증가함에 따라 큰 변화는 없었다. 아미노질소 함량은 생시료일 때 14.0 mg/100g이었고, 제조 직후는 15.2mg/100g으로 다소 증가하였지만, 이것 역시 저장기간이 증가함에 따라 매우 조금씩 증가하는 것으로 나타났다. 생시료의 산가는 1.4mg/KOHmg/g이었고, 제조 직후는 1.5 KOHmg/g으로 서서히 증가하는 경향을 보였다. 또한 상온 및 냉장저장 동안 제품 중 생균수는 음성으로 나타났고, mouse에 대한 독성검사결과 생시료의 근육에서 2MU/g이하로 통조림 제조 및 저장 중에는 독력이 검출되지 않았다.
본 연구는 Allium속의 중금속 흡착력을 구명하고자 식물체의 식용부위별, 시료의 입자별, 중금속의 농도별, 용액의 온도별, pH별 실험 결과이다. Allium속에 의한 중금속의 흡착 량은 Allium속의 종류에 관계없이 Cd이 Zn보다 훨씬 많았다. 대파, 쪽파는 입자가 클 수록 Cd 흡착이 잘 되었으나 Zn은 입자별 차이가 나타나지 않았다. 농도별 중금속 흡착력은 용액중의 농도가 높을수록 증가하였으나 증가율은 일정하지 않았다. 온도에 따른 중금속의 흡착력은 온도 증가에 따라 증가하였으나, 예외적으로 달래는 Cd 흡착량이 감소하였다. pH에 따른 중금속의 흡착량은 두 금속 모두 큰 영향을 받지 않았다. 중금속의 흡착에 미치는 Allium속 성분함량간의 관계는 함황 아미노산과 비타민 B_2에서 유의성이 인정되었다.
Studies were conducted on the preparation methods of strawberry jam. Strawberry was homogenized and centrifuged to serum-pulp portion. Concentration of strawberry serum was carried out at 55∼58℃ under pressure of 30∼60 mmHg. Strawberry jam bases were mixed throughly and stuffed in retortable pouch. The pouch was sterilized to make a new strawberry jam. The characteristics of new type jam was analyized gas chromatographic profile, and sensory evaluations.