우리나라 해양환경에 유출되는 위험·유해물질(Hazardous Noxious Substances, HNS)의 해양환경 및 사회환경 영향평가 결과 와 HNS 확산 영역, 해양환경 정보, HNS 실태조사 결과 등 관련 연구 결과 및 자료를 정책결정자와 연구자들에게 공유할 수 있는 HNS 국내 용 플랫폼을 구축하고자 한다. 국내의 HNS 관리 및 배출 체계 마련을 위한 의사결정 지원이 가능하고 국내 실정에 적합한 플랫폼의 설계 를 위하여 유해물질의 데이터 관리 및 유출 시 대응 도구, 기초적인 정보 등 플랫폼에 관련된 기술동향을 분석하는 등 국내·외의 플랫폼 개발 사례를 고찰하였다. 유속 벡터의 전처리 기능 개발, 전처리 결과에 따른 동적 시각화 구현, 해양산업시설 배출 HNS의 유출량과 유출 범위의 전처리 모듈, HNS 해양환경 영향평가 연산 모듈 프로토타입을 개발하였다. HNS 해양환경 영향평가를 위한 국내용 HNS 플랫폼은 초기 위해성을 평가하고 대응 및 관련 법제화 시 과학적인 기초 도구로써 활용될 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.
In this study, changes in the microbial ecosystem of the Yeongheungdo island coastal waters were investigated for five years to collect basic data. To evaluate the influence of distance from the coast on the microbial ecosystem, four sites, coastal Site (S1) and 0.75, 1.5, and 3 km away from the coast, were set up and the changes in physicochemical and biological factors were monitored. The results showed seasonal changes in water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and pH but with no significant differences between sites. For nutrients, the concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen increased from 6.4 μM in April-June to 16.4 μM in July-November, while that of phosphorus and silicon phosphate increased from 0.4 μM and 2.5 μM in April-June to 1.1 μM and 12.0 μM in July-November, respectively. Notably, phosphorus phosphate concentrations were lower in 2014-2015 (up to 0.2 μM) compared to 2016-2018 (up to 2.2 μM), indicating phosphorus limitation during this period. However, there were no differences in nutrients with distance from the coast, indicating that there was no effect of distance on nutrients. Phytoplankton (average 511 cells mL-1) showed relatively high biomass (up to 3,370 cells mL-1) in 2014-2015 when phosphorus phosphate was limited. Notably, at that time, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon was not high, with concentrations ranging from 1.1-2.3 mg L-1. However, no significant differences in biological factors were observed between the sites. Although this study revealed that there was no disturbance of the ecosystem, further research and more basic data on the microecosystem are necessary to understand the ecosystem of the Incheon.
Porous ceramics are used in various industrial applications based on their physical properties, including isolation, storage, and thermal barrier properties. However, traditional manufacturing environments require additional steps to control artificial pores and limit deformities, because they rely on limited molding methods. To overcome this drawback, many studies have recently focused on fabricating porous structures using additive manufacturing techniques. In particular, the binder jet technology enables high porosity and various types of designs, and avoids the limitations of existing manufacturing processes. In this study, we investigated process optimization for manufacturing porous ceramic filters using the binder jet technology. In binder jet technology, the flowability of the powder used as the base material is an important factor, as well as compatibility with the binder in the process and for the final print. Flow agents and secondary binders were used to optimize the flowability and compatibility of the powders. In addition, the effects of the amount of added glass frit, and changes in sintering temperature on the microstructure, porosity and mechanical properties of the final printed product were investigated.
In this study, lanthanum boron silicate glasses were prepared with a composition of x Li2O-(60-x)B2O3-5CaO- 5BaO-7ZnO-10SiO2-10La2O3-3Y2O3 where x = 1,3,5,7, and 9 mol%. Each composition was melted in a platinum crucible under atmospheric conditions at 1,400 °C for 2 h. Clear glasses with a transmittance exceeding 85 % were fabricated. Their optical, thermal, and physical properties, such as refractive index, Abbe number, density, glass transition (Tg) and Knoop hardness were studied. The results demonstrated that refractive index was between 1.6859 and 1.6953 at 589.3 nm. The Abbe number was calculated using an equation for 589.3 nm (nd), 656.3 nm (nf) and 486.1 nm (nc) and was observed to be in the range from 57.5 to 62.6. As the Li2O content increased, the glass transition temperature of the optical glass decreased from 608 °C to 564 °C. If glass mold pressing is performed using a material with a low transition temperature and high mechanical strength, then the optical glasses developed in this study can be completely commercialized.
In this study, Barium Germanium glasses were prepared with a composition of xBaO-(72-x)GeO2-8La2O3-20ZnO where x = 16.0, 18.0, 20.0, 22.0 and 24.0 mol% respectively. Their physical and optical properties, such as refractiveness index, glass transition temperature (Tg), softening temperature (Ts), transmittance and Knoop hardness were studied. The results showed that refractive index, Tg, Ts and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) increased with increasing BaO concentration. The refractive index of all the prepared samples was observed between 1.7811 to 1.7881. The Abbe number was calculated by formula using nd (589.3 nm), nf (656.3 nm) and nc (486.1 nm) and observed to be between 38 to 40. The Abbe number of the prepared sample was similar to that of BaO and GeO2. The transmittance of the prepared glasses was observed to be between 80 ~ 82 % throughout the range from 200 nm to 800 nm. Knoop hardness divided into seven steps were measured 5 class (≥ 450 ~ < 550) of all prepared samples.
Porous ceramics have the advantages of low density, low thermal conductivity, and excellent mechanical properties. Among porous ceramic manufacturing methods, the replica template method allows the easy manufacturing of porous filters with the highest porosity and pores of the desired size, but it also has the disadvantage that the resulting filters have low mechanical strength. To overcome this shortcoming, mullite (3Al2O3·2SiO2) whiskers, which have excellent thermal stability and high mechanical strength, were introduced in porous ceramic structure. The mullite whiskers were synthesized using a composition of Al2O3, flyash and MoO3. The morphologies and crystal structures of the mullite whiskers with MoO3 contents were investigated in detail. When the porous ceramic with mullite whiskers was fabricated using 20 wt% MoO3 catalyst the most uniform microstructure was obtained, and the mullite whiskers showed the highest aspect ratio of 47.03. The porosity and compressive strength of the fabricated porous ceramic were 82.12% and 0.83 MPa, respectively.
In this study, a spray dryer is used to make granules of Y2O3 and YF3, and then Y5O4F7 is synthesized following heat treatment of them under Ar gas atmosphere at 600 oC. Single and binary monomer mixtures are compared and analyzed to optimize photocurable monomer system for DLP 3D printing. The mixture of HEA and TMPTA at 8:2 ratio exhibits the highest photocuring properties and low viscosity with shear thinning behavior. The optimized photocurable monomer and synthesized Y5O4F7 are therefore mixed and applied to printing process at variable solid contents (60, 70, 80, & 85 wt.%) and light exposure times. Under optimal light exposure conditions (initial exposure time: 1.2 s, basic exposure time: 5 s), YOF composites at 60, 70 & 80 wt.% solid contents are successfully printed. As a result of measuring the size of the printed samples compared to the dimensions of the designed bar type specimen, the deviation is found to increase as the YOF solid content increases. This shows that it is necessary to maximize the photocuring activity of the monomer system and to optimize the exposure time when printing using a high-solids ceramic slurry.
사람 아이치바이러스 (Aichivirus A; AiV-A)는 positivesense single-strand RNA 비외피 바이러스로 지난 10년 동안 하수, 강, 지표 및 지상의 다양한 물환경에서 전 세계적으로 검출이 보고되고 있다. 지하수 등 물환경에서 AiV-A 진단을 위한 고감도 및 특이성이 우수한 방법의 개발이 요구됨에 따라, 본 연구에서는 기존 및 신규 설계된 프라이 머 세트를 기초로 역전사 (RT) 및 이중 중합효소연쇄반응이 가능한 조합을 개발하였다. 개발한 방법을 국내 음용 지하수 시료에 적용 및 평가하였으며, 그 결과 지하수 시료에서 AiV-A를 성공적으로 검출 및 동정할 수 있는 RTnested PCR primer sets가 선정되었고 후속적으로 동정할 수 있는 절차가 고안되었다. 본 연구 결과는 지하수 등 물 환경에서 AiV-A 오염을 탐지하기 위한 모니터링 시스템 마련에 기여할 것으로 기대된다.
Weight-based exercise equipment is unreasonable because of its large weight or volume and has limitations in use at home. On top of that, it is not easy to control the weight of domestic muscular exercise devices such as dumbbells and latex bands. This study proposes a new type of exercise equipment that can be used at home by modifying the exercise equipment used in fitness centers. Home training exercise equipment has been optimized by replacing the weight of strength training equipment, which is the core of weight control, with electric motors. For optimal design, process integration and design optimization (PIANO), a commercial PIDO tool, was analyzed in conjunction with DAFUL, a multi-body dynamics analysis program. When formulating the optimal design, the objective function was to minimize the weight, and the shape of the pinwheel and pulley used in exercise equipment was proposed considering the stress of cables as design constraints. As a result of optimization, design proposals were derived while meeting the design requirements and reduced by 5% compared to the initial model. In this work, we have miniaturized the shape of exercise equipment compared to conventional exercise equipment by optimizing its shape.
The brake system drives the vehicle by converting the kinetic energy into thermal energy. The heat energy generated during the braking process increases the temperature of the structure. It causes thermal deformation due to overheating and causes cracks, noise, and vibration that degrade performance. However, it is not possible to fundamentally prevent the temperature rise of the brakes. There is a need for research on improving the heat dissipation performance by improving the shape of the brake. Therefore, this study analyzed the concentrated stress caused by overheating of the brake disc. In order to improve the performance of the disk, shape optimization design was performed. For stress and thermal analysis, the analysis was conducted using the finite element program ANSYS Transient Thermal and Structural tools. PIAnO (Process Integration and Design Optimization) was used to perform optimal design. In the formulation of the optimum design, the stress was minimized by satisfying the constraints. This study intends to present a new brake disc model by performing perforated shape and arrangement.
3D printing technology is a processing technology in which 3D structures are formed by fabricating multiple 2D layers of materials based on 3D designed digital data and stacking them layer by layer. Although layers are stacked using inkjet printing to release various materials, it is still rare for research to successfully form a product as an additive manufacture of multi-materials. In this study, dispersion conditions are optimized by adding a dispersant to an acrylic monomer suitable for inkjet printing using Co3O4 and Al2O3. 3D structures having continuous composition composed of a different ceramic material are manufactured by printing using two UV curable ceramic inks whose optimization is advanced. After the heat treatment, the produced structure is checked for the formation and color of the desired crystals by comparing the crystalline analysis according to the characteristics of each part of the structure with ceramic pigments made by solid phase synthesis method.
Used in the ceramic tile market as a representative building material, relief ceramic tile is showing increased demand recently. Since ceramic tiles are manufactured through a sintering process at over 1,000 oC after uniaxial compression molding by loading granule powders into a mold, it is very important to secure the flowability of granular powders in a mold having a relief pattern. In this study, kaolin, silica, and feldspar are used as starting materials to prepare granule powders by a spray dryer process; the surface of the granule powders is subject to hydrophobic treatment with various concentrations of stearic acid. The effect on the flowability of the granular powder according to the change of stearic acid concentration is confirmed by measuring the angle of repose, tap density, and compressibility, and the occurrence of cracks in the green body produced in the mold with the relief pattern is observed. Then, the green body is sintered by a fast firing process, and the water absorption, flexural strength, and durability are evaluated. The surface treatment of the granule powders with stearic acid improves the flowability of the granule powders, leading to a dense microstructure of the sintered body. Finally, the hydrophobic treatment of the granule powders makes it possible to manufacture relief ceramic tiles having a flexural strength of 292 N/cm, a water absorption of 0.91 %, and excellent mechanical durability