The fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) gene plays an important role in lipid metabolism and homeostasis in adipocytes. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), g.7516G>C, in the FABP4 gene and economic traits of Korean native cattle, Hanwoo. Primers were designed to target a region of the FABP4 gene between nucleotides 7417 and 7868 (AAFC01136716). The SNP, which was detected by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method using restriction enzyme MspA1I, was genotyped in 319 animals of Hanwoo steer population. Statistical analysis showed that the SNP genotype of the FABP4 gene significantly affected carcass weight (CW, p<0.01), longissimus muscle area (LMA, p<0.001), and marbling score (MS, p<0.001). GG allele of the SNP on 246 animals in a Wagyu × Limousin F2 reference population showed a higher MS (p<0.05) and subcutaneous fat depth (p<0.05) in previous report. But CC allele of the SNP showed greater values for MS, LMA, and CW in Hanwoo steers. These results suggest that the g.7516G>C SNP located in the FABP4 gene may affected differently depending on the cattle breed and can be used as a genetic selection marker in Korean native cattle.
본 연구에서는 소년범들 중에서도 범죄를 사전에 계획한 범죄자들에 주목하여, 소년범의 배경 특성 및 범행 내용을 다각도로 분석하고, 특히 범죄를 계획하지 않은 소년범들과의 비교를 통해 범죄 계획성에 영향을 미치는 요인들에 대해 살펴보았다. 이를 위해 경찰서에 입건된 소년범 총 279명을 바탕으로 분석하였다. 본 연구 결과, 우선 두 집단 사이에 성별, 연령 및 인성 검사 결과에 있어서는 차이가 나타나지 않았다. 그러나 배경 특성 및 범행 특성에 있어서는 여러 가지 차이점이 나타났다. 우선 범행을 사전에 계획한 비행청소년들이 그렇지 않은 비행청소년들보다 비행을 저질러 경찰서에 출입하는 친구가 더 많으며, 술을 더 자주 마시고, 알코올을 포함한 약물남용에 해당되는 비율 역시 2배 이상 높은 것으로 나타났다. 범죄와 관련된 태도에 있어서도 뚜렷한 차이가 나타났는데, 범행을 사전에 계획한 비행청소년들의 경우 준법의식이 없고, 인생목표에 있어 현실성이 없고 실제로 노력하지 않으며, 어려운 일에 대한 대처능력이 없고, 경찰서에서의 면담 태도가 불량한 경우가 훨씬 더 많았다. 또한 범행을 사전에 계획한 비행청소년들이 그렇지 않은 비행청소년들보다 총 전과 수는 더 많지 않으나, 절도 전력이 있는 비율은 두 배 가량 많았고, 본 비행에 있어 절도, 대물범죄를 저지른 비율이 훨씬 더 높았으며, 장물처리 등의 비행수법에 대해 더 잘 알고 있었다. 그 외에도 범죄 계획성 여부에 따라 범행 장소 및 가해자-피해자 관계, 공범 수에 있어서도 차이가 나타났다. 마지막으로 본 연구 결과를 토대로, 소년범의 재범 방지를 위한 실질적 방안에 대해 논의하였다.
The industrial accident rate has been steadily decreased by making all efforts for the prevention of accidents after enacting Occupational Health and Safety Act in 1981. However, ordinary typed industrial accidents still occur in small and medium sized enterprises(SME). Timely Technical Guidance(TTG) project of Korea Occupational Safety & Heath Agency(KOSHA) for SME's was initiated to visit and provide the analysis and control of industrial accidents by the staffs of KOSHA as soon as possible after accidents occurred. This study is conducted to analyze the questionnaire survey for employers, workers and TTG personnel of KOSHA with being evaluated positively whether the demonstration project of TTG has been executed consistently. However, it is suggested that the understanding of TTG project and legal support are necessary for the establishments, and the development of a variety data and lots of available contents is necessary to increase satisfaction of the TTG project. The accident rate of SME's which are employed less than 50 workers is expected to be largely decreased with applying the control and improvement over this study with maintaining and developing TTG technology.
This study was conducted to compare the value of the working environment measurement with the expected exposure value drawn by using a program, thereby going to investigate whether it is available to the risk assessment of domestic workplace. We used the ECETOC TRA program which is one of the exposure predictive models. Four kinds of substances were measured in two workplace which was exposed to organic solvents and one kind of substance was measured in three workplace which was exposed to dusts and then an exposure assessment of chemical risk factors was conducted. The result value of the working environment measurement, solid substance exceeded standard in one site, and it was found that the other solid and liquid substances were within the standard. The value of the exposure assessment program showd the same result; it was higher than the value of the working environment measurement, suggesting that due to its nature, the exposure assessment program is run only on the worst situation. Therefore, it was found that when the exposure assesment program is used, variables should be substituted only after accurately assessing the workplace and it is a good idea to assess the risk beforehand with the exposure assessment program in the case of the workplace which employs no more than 5 people and where it is hard to assess the working environment.
The purpose of the livestock industry is to pursuit economic profits by increasing the economic productivity of livestock. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), that is characterized by one variation out of every 1000 polymorphisms, to increase economical benefits in stock breeding has been extensively studied. Particularly, replete number of investigations have been put forward that has associated SNPs of candidate genes with economically important traits such as carcass weight (CW), longissimus muscle area (LMA), backfat thickness (BFT) and marbling score (MS) in beef cattle. Bovine genome sequencing and HapMap projects have provided, millions of SNPs in the cattle genome. However, till date studies related to the association of the SNPs with economic traits in beef cattles are meager. Discovering of SNPs bovine whole genome would certainly be useful genetic assets for the development of SNP marker for economically important traits in beef cattle.
The role of Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) gene is critical for lipid metabolism and for maintaining homeostasis in adipocytes. Association between Hanwoo carcass traits and FABP4 gene g.7516G>C SNP has been reported previously, however, its association and how does it influence Korean brindle and black cattle has not been demonstrated and established till date. For this purpose, the study was planned to analyze the SNP association (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) (g.7516G>C) in FABP4 gene and gather genetic information on economic traits of Korean brindle cattle and black cattle. As per sequence of bovine FABP4 gene available (Genbank accession No. NC_007312.4), one pair of primers (5’-ATA TAG TCC ATA GGG TGG CAA AGA-3’ and 5’-AAC CTC TCT TTG AAT TCT CCA TTC T-3’) was designed to amplify a 452bp product of the FABP4 gene including the region of 7417–7868. The SNP, detected by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods using restriction enzyme MspA1I, was genotyped in 117 animals of brindle cattle and 24 animals of black cattle population. Statistical analysis revealed that the FABP4 genotype significantly (p<0.05) affect with carcass weight, but there was no significant association with any other economic traits was observed in brindle as well as in black cattle. In conclusion, these results suggested that SNP (g.7516G>C), located in FABP4 gene, could be used as important DNA marker of economic traits in Korean brindle cattle. Furthermore, we suggest that additional samples needs to further analysed to make related data exclusively authentic.
The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic interrelationships between economic or meat quality traits (birth weight, weaning weight, average daily gain, market weight, carcass weight, backfat thickness, water, ash, fat, protein, water holding capacity and pH) and 6 SNPs located on six selected candidate genes (MC4R, PGK2, TNNI1, TNNI2, PIK3C3, and CTSK) in Korean native pigs. The genotypes were identified in the 6 SNPs by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) procedure, and association of the genotype on economically important traits was analyzed by general liner model. According to the analyzed results, the MC4R c.1426A>G was correlated with birth weight (p=0.032) and the PGK2 g.122T>G was associated with pH (p=0.026). These findings obtained in the present revealed that the each SNPs of MC4R and PGK2 could be useful as potential genetic markers for birth weight and pH in Korean native pigs, respectively.
The melanocortin receptor type 4 (MC4R) gene is expressed in the hypothalamus and regulates energy intake and body weight. Recently, it has been reported that obesity and energy balance in human were also regulated by the MC4R gene. Therefore the objective of this study was to identify the polymorphism on the MC4R gene SNP C1786T and its association with economic traits in Korean native cattle (brindle and black cattle) by PCR-RFLP. A total of 125 cattle from the two breeds were tested for economic traits (meat quality index, backfat, thickness, carcass weight, longissimus muscle area and marbling score) and data was analyzed using SAS program. In the results, C allele had highest frequency than G allele frequency in the both breeds and the gene was significantly associated with meat quantity index and backfat thickness in brindle cattle breed. However, in black cattle, the gene was significantly associated with longissimus muscle area (p<0.05). These results suggest that C1786T SNP of the MC4R gene may be useful as a genetic marker for economic traits in the brindle and black cattle.
This study was carried out to investigate the influence of artificial insemination (AI) failure in 1,619 Korean native cows at Gangwon East area, Korea. The average AI failure rate was 37.02% in the cows and the highest rate was 40.85% in Yangyang-city. Based on the parity in the cows, the AI failure rate was 49.14% and 29.91% in the first and fifth parity cows, respectively. Whereas cows until fifth parity were decreased in AI failure, cows with sixth or more parity showed an upturning AI failure trends with the increasing of parity number. AI failure rate incidence according to the rump fat thickness measured by ultrasound was 28.9% and 33.4% at 5 mm to 10 mm and over than 15 mm, respectively. There was a positive correlation (0.2186) between AI failure rate of mother and that of their offspring cows. That is, offspring of dams with high AI failure rate showed also higher AI failure than those of dams having lower AI failure rate. In conclusion, these results indicate that the AI failure rate was closely related to the rump fat thickness, parity number, and conception rate of mother cows. In addition, these results might strengthen the basis to improve the reproductive performance in Korean native cows.
Osteoarthritis is one of the commonest causes associated with age-related damage of articular cartilage. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used in osteoarthritic patient. However, long term administration of these drugs results gastrointestinal disorders. Though, most studies have demonstrated in the past that bee venom has therapeutic effect on diseases related to inflammation and pains, but its anti-inflammatory properties have not been so far studied on inflamed chondrocytes (LPS induced) invitro. For the purpose, the study was carried out to determine the effect of bee venom on porcine articular chondrocyte cell using microarray. In this study, we found that 2,235 significantly associated gene (1,404 up-regulated genes and 831 down-regulated genes) that were expressed on inflamed and non inflamed chondrocytes during proliferation. Among the 1,404 up-regulated genes and 831 down-regulated genes, known genes were 372 and 237, respectively. On the other hand, bee venom significantly reduced expression of fetuin involved in acute inflammatory reaction. Our results suggest that this study could be useful database in gene expression profiling of chondrocyte cell treated with bee venom.
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) gene plays important role in fatty acid composition. In order to find marker-assisted selection (MAS) for improving the economic trait, this study was performed to identify the 878T>C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on SCD1 gene. Three genotypes (CC, CT, and TT) were detected in 878T>C SNP of SCD1 gene from 103 Hanwoo population by polymorphism chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and economic traits were analyzed by general linear model. The frequency of allele C and T was 0.534 and 0.466, also the genotype frequency of CC, CT and TT was 0.252, 0.563, and 0.184, respectively in the Hanwoo population. The TT genotype of SCD1 gene showed a significantly higher measures (p<0.05) of carcass weight (CW) than CT, CC genotype. No significant association was detected between genotype and other economic trait (marbling, backfat thickness, and longissimus muscle area) in this study. The results revealed that SCD1 gene 878T>C SNP could be useful for effective MAS to increase the economic quality in Hanwoo population.
This study was carried out to investigate artificial insemination (AI) failure status and frozen semen characteristics in Korean proven bulls‘ number (KPN) semen used for AI of Hanwoo cows in Gangwon East region (Gangneung, Donghae, Taebaek, Samcheok, Sokcho, Yangyang, Goseong). Among semen used for AI, AI failure rate showed lowest at KPN506 (27.6%), whereas highest at KPN593 (77.2%). Correlations of AI failure in between Korean proven bulls semen and cows was 0.2941, which means that AI failure rate of Korean proven bulls semen may have respectable effect on reproduction of Hanwoo cow. In addition, present study was conducted to investigate spermatozoal viability rate, ruptured acrosome rate and active mitochondria in frozen Korean proven bulls semen with flow cytometry. The semen of KPN593 showed significantly (p<0.05) higher viability rate in KPN593 (30.49%) than that in KPN637 (37.34%). Furthermore, percentage of ruptured acrosome was lower in KPN637 as 21.37% than in KPN637 (21.37%), but it was not statistically significant. In conclusion, these results indicate that choice of Korean proven bulls semen may correlate positively with conception rate in Hanwoo cow. Therefore, KPN with high AI failure rate might be avoid to increase conception rate and characteristics of frozen semen might be evaluated before its use for AI.
Myopalladin (MYPN) is an important expression gene associated with regulation of Z-line structure in muscle and maintains sarcomeric integrity. In this study, we investigated the association between MYPN A1795G SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) and carcass traits (LMA, longissimus muscle area; CW, carcass weight; BF, backfat thickness; MS, marbling score) in Korean cattle. The MYPN A1795G SNP was genotyped in 212 steers and analyzed the associations with carcass traits by PCR-RFLP (Restriction fragment length polymorphism) method. The allele frequencies were 0.566 for G allele and 0.434 for A allele. And the genotype frequencies of GG, GA, and AA genotype were 32.1%, 49%, and 18.9%, respectively. Association analysis indicated that the A1795G SNP of MYPN gene showed a significant association with LMA (p<0.05). The steers with GG genotype had higher LMA than those with the genotypes AA. But no significant associations were observed in other carcass traits (CW, BF, MS). The steers with the GG genotype showed higher CW and BF than those with the genotypes AA and GA. These results suggest that the A1795G SNP of the MYPN gene is associated with LMA and may be useful for candidate marker-assisted selection to increase the levels of LMA in Korean cattle.
In this chapter 8, I discuss a running piglet disease(奔豚氣病), its causes, symptoms and prescription. The name of the running piglet(奔豚) disease dates back to old times, and it is not clinically reported these days. The symptoms of the running piglet disease(奔豚氣病) is characterized by unberable pain in the lower abdomen, the chest and the throat, followed by complete disappearance of these symptoms with passage of time. In my view, the causes of the running piglet disease(奔豚氣病) can be divided into three categories: startle and panic, and the excessive fluid(水飮). In this chapter 13, I elaborate on three diseases: a wasting-thirst(消渴), a dribbling urination(小便不利),1)a strangury disease(淋病). I discuss these three diseases in one chapter because they share the same symptoms of thirst and abnormal urination and the symptoms occur mainly in the kidney(腎) and the urinary bladder(膀胱). A wasting-thirst(消渴) has the main symptoms of drinking water and eating food excessively as well as urinating a lot. A disease symptomized by thirst(消渴) is typically divided into upper wasting-thirst(上消), middle wasting-thirst(中消), and lower wasting-thirst(下消) by clinicians. Specifically, I discuss the mechanism of disease of upper wasting-thirst(上消) and lower wasting-thirst(下消), treatment principles of and prescriptions for upper wasting-thirst(上消) and lower wasting-thirst(下消), and pathology of middle wasting-thirst(中消) in this chapter. Based on the view that a dribbling urination(小便不利) is not a disease per se but a label for the symptom of short and insufficient urination, I discuss water amassment syndrome(蓄水證), yang bringtness disease pattern(陽明病), and a dribbling urination(小便不利) that is accompanied by various diseases. A strangury disease(淋病) has the main symptoms of insufficient and trickling urination that is often accompanied by pain perception. In this chapter, I discuss about stone strangury(石淋) in particular. These three diseases merit in-depth discussion since they are clinically observed with high frequency.
In an environment of global competition, the success of a manufacturing corporation is directly related to bow it plans and executes production in particular as well as to the optimization level of its process in general. This paper proposes a production
Background : Spiraea prunifolia var. simpliciflora (Rosaceae) called “Brial wreath” is a deciduous latifoliate shrub that is widely distributed throughout in Northeast Asia. Phytochemical and biological investigation of S. prunifolia have led to the discovery of biologically active compounds. Pharmacological studies revealed that the extract of the root of S. prunifolia possess antioxidant, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities. Some chemical constituents such as sterols, phenolics, terpene and fatty acid, as well as ethanolic extracts from the roots of S. prunifolia, have previously been reported to modulate the deleterious effects of diabetes, to prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity, and to prevent cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Our continuing research was carried out to search for other phytochemical constituents from the leavess of S. prunifolia. The chemical structures of compounds were determined by NMR and FAB/MS spectroscopic data interpretation.
Methods and Results : Multiple-preparative liquid chromatography (MPLC) purifications were carried out on YMC LC-forte/R instrument (YMC Kyoto, Japan) equipped with YMC-Pack ODS-A columns (ODS gel : 5 ㎛, 10 ㎜ × 250 ㎜). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed on Agilent Technologies instrument (Aglient Tec., Santa clara, CA, USA) equipped with YMC–Pack Pro C18 columns (ODS gel : 5 ㎛, 4.6 ㎜ × 250 ㎜). Next, quantitative analysis was carried out on UPLC-QqQ/MS 3200 Q-TRAP instrument (AB SCIEX Toronto, Canada) using a ACQUITY UPLC (waters corp.) with an ACQUITY BEH C18 column (2.1 ㎜ × 100 ㎜, 1.7 ㎛). The metabolite samples was applied to preparative reversed-phase HPLC and UPLC using gradient method, solvent A [water + 0.1% formic acid (v/v)] and solvent B [acetonitrile + 0.1% formic acid (v/v)].
Conclusion : In this study, we isolated the major metabolites from the stem of Spiraea prunifolia var. simpliciflora by using MPLC and HPLC. UPLC-QqQ/MS was also used to quantify target compounds. Finally, we established methodology and performed the quantitative analysis on target compounds from the stem of Spiraea prunifolia var. simpliciflora.
Background : Lythrum salicaria L. (LS), a herb that is found all around the world, has long been used as medicinal plant to treat inflammation, external wound bleeding, and diarrhea, while its sprouts (young leaves) can be utilized as a food material. The antioxidant and hepato-protective activities of LS have been reported in several articles. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy and cell proliferation of LS leaves according to their growth period, and to obtain information on the optimal harvesting time of LS as a food resource.
Methods and results : LS leaves were collected at ten-day intervals between April 27 and June 26, 2016 in Eumseong-gun, South Korea. The LS leaves were extracted with 50% ethanol at room temperature, and seven LS extracts (LSE) were obtained. A peroxynitrite (ONOO-) scavenging assay and a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay were performed to compare the antioxidant effects of LSE, while a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed on the BV-2 cell lines to determine cell viability. The total phenol contents of LSE were quantified by using the calibration curve of tannic acid. From these assays, LSE harvested on April 27 showed the lowest value, while LSE harvested on June 6 showed the highest DPPH scavenging activity at 10 ㎍/㎖. There was no difference among the extracts in terms of their peroxynitrite scavenging activity. The extract prepared on April 27 showed the highest value in terms of BV2 cell viability, while that obtained on June 6 showed the lowest value. The value in terms of the total phenol content of the LSE harvested on June 6 was the highest, whereas that of the LSE harvested on April 27 was the lowest.
Conclusion : When comparing the activity of LSE according to its harvesting time, the extract dated June 6 showed the highest effect in terms of its antioxidant activity and its total phenol content, whereas the extract dated April 27 showed the highest cell viability. As such, this study suggests that LS leaves harvested in the early season could be utilized as a food material even though they display low efficacy.