This study monitored temperature using electronic sensors and developed a prediction model for compost maturity. The experiment used swine manure in a mechanical composting facility equipped with a screw-type agitator, and the composting process was conducted for 60 d during the summer season in South Korea. Four electronic temperature sensors were installed on the inner wall between the compost piles on Days 7, 14, 21, and 28 for daily temperature monitoring. Compost samples were collected daily for 60 d, and compost maturity was analyzed using the Solvita method. Multiple comparisons, correlations, and modeling were performed using the stat package in R software. The average compost pile temperatures was 39.1±3.9, 36.4±4.3, 31.3±4.5, and 35.4±8.1 on days 7, 14, 21, and 28, respectively, after composting. The average compost maturity according to the composting date was 3.61±0.60, 4.13±0.59, 4.26±0.47, and 4.32 ±0.56 on days 7, 14, 21, and 28, respectively. A significant negative correlation was observed between the compost composting periods (seven, 14, 21, and 28 d) and the temperature of all compost piles (p<0.05), where the correlation coefficients were -0.329, -0.382, -0.507, and -0.634, respectively. A significant positive correlation was observed between the compost composting periods (seven, 14, 21, and 28 d) and the maturity of the compost (p<0.05), where the correlation coefficients were 0.410, 0.550, 0.727, and 0.840, respectively. The model for predicting the maturation of the 14 d average compost pile according to the compost composting period and the average temperature for 14 d was y=0.026 x d – 0.021 x mt.x_14 d (mean temperature for 14 d) + 4.336 (R2=0.7612, p<0.001). This study can be considered a basic reference for predicting compost maturity by the proposed model using electronic temperature sensors.
The senior dog population (ages 7+) is increasing worldwide because of a larger interest in the health of companion dogs. In this study, we aimed to develop dog foods via fermentation to address the nutritional needs of senior dogs. The dog food ingredients were fermented with candidates of starter culture and then the fermentation efficiency was compared using pH and ammonia nitrogen for selection of optimum strains. The fermentation was carried out with a moisture content of 60% and starter culture of 1.0×107 cfu/g at 3 7℃ for 24 h. And there were manufactured pre- and post-senior dog foods (treatments) including fermented rice, fermented pinto bean, and fermented soybean meal and it compared with non-fermented dog foods (controls) on fermentation characteristics, in vitro dry matter and crude protein digestibility, and palatability. As results of this study, fermentation efficiency was higher when rice or wheat was inoculated with Lactobacillus brevis (ΔpH; -2.74 ~ -2.94) and meat and bone meal with Lactobacillus reuteri (ΔNH3-N conc.; 4.29 g/L). The ammonia nitrogen level, total volatile fatty acid content, in vitro dry matter and crude protein digestibility of L. brevis-fermented dog food were significantly greater than those of non-fermented dog food (p<0.05). Further, in case of palatability tests, fermented foods tended to have higher palatability compared to non-fermented foods, and no negative effect was observed in fermented foods. These results suggest that fermented food is suitable for senior dogs and could help to maintain adult dog health.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of various roughage sources on nutrient digestibility and enteric methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2) production in goats. Four castrated black goats (48.5 ± 0.6 kg) were individually housed in environmentally controlled respiration-metabolism chambers. The experiment design was a 4 × 4 balanced Latin square design with 4 roughage types and 4 periods. Alfalfa, tall fescue, rice straw, and corn silage was used as representative of legume, grass, straw, and silage, respectively. Dry matter digestibility was higher (p < 0.001) in corn silage than in alfalfa hay. Dry matter digestibility of alfalfa hay was higher than those of tall fescue or rice straw (p < 0.001). Neutral detergent fiber digestibility of tall fescue was lower (p < 0.001) than those of alfalfa, rice straw, or corn silage. Daily enteric CH4 production and the daily enteric CH4 production per kilogram of BW0.75, dry matter intake (DMI), organic matter intake (OMI), digested DMI, and digested OMI of rice straw did not differ from those of tall fescue but were higher (p < 0.001) than those of alfalfa or corn silage. Roughage type had no effect on enteric CO2 emission in goats. Straw appeared to generate more enteric CH4 production than legume or silage, but similar to grass.
This study was conducted to evaluate the milk productivity and nutrient balance in organic dairy farms located at Gochang-gun of Korea with different feed sources. The total number of organic dairy farms was 12 in 2012, 13 in 2013, and 14 in 2014. The numbers of farms and dairy herds were increased each year. The average milk yields in 2012, 2013, and 2014 were 25.5, 24.6, and 24.4 kg/d, respectively. The average milk fat contents in 2012, 2013, and 2014 were 3.5%, 3.6%, and 3.7%, respectively. The average milk protein contents in 2012, 2013, and 2014 were 3.3%, 3.4%, and 3.4% in 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively. Although the average milk yield of organic dairy farms was 9 kg/cows/d less than the average milk yield of other dairy farms in Korea, milk fat and protein contents of organic dairy farms were higher than those of other dairy farms. Alfalfa hay, oat hay, corn silage, rye grass silage, Sudan grass silage, rice straw, and barley silage were commonly used as forage sources in organic dairy farms. The average silage intake (15.6 kg/cow/d) of organic dairy farms in 2013 was higher (P < 0.05), while the average hay intake (5.1 kg/cow/d) in 2014 was higher (P < 0.05) than that of other feed intake. Net energy for lactation (NEL) and metabolizable protein (MP) were calculated in accordance with NRC (2001). Net energy for lactation intake was higher (P < 0.05) while MP intake was lower (P < 0.05) than NRC recommendation values in 2013 and 2014. These results indicate that domestic organic dairy farms should use feed considering energy and protein balance recommended by NRC.
본 연구에서는 국내에서 반추가축에게 주로 이용되는 조 사료원들의 영양소 함량 및 반추위 in situ 소실율을 평가 하기 위해서 수행하였다. 착유우 30두 이상의 50여개 농가 를 대상으로 조사한 결과를 토대로 선정한 12종류의 조사 료를 다양한 수입원을 고려하여 확보한 다음, 주요 영양소 성분과 미네랄을 분석하였다. 또한 그 중 5개의 조사료원 (티모시, 알팔파펠렛, 볏짚, 클라인글라스 및 톨페스큐)을 선정하여 반추위 cannula가 장착된 거세 한우 2두(평균체 중 526 ± 14 kg)를 이용하여 반추위 in-situ 소실율을 평가하 였다. 조사한 조사료원들의 영양소 함량은 한국표준사료성 분분석표에 비하여 전반적으로 낮은 함량을 나타내었다. 최종 반추위 in-situ 건물 소실율은 클라인글라스가 가장 높 게 나타났으며 티모시, 알팔파 펠렛, 톨 페스큐, 볏짚 순으 로 낮아졌다. 최종 조단백질 소실율은 알팔파 펠렛이 가장 높았으며 클라인 글라스, 티모시, 톨페스큐, 볏짚 순으로 높게 나타났다.
본 연구는 논에서 조사료 생산을 위한 총체벼와 총체 영양보리 이모작 그리고 수수 수단그라스 교잡종과 총체 영양보리 이모작 재배시 우분액비 시용에 따른 총체 벼, 총체 영양보리, 수수 수단그라스 교잡종의 생산성, 사료가치, 토양성분 및 용탈수중의 무기물 농도를조사하였다. 본 연구는 2006년 5월부터 2009년4월까지 3년 동안 전라북도 김제군 백산면 시험포장에서 완전임의배치 3반복으로 수행되었다. 총체 벼의 후작으로 재배된 총체 영양보리의 2년간 평균 수량은 7,515 kg/ha이며 수수수단그라스 교잡종의 후작으로 재배된 총체 영양보리의 2년간 평균 수량은 8,515 kg/ha으로총체 영양보리의 수량은 수수 수단그라스 교잡종 이모작으로 재배한 경우가 총체 벼 후작에 비해 현저하게 높게 나타났다(p<0.05). 수수수단그라스 교잡종과 총체 영양보리 이모작에서 총체 영양보리의 조단백질함량, NDF,ADF 및 TDN 함량은 총체 벼 후작물로 재배된 총체 영양보리와 함량 차이가 나지 않았다.경작형태별 우분액비 시용에 따른 토양 내pH, 전질소, 유기물 함량은 시험 전에 비해 시험 종료 후에 현저하게 증가하는 경향을 나타냈다(p<0.05). 그러나 인산함량은 시험전후에차이는 나타나지 않았다. 경작형태별 우분액비시용에 따른 토양 내 칼슘, 나트륨, 마그네슘및 칼리 농도는 시험 전에 비해 시험 종료 후에 현저하게 증가하는 경향을 나타냈다(p<0.05).경작형태별 우분액비 시용에 따른 용탈수 중암모니아성 질소, 질산성 질소, 인산염인, 염소,칼슘, 칼리, 마그네슘, 나트륨의 농도는 경작형태에 따른 확실한 차이를 보여주지 않았다.
연구는 표고 760 m 지역인 강원도 평창군 대관령면에 위치한 국립축산과학원 한우시험장에서 2009년부터 2010년까지 2년간 기후조건과 사일리지용 옥수수의 생육특성과 생산량의 관계를 검토하였다. 파종에서 수확기까지의 평균 최저기온은 2009년에 , 2010년에는 였고 평균최고기온은 2009년 , 2010년 였다. 평균기온은 2009년 , 2010년 였다. 일조시간은 2009년도 711.3시간, 2010년 663.8시간이었고 강수량은 2009년 893.
본 연구에서는 국내에서 반추가축용 조사료 원으로 많이 사용하고 있는 화본과 수입조사료 6종(bermuda grass hay, klein grass hay, oat hay, orchard grass straw, tall fescue straw and timothy hay)에 대하여 최근 NRC의 nutrient requirements of daily cattle(7th revised edition, 2001)에서 권장하는 사료의 영양성분 분석방법에 따라
The soaring increase in the number of Internet users combined with the constant computerization of business process has created new opportunities for computer criminals and terrorist. Fortunately, the computer security field is also progressing at a brisk rate. In particular, the field of computer forensics brings new ways of preserving and analyzing evidence related to computer crime. Computer forensics is a new emerging professions of the 21st century. It is the collection, preservation, analysis, and presentation of computer related evidence. For this reason, the various technology of computer forensics is regarded as a powerful tool for suppressing computer crime. Our aims is to introduce the overview of computer forensics technology. We also present the survey results of the state of the art of computer forensics in the domestics and of foreign country.
Real-Time Linux를 이용하여 실시간 운영체제가 요구하는 특성과 요구조건을 분석하고 이러한 요구조건에 부합하도록 리눅스를 하드웨어에 이식하고 하드웨어에 이식하기 위한 방법을 제시하였다. 다른 상용 실시간 운영체제 (RTOS)와는 달리 리눅스는 특정 하드웨어를 지원하기 위한 별도의 개발환경을 제공하지 않는다. 이에 개발환경을 구축하고 부트로더를 개발하기 위해 목표 시스템에 부합하도록 리눅스 커널을 이식하였다. 또한 응용 개발의 유연성을 제공하기 위하여 램디스크를 이용한 파일 시스템을 지원하도록 하였으며, GPIO(general purpose I/O)를 통한 디바이스 드라아버를 제작하는 등의 실험을 통해 시스템의 안정성을 검증하였다 실험에서는 StrongArm SAl110 마이크로프로세서를 이용하였으며 이 실험을 통해 실시간 운영체제로서의 리눅스의 활용 가능성을 확인하였다.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of inoculum and carbon sources on anaerobic digestion characteristics. The treatments were combinations of inoculum (digestate of cattle manure and rumen fluid) with carbon sources (starch, cellulose, and xylan). Anaerobic digestion was performed in triplicate at 37°C for 18 days at 100 rpm. Sampling was performed at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 12, 15, and 18 days to measure pH, ammonia-N, volatile solids reduction, the cumulative methane content, and the cumulative methane production. There was a significant difference in methane content depending on the carbon source and there was a significant difference in pH, ammonia-N, methane production, and methane content depending on the inoculum (P < 0.05). The results of methane production were higher in the digestate of cattle manure treatment than in the rumen fluid treatment (P < 0.05). In this study, different digestive patterns depending on the type of carbon source could be used as basic research data to set the hydraulic residence time of anaerobic digestion facilities. In addition, the use of ruminal fluid as an inoculum may help accelerate the hydrolysis and acid production steps.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different carbon sources on the anaerobic fermentation characteristics in the startup phase using the biochemical methane potential test. The treatments for this experiment were combinations of carbon sources (starch, cellulose, and xylan). Anaerobic fermentation was done at 37oC for 18 days with agitation and pH, ammonia nitrogen, volatile solids reduction, gas production, methane content, and methane production were investigated at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 12, 15, and 18 days after incubation in triplicate. In the experiment, the pH was changed depending on the characteristics of the carbon source. The ammonia nitrogen concentration was the highest in the starch-treated group at 7, 12, and 15 days after incubation (P < 0.05). Cumulative volatile solids reduction was the highest in the cellulose-treated group at 18 day after incubation (P < 0.05) and cumulative gas production was higher in the cellulose-treated group than for other two treatments at 18 day after incubation (P < 0.05). Methane content was the lowest in the xylan-treated group at 18 days after incubation (P < 0.05). Cumulative methane production was higher in the xylan-and cellulose-treated group than in the starch-treated group at 18 days after incubation (P < 0.05). In this study, the carbon sources had significant effects on anaerobic fermentation characteristics; especially, the carbon source was shown to have a positive effect on the operation time and hydraulic retention time for the anaerobic digestion startup phage. Therefore, carbon sources should be considered systematically for efficient anaerobic digestion of organic waste.
본 논문에서는 텍스쳐 매핑과 파티클 시스템을 이용하여, 눈 내리는 장면의 애니매이션을 OpenGL로 구현하는 두가지 방법을 제시하고 이들의 실행 결과를 비교 분석하였다. 하나는 glPointSize()함수를 사용하는 것이고 또 다른 하나는 glutSolidSphere()함수를 사용하는 것이다. 실행 결과 전자가 후자보다 실행 결과가 빨라서 속도가 느린 PC나 내리는 눈의 개체 수가 많은 경우에 사용하기에 더 적절한 방법이라 생각된다. 또 전자의 방법을 이용한 구현 과정에서 눈의 모앙과 눈의 색깔의 제어가 서로 상충되는 사실을 발견하고 이미지를 조작하여 그것을 해결하는 방법을 제시한다.