The fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) gene plays an important role in lipid metabolism and homeostasis in adipocytes. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), g.7516G>C, in the FABP4 gene and economic traits of Korean native cattle, Hanwoo. Primers were designed to target a region of the FABP4 gene between nucleotides 7417 and 7868 (AAFC01136716). The SNP, which was detected by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method using restriction enzyme MspA1I, was genotyped in 319 animals of Hanwoo steer population. Statistical analysis showed that the SNP genotype of the FABP4 gene significantly affected carcass weight (CW, p<0.01), longissimus muscle area (LMA, p<0.001), and marbling score (MS, p<0.001). GG allele of the SNP on 246 animals in a Wagyu × Limousin F2 reference population showed a higher MS (p<0.05) and subcutaneous fat depth (p<0.05) in previous report. But CC allele of the SNP showed greater values for MS, LMA, and CW in Hanwoo steers. These results suggest that the g.7516G>C SNP located in the FABP4 gene may affected differently depending on the cattle breed and can be used as a genetic selection marker in Korean native cattle.
The senior dog population (ages 7+) is increasing worldwide because of a larger interest in the health of companion dogs. In this study, we aimed to develop dog foods via fermentation to address the nutritional needs of senior dogs. The dog food ingredients were fermented with candidates of starter culture and then the fermentation efficiency was compared using pH and ammonia nitrogen for selection of optimum strains. The fermentation was carried out with a moisture content of 60% and starter culture of 1.0×107 cfu/g at 3 7℃ for 24 h. And there were manufactured pre- and post-senior dog foods (treatments) including fermented rice, fermented pinto bean, and fermented soybean meal and it compared with non-fermented dog foods (controls) on fermentation characteristics, in vitro dry matter and crude protein digestibility, and palatability. As results of this study, fermentation efficiency was higher when rice or wheat was inoculated with Lactobacillus brevis (ΔpH; -2.74 ~ -2.94) and meat and bone meal with Lactobacillus reuteri (ΔNH3-N conc.; 4.29 g/L). The ammonia nitrogen level, total volatile fatty acid content, in vitro dry matter and crude protein digestibility of L. brevis-fermented dog food were significantly greater than those of non-fermented dog food (p<0.05). Further, in case of palatability tests, fermented foods tended to have higher palatability compared to non-fermented foods, and no negative effect was observed in fermented foods. These results suggest that fermented food is suitable for senior dogs and could help to maintain adult dog health.
This study investigated the effects of π-ray treated feeds on the growth performance, carcass composition, internal organ weight, and sensory evaluation of broilers. One hundred and eighty broiler chicks were used as experimental animals. These were divided into four treatment groups according to the π-ray treated feed supplement level: 0% (control) 1%, 3%, and 5%. The π-ray treated feeds did not significantly affect on the body weight gain (2,484–2,602 g), feed intake (4,747–4,944 g), and feed efficiency (1.90–1.98) in broilers (p>0.05). Also, carcass protein (20.2–20.4%) and fat (4.6–4.9%) contents were not affected. The lengths (178.0, 182.7, 198.0, and 190.3 cm) and weights (38.4, 41.2, 44.2, and 38.9 g/kg of body weight) of the small intestine were slightly but not significantly higher in the π-ray treatments than in the control. Further, there were no overall effect of the π-ray treatment on the abdominal fat pad (2.3, 2.1, 2.1, and 1.8%), and cecum (6.7, 4.0, 5.6, and 6.0 g/kg of body weight) and gizzard (16.8, 15.2, 18.0, and 16.6 g/kg of body weight) weights of the broilers in the present study (p>0.05). The stickiness (2.25, 4.25, 4.50, and 4.38) and flavor (2.44, 4.25, 4.31, and 4.38) of cooked breast meat were higher in the π-ray treatments than in the control (p<0.01). This study also found that, in humans, eating cooked breast meat of broilers that were fed π-ray treated feeds had a positive effect on the blood circulation in the capillaries. Thus, the findings of this study suggest that dietary π-ray treatment has a positive effect on the sensory evaluation of broilers, without any negative effect on their body weight gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency, and that the consumption of these broilers is beneficial for humans on their blood circulation.