The purpose of this study was to investigate the improvement effect of biomarkers through the supply of natural diet in the juvenile hybrid abalone (Haliotis discus discus♀*H. madaka♂). For the study, the shell length of about 17 mm and the total weight of 0.83 g were used. The feeding conditions were set as the natural diet group (dried laver) and the formulated diet group, and the experiment duration was 16 weeks. The survival rate was about 14% higher in the natural diet group than the formulated diet group, and growth was also faster in the natural diet group. Shell malformation rate was lower in the natural diet group (7.5%) than the formulated diet group (21.5%). In the biochemical composition, except for carbohydrates, both experimental groups showed similar values. The degeneration of epithelial cells in the hepatopancreatic tubule was lower in the natural diet group than the formulated diet group, and the activity of basophilic cell was higher in the natural diet group. These results indicate that it is worth considering the supply of natural diet for the breeding of juvenile hybrid abalone and the improvement of the quality of the formulated diet (H. discus discus♀*H. madaka♂).
The association of lactic acid bacteria in human health has been investigated from early 1900s. The term of probiotics was defined in 1953 and various strains (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus etc) have been isolating with diverse beneficial effects on human health. Over the century, the concept of traditional probiotics was based on observation of natural properties to restore healthy condition within different human ecosystems (intestine, skin etc) following by development of processing optimization for the stability of bacteria. Nowadays, the aim of probiotics for human health has been moving from gut stabilization towards expanded concept of pharmabiotics like as controlling disease (e.g. obesity, immune system, psychiatric stabilization etc). Along with the expansion, scientists and industry still remained to investigate reliability of efficacy by consumption of probiotics. In recent, probiotics and bacteriophage cocktails have been commercialized in the US market. The cocktails consist of several probiotic strains with four phages targeting pathogenic E. coli. The phages induce reduction of population in E.coli and Clostridium perfringens while prevalence of Eubacterium increased in a gut to 4–5 times prior to consumption. Also, immunological stabilization was observed by consumption ‘probiotics with phage’. Now, the probiotic R&D is moving towards pharmabiotics, and additional technologies in next-generation probiotics and prebiotics are actively investigating worldwide.
In this study, the experiments and analyses were carried out in order to investigate the fracture characteristics on the adhesive at the specimen bonded with aluminum and aluminum-foam. The same conditions were given for the experiments and analyses. The results are investigated by the graph of reaction force according to displacement. It was found that the experimental and the analytical data were very similar to each other. On the basis of the data, the reliability of the analysis data could be confirmed. The notches were produced at the distances of 40, 110, 150, and 190 mm from the front of the test specimen, and the maximum reaction force was compared accordingly. It was found that the highest reaction force was generated at the front end of the adhesive and the lowest reaction force was found at the middle of the adhesive interface. Finally, when the equivalent stress in the test specimen was examined, it was found that the highest stress was obtained at the distance of 110 mm. It can be deduced. As the notch formation point are similar to the point when stress is dispersed as the adhesive is peeled off, it is possible to infer the high stress compared to other test specimens.
In this study, we investigated the properties of adhesive materials with different lightweight materials such as CFRP and Al-foam. The specimens were tested and analyzed using DCB (Double Cantilever Beam) specimens. In order to secure the reliability of the finite element method, the test and analysis were carried out, and the reliability of the finite element method was secured by using the graph of reaction force to displacement based on the experiment and analysis. The study on the adhesive failure characteristics according to the position of notch hole proceeded. Notch holes were generated at the locations of 40, 110, 150 and 190 mm from the beginning of the specimen near the bonding interface, and the analysis conditions used were the same as those used for securing reliability. The obtained study results are compared with reaction force and equivalent stress. In the case of reaction force, the overall tendency is similar but the difference in maximum reaction force is found. It was found that higher reaction forces appeared at the beginning than at the end of the bonding interface. When the equivalent stresses in the specimens were examined, the value of CFRP was seen to be 30 times higher as much as that of Al-foam.
The maturation and spawning of black scraper, Thamnaconus modestus were studied using samples collected monthly from March, 2015 to February, 2016 in the coastal waters off Middle East Sea, Korea. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) of female was the highest in June. The spawning periods lasted from March to September based on histological observation of female gonad development. The percentage of sexually mature females estimated from a logistic function was over 50% for the size group 18.02 cm (total length, TL). The size of eggs spawned was between 0.40 to 0.58 mm. Fecundity varied between 185,648 and 9,747,250 eggs. The relationship between the fecundity and TL of the fish was expressed in the fecundity equation as F = 0.0297TL5.4835.
본 연구는 여러 종류의 수액에서 lactobacillus brevis CFM20에 의한 γ-aminobutyricacid(GABA) 생산을 증가시키기 위해 수행되었다. 수액은 0.22㎛의 membrane filter로 여과하고 유산균으로 발효시켰다. 분리 된 L. brevis CFM20은 MRS 배지에서 pH 6.5, 37℃의 최적 조건에서 GABA를 276.42㎍/mL의 농도로 생산하였다. 0.8%(w/v) MSG를 함유 한 MRS 배지에서 배양된 L. brevis CFM20은1011.86㎍/mL의 농도에서 가장 높은 GABA 생산을 보였다. 0.8%(w/v) MSG와 5%(w/v) 동결건조 시킨 미강추출물을 수액에 첨가하여 얻은 GABA 량은 835.409㎍/mL였다. 결론적으로 5%(w/v) 동결건조된 미강추출물을 수액에 첨가하면 GABA 함량이 증가 된 발효 수액 음료를 개발 할 수 있을 것이라고 사료된다.
본 조사는 월악산국립공원 2015년도 자연자원조사의 일환으로 국립공원내에 서식하는 거미류의 종조성과 분포도 를 분석하여 월악산국립공원의 생물자원을 보전하고 관리하는데 필요한 기초자료를 확보하기 위해 실시하였다. 월악산국립공원은 충청북도 제천시의 한수면, 덕산면, 수산면; 충주시의 살미면, 수안보면, 단양군의 적성면, 단성면, 대강면; 경상북도 문경시의 문경읍, 동로면에 동서로 걸쳐 있으며, 조사기간은 4월부터 10월까지 7개월간 총 9회에 걸쳐 83개 지점에서 실시하였다. 채집방법으로는 쓸어잡기, 털어잡기, 진동잡기 등을 실시하였다. 채집된 개체들은 현장 기록 후 96% 에탄올에 넣어 보관하였고, 실험실에서 현미경을 이용하여 동정을 실시하였다. 조사결과 월악산국립 공원에 서식하는 거미류는 모두 30과 11속 174종으로 확인되었다. 월악산국립공원에서 서식하는 거미류 중 종구성이 풍부한 과 우점순위는 깡충거미과 28종(16.1%), 꼬마거미과 25종(14.4%), 왕거미과 21종(12.1%)의 순으로 나타났다. 생태적 분포로는 범세계종(Cosmopolitan spp.)이 3종, 구북계(Palearctic spp.)가 13종, 전북계(Holarctic spp.)이 6종으로 조사되었다.
This study was evaluated individual growth and hematological changes of young starry flounder, using hyperpigmentation marks on the blind side of body after feeding extruded pellet (EP) and moisture pellet (MP) for 45 days. As a result, the fish grew up to 220.1±47.8 g in the EP treatment and 224.7±42.4 g in the MP treatment, so the weight gain was significantly higher in the MP treatment (74.6±17.3%) than in the EP treatment (63.7±16.9%) (P<0.05). Osmolalities of flounder after 45 days culture were similar between the treatments (P>0.05), showing values of 359.8±4.2 mOsm kg-1 in the EP treatment and 358.5±6.2 mOsm kg-1 in the MP treatment. Similarly, other blood chemistry indicators such as sodium, chloride, total protein, albumin, glucose, total cholesterol, BUN, creatinine, ammonia, triglyceride, cortisol, GOT, GPT and hematocrit showed no differences between the treatments. However, the free fatty acid concentration was significantly higher in the MP treatment than in the EP treatment (P<0.05).
거미류는 생물종 다양성의 위치뿐 아니라 포식성을 이용한 생태계 균형 유지와 천연 농약으로서의 기능, 거미줄과 독 등을 이용한 공업이나 의약품 재료 개발 그리고 기후와 환경의 변화를 감지할 수 있는 환경 지표종으로서의 기능도 가지고 있다. 본 조사는 절지동물 중 번성한 동물군의 하나인 거미류의 치악산 국립공원 내 주요 지역에서의 분포현황을 조사하였다. 치악산 국립공원은 강원도 원주시의 동부 지역인 소초면, 행구동, 반곡ㆍ관설동, 판부면, 신림면과 횡성군의 우천면, 안흥면, 강림면에 남북으로 걸쳐 있으며 조사 기간은 4월부터 9월까지 6개월간 총 8회에 걸쳐 68개 지점에서 실시하였다. 채집방법으로는 Sweeping, Beating, Sieving 등을 실시하였다. 채집된 개체들은 현장 기록 후 96% Ethanol에 넣어 보관하였고, 실험실에서 현미경을 통해 생물의 동정을 실시하였다. 조사결과 치악산 국립공원에서 서식하는 거미류는 모두 29과 109속 169종이 확인되었다. 치악산 국립공원에서 서식하는 거미류 중 종 구성이 풍부한 과 우점순위는 접시거미과 27종(15.9%), 꼬마거미과 21종(12.4%), 왕거미과 20종(11.8%)의 순으로 나타났다. 생태적 분포로는 구북계(Palearctic spp.)가 13종(7.7%), 전북계(Holarctic spp.)가 6종(3.6%), 범세계종(Cosmopolitan spp.)이 3종(1.8%)이었다.
지속적인 대형 개발 사업에 노출되어 있는 수도권 서부의 습지 주변 6개 비오톱에 서식하는 육상곤충을 대상으로 2005년부터 2015년 까지 총 11년간 장기조사를 수행하였다. 조사지역의 행정구역은 경기도 시흥시 및 화성시 일대였으며, 습지 주변 비오톱 6곳을 지정하여 조사지역으로 선택하였다. 조사시기는 4, 6, 8, 10의 2개월 간격을 최대한 유지하였으며, 매회 스위핑법(sweeping)을 활용한 주간조사를 하였고, 6월 조사에서는 1개 지점에서 유아등과 스크린을 이용한 야간채집을 함께 수행하였다. 2005년 총 10목 76과 255종 출현을 시작으로, 2006년 10목 83과 273종, 2007년 13목 86과 282종, 2008년 13목 110과 354종, 2009년 12목 107과 338종, 2010년 10목 97과 295종, 2011년 12목 106과 337종, 2012년 11목 75과 220종, 2013년 9목 85과 232종, 2014년 조사결과 총 10목 101과 314종, 2015년 조사결과 총 11목 99과 361종이 출현하였다. 2005년부터 연도별 출현종수를 비교하면 2005년 10목 76과 255종으로 시작해서, 2008년 13목 110과 354종으로 최대종수를 기록하였고, 이후 감소추세가 이어져 왔으나, 14년도부터 다시 증가 추세를 보였다. 본 연구는 향후 기후변화 및 생물군집 연구에 큰 도움이 될 것으로 판단된다.
To investigate the characteristic of age and growth, samples of Megangulus venulosus were collected monthly by dredge in the coastal waters of Gangneung, Korea from January to December 2014. The age of M. venulosus was estimated by measuring the ring radius on the shell. Because the relationship between shell lengths and ring radii in each ring group was regressed well, each ring was considered as an annual growth ring. Based on the monthly variation of the marginal index (MI) of the shell length, it is assumed that the ring of this species was formed once a year during September and November. From the parameters calculated using the average length when the year ring was formed, the estimated von Bertalanffy growth equation were SLt=236.3(1–e–0.061(t+0.184)) in age.