In this study, we aimed to explore whether eating alone is associated with mental health conditions in Korean adolescents. The data of 2,012 Korean adolescents aged 12-18 years were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2015–2019. Participants were classified into three groups based on the frequency of eating alone: none (all meals with others); 1 meal/day alone; and 2 meals/day alone. Mental health conditions were assessed based on stress recognition, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation. Multivariable logistic regressions were employed to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of poor mental health conditions according to the frequency of eating alone. Adolescents who ate 2 meals/day alone had higher odds of stress recognition (AOR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.94- 3.63), depressive symptoms (AOR: 2.55, 95% CI: 1.47-4.42), and suicidal ideation (AOR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.05-6.08) than those who ate all their meals with others. In addition, having breakfast or dinner alone increased the odds of stress recognition. Considering the continuous increase in the social phenomenon of eating alone, nutritional educations are needed to develop adolescents' ability to choose more nutritionally balanced and healthy meals when eating alone.
This study investigated the potential role of dietary factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Koreans. The scoping review method was used to evaluate the studies that utilized the secondary data sets comprising the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) and the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). Articles published between 2012 and 2022 were identified using RISS, KISS, DBpia, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases. In all, there were 32 published articles on obesity and 119 on MetS. Obesity research included eight articles on nutrients, 12 on food items/food groups, two on dietary patterns, nine on dietary behavior/eating habits, and one on the dietary index. MetS studies comprised 34 articles on nutrients, 43 on food items/food groups, seven on dietary patterns, 25 on dietary behavior/eating habits, and 10 on the dietary index. Carbohydrates, alcohol, and coffee consumption were the most frequently studied dietary factors for obesity and MetS. The primary areas of study were largely focused on nutrients and food items/food groups. Thus, to overcome the paucity of information on the relationship of dietary patterns and dietary indexes with obesity and MetS, there is a need for further research using the KNHANES and KoGES data sets.
This study investigated the Sachanbalgi, which record the royal feasts given by the royal family of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. These records are contained within the Gungjung Balgi, which recorded the types and quantity of items used in royal court ceremonies. The Eumsikbalgi is the general name for the records of food found within this document. Using these Eumsikbalgi, and in particular the Sachanbalgi, this study investigated the food eaten and bestowed by the Joseon royal family. The Sachanbalgi describes four categories or occasions of feasts: royal birthdays, childbirth, royal weddings, and funerals. These records allow us to reconstruct who the attendees were and what the table settings and food were for instances not directly indicated in oral records, books, or other documents. The food at these Sachan (feasts) was diverse, being related to the specific event, and its contents varied based on the position of the person who was receiving the food. Usually, Bab (rice) was not found at a Sachanbalgi, and only on two occasions were meals with Bab observed. Specifically, it was served with Gwaktang (seaweed soup) at a childbirth feast. There were seven kinds of soups and stews that appeared in the Sachanbalgi: Gwaktang, Yeonpo (octopus soup), Japtang (mixed food stew), Chogyetang (chilled chicken soup), Sinseonro (royal hot pot), and Yukjang (beef and soybean paste). Nureumjeok (grilled brochette) and Saengchijeok (pheasant), and Ganjeonyueo (pan-fried cow liver fillet) and Saengseonjeonyueo (pan-fried fish fillet) were eaten. Yangjeonyueo, Haejeon, Tigakjeon (pan-fried kelp) and other dishes, known and unknown, were also recorded. Boiled meat slices appeared at high frequency (40 times) in the records; likewise, 22 kinds of rice cake and traditional sweets were frequently served at feasts. Five kinds of non-alcoholic beverages were provided. Seasonal fruits and nuts, such as fresh pear or fresh chestnut, are thought to have been served following the event. In addition, a variety of dishes including salted dry fish, boiled dish, kimchi, fruit preserved in honey, seasoned vegetables, mustard seeds, fish, porridge, fillet, steamed dishes, stir-fried dishes, vegetable wraps, fruit preserved in sugar, and jellied foods were given to guests, and noodles appear 16 times in the records. Courtiers were given Banhap, Tanghap, Myeonhap, wooden bowls, or lunchboxes. The types of food provided at royal events tracked the season. In addition, considering that for feasts food of the royal household was set out for receptions of guests, cooking instructions for the food in the lunchbox-type feasts followed the cooking instructions used in the royal kitchen at the given time. Previous studies on royal cuisine have dealt mostly with the Jineosang presented to the king, but in the Sachanbalgi, the food given by the royal family to its relatives, retainers, and attendants is recorded. The study of this document is important because it extends the knowledge regarding the food of the royal families of the Joseon Dynasty. The analysis of Sachanbalgi and the results of empirical research conducted to reconstruct the precise nature of that food will improve modern knowledge of royal cuisine.