In this study, we developed vinegar depending on the quantity consumed and type of peeled and unpeeled roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) using Acetobacter pasteurianus A11-2, analyzed vinegar samples using colorimeter and HPLC for 15 days to assess the characteristics on quality, and evaluated their antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picry1 hydrazy1 (DPPH) and 2.2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities. The major result in PG vinegar was the high acidity of 6.39~6.74% and alcohol was totally converted on the 15th day of fermentation. When we fermented vinegar from peeled roots of 8% PG with a starter culture, we observed high contents of acetic acid, platycodin D, and total polyphenol and high antioxidant activity. Moreover, the vinegar fermented using 8% peeled roots of PG had the high intensity on umami and sour taste and low salty, bitter, and astringent tastes. Consequently, we could develop the PG vinegar with quality and functional characteristics from 8% peeled roots and A. pasteurianus A11-2.
This experiment was conducted to assess the high antioxidant activity varieties of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) from the 55 accessions. The antioxidant activity of Chinese cabbage were determined by the TPC, TFC, DPPH, ABTS, and chlorophyll, carotenoid contents. The TPC and TFC showed a range of 1.21~4.61 mg GAE/g DW, 0.18~3.09 mg CE/g DW. The DPPH and ABTS assay were in the range of 0.65~4.36 and 1.42~6.91 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (ASCE)/g DW, respectively. The UPLC analysis was performed quantitatively to identify chlorophyll and carotenoid in the Chinese cabbage extract. The levels of the total chlorophyll and total carotenoid were 86.60~1,235.91, and 75.86~490.11 μg/g, respectively. The comprehensive differences in the total and individual chlorophyll contents have also been observed among different varieties. These results will be valuable as basic data for the standardization of Chinese cabbage.
This study examined the contents of bioactive compounds and the biological activity of okra seed oil. Okra seed oil consisted mainly of linoleic acid (44.2%). The content of total phytosterols was 2.180 mg/g oil, with β-sitosterol being the highest (1.756 mg/g oil). The vitamin E content was 1.278 mg/g oil; the content of α-tocopherol was higher than γ- tocopherol. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were 2.463 mg gallic acid equivalent/g and 1.602 mg cathechin equivalent/g, respectively. The 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and α-α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activities were 15.297% and 22.265%, respectively, and the reducing power was 4.524 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. The okra seed oil inhibited 77.692% of the α-glucosidase activity. The present study showed that okra seed oil had a considerable amount of phytochemicals and exhibited biological activity. These results suggest that okra seed oil is a potential natural therapeutic for the management of metabolic syndromes.
The purpose of this study was to determine the content of polyphenols and flavonoids, vitamin C, and antioxidant activity for the extract from the Deodeok sprout. To accomplish this, the Deodeok sprout whole (CLS-W), above ground part (leaf, stem, CLS-L), and root (CLS-R) were individually extracted using 70% ethanol. The highest levels of total polyphenols and total flavonoids were observed in the Deodeok sprout extract CLS-L2. Similarly, antioxidant activities resulting in radical scavenging activities increased significantly in the extract of CLS-L2. In conclusion, these results indicate that Deodeok sprouts can be used as a viable, new natural antioxidant source.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of Codonopsis lanceolata 50% ethanol extract, and its solvent fractions (n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol, water). The main components of the EA fraction were qualitatively analyzed using UPLC Q-ToF/MS. Additionally, a quantitative analysis was performed using UPLC. As a result, the total polyphenol content was 113.36 mg gallic acid/g in the EA fraction, which contained the largest amount of the C. lancolata solvent fractions. Also EA showed the highest antioxidant activity than other fractions. The IC50 of DPPH(2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity was 0.03 mg/mL and the IC50 of ABTS [2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate)] radical scavenging activity was 0.049 mg/mL. The EA fraction showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity than other fractions and especially inhibited monophenolase oxidase reaction higher than diphenolase oxidase reaction. The monophenolase oxidase inhibited 55% when the concentration of the EA fraction was 0.25 mg/mL. As a result of Q-ToF/MS analysis, it was confirmed that tangshenoside I and lobetyolin were the main components of EA fraction. Thus, these results suggest that C. lanceolata may be used as a potent source of cosmetic agents.
더덕은 폴리페놀, 알칼로이드, 아미노산 및 기타 화합물로 구성되어 있고, tangshenosideⅠ과 lobetyolin의 함량은 더덕의 주요 화합물로 알려져 있다. 본 연구에서는 UPLC를 이용하여 주요 성분 tangshenosideⅠ과 lobetyolin을 동시 분석하였다. 최적 추출조건으로는 50% 에탄올을 이용하여 온도 60℃, 1시간 추출하였고, UPLC를 이용한 빠르고 간편한 분석조건을 확립하고, 정확성, 정밀성, 직선성, 특이성 등 분석법의 유효성을 검증하였다. 지역별로 더덕을 추출하여 UPLC로 주요 성분 함량을 분석한 결과, tangshenosideⅠ과 lobetyolin의 함량은 0.36~3.54 mg/g, 0.24~1.29 mg/g으로 나타났다. 지역별 생육환경에 따라 함량 차이가 나타났으며, 지역별 품질 관리를 위한 객관적이고 과학적인 근거를 제시하여 국내에서 재배되는 더덕의 품질 평가에 대한 하나의 기준이 될 것으로 기대된다.
This study aimed to investigate the changes in the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) cultivated from different regions, with different harvest times and at various maturation stages. Methods for observing the changes in GABA content were validated by determining the specificity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and precision and accuracy using the HPLC-FLD system. Results showed high linearity in the calibration curve with a coefficient of correlation (R2) of 0.9999. The LOD and LOQ values for GABA were 0.29 and 0.87 μg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day precision of GABA were less than 5%. The recovery rate of GABA was in the range of 98.77% to 100.50%. The average content of GABA was 0.93 mg/g and Cheongju showed highest GABA content of 1.88 mg/g. As the time of harvest increased from May to September, the GABA content decreased from 1.56 to 0.86 mg/g. Also, maturation of the bitter melon fruit was associated with a decreased in GABA content.
In this study, we assessed antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-Alzheimer activities of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OFI) at harvest time. OFIs were cultivated December 2015~November 2016 in Jeju island. The 70% ethanol extracts of OFI were used to investigate total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, antioxidant(DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay), anti-diabetic(yeast α-glucosidase and rat α-glucosidase inhibition assay), and anti-Alzheimer(Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition assay) activities. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of OFIs were 17.40~23.11 μg garlic acid/mg Ex and 2.17~6.22 ug (+)-catechine/mg Ex, respectively. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity of OFIs were 131.98~184.90 mg ascorbic acid(AA) eq/100 g and 63.60~101.83 mg AA eq/100 g, respectively. In the anti-diabetic and anti-Alzheimer activities, 70% ethanol extracts of OFI exhibited moderate inhibition activity, compared to control (acarbose and beberine). Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-Alzheimer activities were no significant differences by season, respectively. Therefore, information on comparative biological evaluations of OFI may be a beneficial in exploring functional food and drug development.
This study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of Yanggaeng, including color, pH, total polyphenol contents, and antioxidant activities, with the addition of aged garlic extract (0, 3, 6, 9 or 12%), aged at low temperatures. Among the color characteristics, the lightness value decreased, and the redness and yellowness values increased, proportional to the amount of garlic extract concentrate added to Yanggaeng. The pH of Yanggaeng significantly (p<0.05) decreased according to the amount of aged garlic extract added. Total phenol contents of control (0% aged garlic extract added Yanggaeng) was the lowest, followed by 3, 6, 9, 12% aged garlic extract added to Yanggaeng (88.15, 118.39, 156.91, 208.79 mg/g, respectively). Antioxidant activities, such as DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, significantly increased with increase in the aged garlic extract concentration. In the sensory evaluation for Yanggaeng, 6% aged garlic extract added to Yanggaeng had the highest score in taste, flavor, and overall acceptance. Based on these results, it is suggest that the addition of 6% aged garlic extract to Yanggaeng can be developed as a product for the elderly.
The aim of this study was to evaluate key properties of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OFI) ie, levels of key chemicals (carotenoids, flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds as well as phenolic acid) and its antioxidative potential, depending on where the plant had been cultivated in Korea. The levels of flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds in OFI were 55.45~65.32 mg (+)-catechin/g and 149.00~181.15 mg gallic acid/g, respectively. Protocatechuic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid in the ON1 and ON2 (161.90 and 196.25 μg/g DW (dry weight)). Nineteen flavonoids were identified and analyzed by LC-ESI-MS in cladodes from OFI. Narcissin was the most abundant flavonoid in all of the samples (1,241.89~1,775.10 μg/g DW). Capxanthin and zeaxanthin were the most abundant carotenoids in OFI (64.88~128.08 and 48.10~93.82 μg/g DW). The level of DPPH radical and ABTS radical scavenging activities in OFI were 10.78~25.35 and 16.85~34.16 mg AA eq/100 g, respectively. OFI by cultivar has different kind of phenolic acid, flavonoids, and carotenoids. Therefore, dietary intake of cladodes from OFI may be helpful for improving human health
This study was conducted to analyze the nutrient compositions of stem and fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OF) and Opuntia humifusa (OH). The results of the two-way analysis of variance test indicated that the parts, varieties and parts*varieties had influence on nutrient content except crude protein, soluble dietary fiber, Fe, Se, I, vitamin E, niacin and vitamin C. Moisture and crude ash content was higher in stem than in fruit, while crude lipid and insoluble dietary content was higher in fruit than in stem. Mineral content revealed that K (1,313.67 mg% in OF, 1,351.38 mg% in OH) was the highest in fruit and Ca (5,146.29 mg% in OF, 1,388.19 mg% in OH) was the highest in stem. Vitamin C was the most abundant vitamin in the fruit of OF (199.98 mg%) and OH (187.12 mg%). Polyunsaturated fatty acid was the highest among fatty acids (66.9~70.1%), with higher content in the stem (753.89 mg%) than fruit (578.01 mg%) in OF, while higher in the fruit (1,093.63 mg%) than stem (475.07 mg%) in OH. Moisture, crude protein, Mg, Se and riboflavin was higher in OF than OH; whereas, crude lipid, insoluble dietary fiber, total dietary fiber and monounsaturated fatty acid were higher in OH than OF. These results indicated that OF and OH could be a good food source for Ca, K and Vitamin C. Also, different nutrient content by parts and varieties, can be helpful in choice of parts or varieties for consumer purposes.
This study was conducted to investigate changes in the proximate composition, antioxidant activities, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) cladodes cultivated in Jeju (JJ1, JJ2, JJ3) and Jeonnam (JN1, JN2). The difference in the proximate composition (crude protein, lipid and ash content) of OFI between the two regions was not significant. Ca, Mg and Na were the major mineral components of OFI. The ascorbic acid content of OFI ranged from 57.87 to 143.72 mg/100 g. A 70% ethanol extract was used to investigate the antioxidant content and activity as well as the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of OFI were 38.69~55.29 and 3.33~4.03 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activities based on the DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assays were 45.19~ 61.52% and 39.15~51.96%, respectively, at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The inhibitory activity of OFI extracts against rat intestinal α-glucosidase was 29.72~45.73% at 1 mg/mL concentration, and JN1 showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. This information could be very useful for authentication of Opuntia species with the highest potential as sources of nutritional and therapeutic elements.
This study aimed to investigate the concentration of vitamin C in Momordica charantia (MC) by cultivar, harvest time, and maturity. The methods for determining vitamin C levels were validated by measuring their linearity, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision, and accuracy using HPLC. Results showed high linearity in the calibration curve, with a coefficient of correlation (R2) of 0.9994. The LOD and LOQ values for vitamin C were 0.05 and 0.16 μg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for intra- and inter-day precision of vitamin C measurements were 2.34 and 1.34%, respectively. Depending on cultivar, the concentration of vitamin C in MC varied from 20.75~107.31 mg/100 g, fresh weight, with an average level 68.85±25.57 mg/100 g, FW. When MC was analyzed by harvest time, the 20150612 MC showed the highest amount of vitamin C (113.20±1.89 mg/100 g, FW). On the other hand, the highest vitamin C content by maturity was 48.59±0.87 mg/100 g, FW (15 day old MC). This information on the comparative vitamin C levels of MC might be useful to food scientists and should be explored for functional food development.
The aim of this study was to investigate the method validation for the determination of loganin content in Cornus officinalis (CO). This medicinal plant reportedly mainly included loganin. The specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD), and quantification (LOQ) were measured by HPLC/DAD. Our results showed that high linearity in the coefficient of calibration correlation (R2) for loganin standard was 1. LOD and LOQ for loganin were 0.007 and 0.026 mg/mL, respectively. The recovery rate of loganin was revealed to be in the high range of 95.14-105.45%. The relative standard deviation of intra- and inter-day precision of loganin in CO was 1.8% and 2.3%, respectively. The loganin content of CO from Gurye, Uiseng, Ichoen, and China were 7.81, 3.41, 7.42, and 6.52 mg/g, respectively. In conclusion, these methods were validated for the detection of loganin in CO.
본 연구에서는 숙성 온도와 기간에 따른 마늘의 품질특성 변화를 살펴보기 위하여 통마늘을 60℃에서 60일간, 70℃에 서 40일간 숙성 처리하여 pH, 총산도, 갈변도, 5-HMF 함량, fructose 함량, SAC 함량, 총 폴리페놀 함량 및 DPPH radical 소거활성 측정하였다. 숙성 온도가 높고 숙성 기간이 길어질 수록 마늘의 pH는 감소하고, 총 산도, 갈변도 및 5-HMF 함량 은 증가하는 경향을 보였다. 특히, 5-HMF 함량은 60℃ 숙성 처리 시 0.08~3.30 mg/100 g으로 증가량이 적은 반면, 70℃ 숙 성 처리 시 0.05~106.07 mg/100 g으로 숙성 25일차부터 급격 히 증가하는 것으로 나타났다. Fructose 함량은 60℃의 숙성 온도에서는 0.77~14.57%으로 지속적으로 증가한 반면, 70℃ 숙성 온도에서는 30일차까지 1.07~19.75%까지 증가 후 15.11% 로 감소하는 것으로 나타났다. SAC 함량은 생마늘의 경우 48.11 mg/100 g이었으며, 60℃에서 20일 숙성 시 100.50 mg/ 100 g으로, 70℃에서 5일 숙성 시 85.55 mg/100 g까지 증가한 후 숙성 기간이 경과할수록 SAC 함량은 감소하였다. 생마늘 의 총 폴리페놀 함량은 98.38 mg/100 g이었고, 60℃ 숙성 처 리 시 591.82 mg/100 g까지, 70℃ 숙성 처리 시에는 665.22 mg/100 g까지 생마늘에 비해 각각 6.01배 및 6.67배 증가하였 다. DPPH radical 소거활성의 경우, 숙성 온도가 높고 숙성 기 간이 길어질수록 증가하는 경향을 보였다. 따라서 마늘 섭취 가 용이하고 항산화 활성이 우수한 숙성 마늘 제조를 위해서 는 70℃에서 30일, 숙성 마늘의 유효성분인 SAC의 다량 생산 을 위해서는 60℃에서 15일간 숙성 처리하는 하는 것이 적합 할 것으로 판단되며, 이상의 결과는 항산화 효과가 강화 및 SAC 함량 증진 등 선택적인 숙성 마늘의 제조에 활용이 가능 할 것으로 기대된다.
본 연구는 열수침지 및 과열증기 처리한 당근을 IQF 방 법으로 급속 냉동 한 다음 -12, -18, -24 o C에서 24주 동안 저장한 후 해동하여 이화학적 및 영양학적 특성과 미생물 학적 변화를 분석하여 열처리 및 냉동 저장의 최적 공정 과정을 확립하고자 하였다. 대체적으로 과열증기 처리한 당근보다 열수침지 처리한 당근의 ΔE이 큰 값을 나타내었 고, 열처리 후 생당근에 비해 전단력이 감소하였으나 급속 냉동 후 저장 기간에 따른 유의적인 차이를 나타내지 않았 다(p>0.05). 열처리 후 생당근에 비해 총균수가 감소되었지 만 냉동 저장시 일정한 경향을 보였고, 열수침지 처리한 당근의 비타민 C 손실양이 과열증기 처리한 당근보다 더 많았다. 열수침지 처리 후 감소한 유리당의 함량은 저장 기간에 따른 변화는 없던 반면, 과열증기 처리 후 급속 냉 동 한 당근의 유리당 함량은 증가하였다. 당근의 유기산의 함량은 열수침지 처리 후 감소하였으나 과열 침지 처리 후 oxalic acid와 malic acid 함량은 증가하는 경향을 보였다. 이를 통해 열처리 후 영양 성분의 손실이 더 적은 과열증 기법의 공정 과정이 열수침지법보다 더 적절한 것으로 보 인다. 또한 -12 o C에서 저장한 당근의 비타민 C가 6개월 후 모두 파괴되었던 것을 통해 비타민 C의 파괴를 최소화하 기 위해서는 이보다 더 낮은 온도에서 냉동 저장해야 할 것이라 사료된다.