본 연구는 의료법이 처음 제정된 이래부터 현재까지 논란이 된 보완대체요법과 의료행위 간의 모 호한 경계를 명확히 하기 위한 목적으로 실시되었다. 연구의 목적을 달성하기 위하여 대한민국법원 종합법률정보와 로앤비를 검색엔진으로 사용하여 판례를 수집하였다. 그 결과 총 15편의 판례에서 의료행위에 대한 간접조항, 무면허 의료행위의 정의, 보완대체요법에 대한 헌법재판소와 대법원의 입 장을 확인할 수 있었다. 그러나 의료법에서 의료행위를 규정한 조항은 찾지 못했다는 점에서 의료행 위와 보완대체요법의 경계가 불명확하다는 사실이 재확인되었다. 본 논고에서 판례조사를 통해 얻은 결론에 따르면 소정의 의료행위란 의학적 전문지식을 기초로 하는 경험과 기능으로 진찰, 검안, 처 방, 투약 또는 외과적 시술을 시행하는 질병의 예방 또는 치료행위를 말한다. 이 행위에는 의료인이 행하지 않으면 보건위생상 위해가 생길 우려가 있는 행위도 포함하고 있다. 따라서 비의료행위에 해 당하는 무면허 의료행위란 의학적 전문지식이 있는 비의료인이 행한 질병의 예방, 치료행위가 사람 의 생명이나 신체, 공중위생에 위해를 발생시킬 우려가 있는 행위인 것이다. 보완대체요법이 의료법 상 법적 규제로부터 자유롭게 이용되기 위해서는 사회적 문제화를 일으키고 있는 부분별한 시술을 제한할 수 있는 제도적인 장치(관련 규정의 정비 등)와 과학적 검증이 선행되어야 한다. 또한 과학적 인 검증을 통하여 안전성과 효율성을 확보하게 된다면 지금보다 더 다양한 보완대체요법이 이용되어 건강관련 종사자의 증가와 국민의 건강증진에 도움을 줄 수 있을 것이다.
The purpose of the livestock industry is to pursuit economic profits by increasing the economic productivity of livestock. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), that is characterized by one variation out of every 1000 polymorphisms, to increase economical benefits in stock breeding has been extensively studied. Particularly, replete number of investigations have been put forward that has associated SNPs of candidate genes with economically important traits such as carcass weight (CW), longissimus muscle area (LMA), backfat thickness (BFT) and marbling score (MS) in beef cattle. Bovine genome sequencing and HapMap projects have provided, millions of SNPs in the cattle genome. However, till date studies related to the association of the SNPs with economic traits in beef cattles are meager. Discovering of SNPs bovine whole genome would certainly be useful genetic assets for the development of SNP marker for economically important traits in beef cattle.
The role of Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) gene is critical for lipid metabolism and for maintaining homeostasis in adipocytes. Association between Hanwoo carcass traits and FABP4 gene g.7516G>C SNP has been reported previously, however, its association and how does it influence Korean brindle and black cattle has not been demonstrated and established till date. For this purpose, the study was planned to analyze the SNP association (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) (g.7516G>C) in FABP4 gene and gather genetic information on economic traits of Korean brindle cattle and black cattle. As per sequence of bovine FABP4 gene available (Genbank accession No. NC_007312.4), one pair of primers (5’-ATA TAG TCC ATA GGG TGG CAA AGA-3’ and 5’-AAC CTC TCT TTG AAT TCT CCA TTC T-3’) was designed to amplify a 452bp product of the FABP4 gene including the region of 7417–7868. The SNP, detected by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods using restriction enzyme MspA1I, was genotyped in 117 animals of brindle cattle and 24 animals of black cattle population. Statistical analysis revealed that the FABP4 genotype significantly (p<0.05) affect with carcass weight, but there was no significant association with any other economic traits was observed in brindle as well as in black cattle. In conclusion, these results suggested that SNP (g.7516G>C), located in FABP4 gene, could be used as important DNA marker of economic traits in Korean brindle cattle. Furthermore, we suggest that additional samples needs to further analysed to make related data exclusively authentic.
The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic interrelationships between economic or meat quality traits (birth weight, weaning weight, average daily gain, market weight, carcass weight, backfat thickness, water, ash, fat, protein, water holding capacity and pH) and 6 SNPs located on six selected candidate genes (MC4R, PGK2, TNNI1, TNNI2, PIK3C3, and CTSK) in Korean native pigs. The genotypes were identified in the 6 SNPs by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) procedure, and association of the genotype on economically important traits was analyzed by general liner model. According to the analyzed results, the MC4R c.1426A>G was correlated with birth weight (p=0.032) and the PGK2 g.122T>G was associated with pH (p=0.026). These findings obtained in the present revealed that the each SNPs of MC4R and PGK2 could be useful as potential genetic markers for birth weight and pH in Korean native pigs, respectively.
The melanocortin receptor type 4 (MC4R) gene is expressed in the hypothalamus and regulates energy intake and body weight. Recently, it has been reported that obesity and energy balance in human were also regulated by the MC4R gene. Therefore the objective of this study was to identify the polymorphism on the MC4R gene SNP C1786T and its association with economic traits in Korean native cattle (brindle and black cattle) by PCR-RFLP. A total of 125 cattle from the two breeds were tested for economic traits (meat quality index, backfat, thickness, carcass weight, longissimus muscle area and marbling score) and data was analyzed using SAS program. In the results, C allele had highest frequency than G allele frequency in the both breeds and the gene was significantly associated with meat quantity index and backfat thickness in brindle cattle breed. However, in black cattle, the gene was significantly associated with longissimus muscle area (p<0.05). These results suggest that C1786T SNP of the MC4R gene may be useful as a genetic marker for economic traits in the brindle and black cattle.
This study was carried out to investigate the influence of artificial insemination (AI) failure in 1,619 Korean native cows at Gangwon East area, Korea. The average AI failure rate was 37.02% in the cows and the highest rate was 40.85% in Yangyang-city. Based on the parity in the cows, the AI failure rate was 49.14% and 29.91% in the first and fifth parity cows, respectively. Whereas cows until fifth parity were decreased in AI failure, cows with sixth or more parity showed an upturning AI failure trends with the increasing of parity number. AI failure rate incidence according to the rump fat thickness measured by ultrasound was 28.9% and 33.4% at 5 mm to 10 mm and over than 15 mm, respectively. There was a positive correlation (0.2186) between AI failure rate of mother and that of their offspring cows. That is, offspring of dams with high AI failure rate showed also higher AI failure than those of dams having lower AI failure rate. In conclusion, these results indicate that the AI failure rate was closely related to the rump fat thickness, parity number, and conception rate of mother cows. In addition, these results might strengthen the basis to improve the reproductive performance in Korean native cows.
Osteoarthritis is one of the commonest causes associated with age-related damage of articular cartilage. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used in osteoarthritic patient. However, long term administration of these drugs results gastrointestinal disorders. Though, most studies have demonstrated in the past that bee venom has therapeutic effect on diseases related to inflammation and pains, but its anti-inflammatory properties have not been so far studied on inflamed chondrocytes (LPS induced) invitro. For the purpose, the study was carried out to determine the effect of bee venom on porcine articular chondrocyte cell using microarray. In this study, we found that 2,235 significantly associated gene (1,404 up-regulated genes and 831 down-regulated genes) that were expressed on inflamed and non inflamed chondrocytes during proliferation. Among the 1,404 up-regulated genes and 831 down-regulated genes, known genes were 372 and 237, respectively. On the other hand, bee venom significantly reduced expression of fetuin involved in acute inflammatory reaction. Our results suggest that this study could be useful database in gene expression profiling of chondrocyte cell treated with bee venom.
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of wormwood meal addition on constituent of blood, and liver fatty acid in broiler chickens. Two-day old 25 male commercial broiler chicks were distributed to 5 treatments (wormwood meal levels ; T1 (1%), T2 (3%), T3 (5%), T4 (10%), and control (C)) for 5 weeks. Free fatty acids of liver were a little different among the treatments and the palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids were occupied 92.5% of total free fatty acids. Hemoglobin and hematocrite concentration of blood were significantly decreased (p<0.05) as the levels of wormwood meal increased, and serum albumin concentration of broilers was little different between 0 week and 5 week experiments. Also serum cholesterol, phospholipid, total cholesterol, and triglyceride concentration of liver in broilers were little different during the 5 weeks experiment. Serum triglyceride concentration was significantly increased (p<0.05) as levels of wormwood meal increased. These results indicate that dietary wormwood meal addition has a little positive effect on increasing unsaturated fatty acid and decreasing saturated fatty acid.
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) gene plays important role in fatty acid composition. In order to find marker-assisted selection (MAS) for improving the economic trait, this study was performed to identify the 878T>C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on SCD1 gene. Three genotypes (CC, CT, and TT) were detected in 878T>C SNP of SCD1 gene from 103 Hanwoo population by polymorphism chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and economic traits were analyzed by general linear model. The frequency of allele C and T was 0.534 and 0.466, also the genotype frequency of CC, CT and TT was 0.252, 0.563, and 0.184, respectively in the Hanwoo population. The TT genotype of SCD1 gene showed a significantly higher measures (p<0.05) of carcass weight (CW) than CT, CC genotype. No significant association was detected between genotype and other economic trait (marbling, backfat thickness, and longissimus muscle area) in this study. The results revealed that SCD1 gene 878T>C SNP could be useful for effective MAS to increase the economic quality in Hanwoo population.
This study was carried out to investigate artificial insemination (AI) failure status and frozen semen characteristics in Korean proven bulls‘ number (KPN) semen used for AI of Hanwoo cows in Gangwon East region (Gangneung, Donghae, Taebaek, Samcheok, Sokcho, Yangyang, Goseong). Among semen used for AI, AI failure rate showed lowest at KPN506 (27.6%), whereas highest at KPN593 (77.2%). Correlations of AI failure in between Korean proven bulls semen and cows was 0.2941, which means that AI failure rate of Korean proven bulls semen may have respectable effect on reproduction of Hanwoo cow. In addition, present study was conducted to investigate spermatozoal viability rate, ruptured acrosome rate and active mitochondria in frozen Korean proven bulls semen with flow cytometry. The semen of KPN593 showed significantly (p<0.05) higher viability rate in KPN593 (30.49%) than that in KPN637 (37.34%). Furthermore, percentage of ruptured acrosome was lower in KPN637 as 21.37% than in KPN637 (21.37%), but it was not statistically significant. In conclusion, these results indicate that choice of Korean proven bulls semen may correlate positively with conception rate in Hanwoo cow. Therefore, KPN with high AI failure rate might be avoid to increase conception rate and characteristics of frozen semen might be evaluated before its use for AI.
Myopalladin (MYPN) is an important expression gene associated with regulation of Z-line structure in muscle and maintains sarcomeric integrity. In this study, we investigated the association between MYPN A1795G SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) and carcass traits (LMA, longissimus muscle area; CW, carcass weight; BF, backfat thickness; MS, marbling score) in Korean cattle. The MYPN A1795G SNP was genotyped in 212 steers and analyzed the associations with carcass traits by PCR-RFLP (Restriction fragment length polymorphism) method. The allele frequencies were 0.566 for G allele and 0.434 for A allele. And the genotype frequencies of GG, GA, and AA genotype were 32.1%, 49%, and 18.9%, respectively. Association analysis indicated that the A1795G SNP of MYPN gene showed a significant association with LMA (p<0.05). The steers with GG genotype had higher LMA than those with the genotypes AA. But no significant associations were observed in other carcass traits (CW, BF, MS). The steers with the GG genotype showed higher CW and BF than those with the genotypes AA and GA. These results suggest that the A1795G SNP of the MYPN gene is associated with LMA and may be useful for candidate marker-assisted selection to increase the levels of LMA in Korean cattle.
The aim of this study was to analyze the reproduction and breeding status of 1655 Hanwoo (Korean cattle) cows raised in Gangwon East area (Gangneung, Taebaek, Donghae, Yangyang, Samcheok, Sokcho, and Goseong). The average age in months and the parity of Hanwoo was 43.6 and 1.7 respectively. Registration status of the cows were 42.0% (pedigree), 30.2% advanced), 20.0% (fundamental), and 4.0% (non-registry). Korean proven bull's number (KPN) 517 and KPN 588 were preferred 25.8%, 16.2% respectively for artificial insemination (AI) of the cows. Appearance rate of over 1st meat quality grade in the offsprings obtained from AI of top 6 KPNs was 90% which was above national average (slaughters only 77.81%, total 63.12). Results indicated genetic influence the KPN for meat quality grade of their offspring. Strong correleation between AI failure rate of mother cows and their offspring cows has been observed. KPN information, meat quality grade, and AI failure percentage would be quite useful factors to understand their relationship in further improvement of Hanwoo in Gangwon East area.
There are four (yellow, brindle, black, black in Jeju) kinds of native cattle in Korea. But only twelve hundred Korean brindle cattle (KBC) are remaining in limited areas of Korea and the genetic lineage, diversity, polymorphisms of KBC has not been identified. To analysis genetic polymorphism of KBC, 33 KBC were characterized using 11 microsatellite markers. Size of microsatellite marker was decided using Gene Mapper software after analysis ABI 3130XL. The average of allele numbers of KBC was 6.7 in this study, but that of Hanwoo was 10.0 in our previous report. The observed and expected heterozygosities of KBC were 0.719 and 0.738 but those of Hanwoo were 0.751 and 0.760 in our previous report. Also polymorphism information content (PIC) values were average 0.690 in KBC but 0.725 in Hanwoo. These results demonstrate that genetic polymorphism of KBC have decreased because the population was limited.