본 연구는 6개 핵돈군생산농장(Great grand parents, GGP)에서 2015년 이후 태어난 Landrace종과 Yorkshire종의 두 품종에 대하여 생시체중 (Birth weight; BW), 복당평균생시체중(Mean of litter birth weight; MBW0)과 변이계수(Coefficient of variation in MBW0; CVMBW0) 및 산자수(Litter size) 등에 대한 유전모수를 추정하였다. Landrace종에서 총산자수(Total number of piglets born; TNB), 생존산자수(Number of piglets born alive: NBA), 복당평균생시체중 및 복당평균생시체중 변이계수의 유전력은 각각 0.14, 0.09, 0.33 및 0.16. Yorkshire종에서는 각각 0.11, 0.99, 0.28 및 0.07로 추정되었다. 산자수와 복당평균생시체중 간에는 부(-)의 상관관계를 나타내었으며, 복당평균생시체중과 변이계수사이의 표현형상관과 유전상관이 두 품종에서 모두 –0.40에서 –0.45로 높게 나타났다. 자돈 생시체중에 대한 균일도를 개량하기 위해서는 복당평균생시 체중(MBW0)과 복당평균생시체중변이계수(CVMBW0)를 선발지수식에 포함시키는 것이 바람직하다고 생각된다.
1. 말레이시아는 젖소 유전자원 개선을 위해 다수의 가축 사육 프로젝트를 지원해오고 있다. 그러나 소비자의 유제품 수요가 빠르게 늘어나는 상황에서 이를 충족시키기 위해 유전자 원과 유제품을 수입에 의존하고 있는 상황이다. 2. 이는 낙농산업 분야에서의 낮은 젖소 번식능력과 개체 수, 비구조화된 번식체계, 수입의존 유전자원, 수익성 있는 낙농산업 모델 부재, 현대적인 유전육종기술 한계에 기인한다고 볼 수 있다. 3. 말레이시아는 향후 정책지원을 통해 낙농산업의 효율성 향상을 진행할 것으로 전망되며, 이러한 상황 속에서 우리나라의 우수한 낙농 유전자원 수출을 위해서는 현지 낙농산업 현황과 검역절차에 대한 이해가 필요하다. 4. 말레이시아 젖소정액 검역 통관을 위해서는 포괄적인 검역조건 대응으로 협의를 통한 검역조건 간소화가 필요하며, 수출 지속성 제고를 위해 국제협력사업과의 연계, 현지 에이전트 발굴을 통한 적극적인 참여 유도, 한류 등을 활용한 현지 홍보활동 방안이 있다.
The status of probiotics is increasing worldwide and the range of application of probiotics is also being extended to the livestock industry. The use of probiotics in the swine industry aims to improve animal health and productivity by forming a healthy gut microbiota. Intensive pig breeding, a common breeding method in modern society, causes physiological stress in pigs, resulting in imbalance of the intestinal microbiota and dysfunction of the intestinal barrier. We conducted a scientific research on the properties of probiotics for multi-strain probiotics (MSP) and observed the economic benefits and efficiency of culturing MSP through a self-cultivation system in livestock. Initially, we observed alteration occurred by MSP application in the gut microbiota of pig. MSP were characterized to have resistance to digestive juices such as gastric acid and bile, followed by colonization in the target organ, the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT). In addition, MSP was also confirmed to have antibacterial ability against pathogenicity that most frequently infected in the swine industry and showed low resistance to antibiotics which means guaranteed stability when added to feed. The growth rate of probiotics in the optimized medium used in the self-cultivation system was suitable for efficiently and economically culturing and feeding pigs with high concentrations of probiotics, considering the ingredient price and the growth efficiency. We observed the significant alteration of gut microbiota of pig by application of MSP. Importantly, the MSP supplementation significantly increased the beneficial bacteria genus of Bifidobacterium that confer a health benefit to the host in pig GIT, whereas decreased the number of harmful bacteria including coliforms. In addition, MSP influenced on the uniformity of gut microbiota at both of sow and weaning pigs. Taken together, the application of MSP with high concentration of probiotics using self-cultivation system may critically improve the pig health by regulation intestinal microbiota.
The artificial insemination (AI) is one of the best assisted reproductive technologies for increasing reproductive capacity and facilitating the genetic improvement in farm animals. AI has been used in Uganda for over 60 years, but a small population of the total herd has been used. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of AI with estrus synchronization technique and to propose ways of improving the productivity of dairy farms through AI services in Uganda. In total, 78 cows from 11 dairy farms were selected for timed-AI. Synchronization was performed according to the ovsynch programs followed by AI using frozen semen from Korean Holstein (0.5 ml straws). Pregnancy rate was varying among farms (0-50%) and the overall pregnancy rate was 28.2%. Cows in luteal phase at the time of treatment was 40.0% whereas that in follicular phase was 20.8%. After treatment, cows that showed normal estrus signal were 45.5% (25/55). Abnormal estrus was categorized into pre-estrus (9.1%), cystic ovaries (21.8%), anestrus (18.2%) and delayed ovulation (5.5%), respectively. These results imply that an assured protocol for timed-AI should be developed to improve the productivity of dairy farms through AI services in Uganda.
본 연구는 젖소 종모우 973두의 국내 추정 육종가, 국제유전능력평가에 의한 육종가 그리고 MACE proof를 이용한 DRP를 비교하여 종모우 선발의 정확도 향상을 위한 방안을 제시하기 위하여 수행하였다. Interbull의 국제유전능력평가는 유량 형질 기준으로 32개국 31개 집단과 총 134,533두의 종모우가 참여하는 것으로 조사되었다. 국내 추정 육종가와 interbull 추정 육종가 상관계수는 0.925로 나타났으며, 육종가에 대한 산지별 상관은 캐나다, 미국 및 국산에서 각각 0.917, 0.910과 0.996으로 나타났다. 충분한 딸소 수를 보유하여 신뢰도가 높은 경우에는 국내산이나 수입산 모든 종모우에서 신뢰도의 변화량이 크지 않으나, 국내에서는 EDC가 낮지만 해외 자료에서 EDC가 높은 경우 43까지 신뢰도가 증가하였다. 973두 종모우들의 경우 신뢰도의 평균은 87.16±10.62이며, 51~99의 범위를 나타내었으며, deregressed MACE proof와 MACE proof의 상관계수는 0.945로 높게 나타났다.
The purpose of the livestock industry is to pursuit economic profits by increasing the economic productivity of livestock. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), that is characterized by one variation out of every 1000 polymorphisms, to increase economical benefits in stock breeding has been extensively studied. Particularly, replete number of investigations have been put forward that has associated SNPs of candidate genes with economically important traits such as carcass weight (CW), longissimus muscle area (LMA), backfat thickness (BFT) and marbling score (MS) in beef cattle. Bovine genome sequencing and HapMap projects have provided, millions of SNPs in the cattle genome. However, till date studies related to the association of the SNPs with economic traits in beef cattles are meager. Discovering of SNPs bovine whole genome would certainly be useful genetic assets for the development of SNP marker for economically important traits in beef cattle.
The role of Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) gene is critical for lipid metabolism and for maintaining homeostasis in adipocytes. Association between Hanwoo carcass traits and FABP4 gene g.7516G>C SNP has been reported previously, however, its association and how does it influence Korean brindle and black cattle has not been demonstrated and established till date. For this purpose, the study was planned to analyze the SNP association (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) (g.7516G>C) in FABP4 gene and gather genetic information on economic traits of Korean brindle cattle and black cattle. As per sequence of bovine FABP4 gene available (Genbank accession No. NC_007312.4), one pair of primers (5’-ATA TAG TCC ATA GGG TGG CAA AGA-3’ and 5’-AAC CTC TCT TTG AAT TCT CCA TTC T-3’) was designed to amplify a 452bp product of the FABP4 gene including the region of 7417–7868. The SNP, detected by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods using restriction enzyme MspA1I, was genotyped in 117 animals of brindle cattle and 24 animals of black cattle population. Statistical analysis revealed that the FABP4 genotype significantly (p<0.05) affect with carcass weight, but there was no significant association with any other economic traits was observed in brindle as well as in black cattle. In conclusion, these results suggested that SNP (g.7516G>C), located in FABP4 gene, could be used as important DNA marker of economic traits in Korean brindle cattle. Furthermore, we suggest that additional samples needs to further analysed to make related data exclusively authentic.
The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic interrelationships between economic or meat quality traits (birth weight, weaning weight, average daily gain, market weight, carcass weight, backfat thickness, water, ash, fat, protein, water holding capacity and pH) and 6 SNPs located on six selected candidate genes (MC4R, PGK2, TNNI1, TNNI2, PIK3C3, and CTSK) in Korean native pigs. The genotypes were identified in the 6 SNPs by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) procedure, and association of the genotype on economically important traits was analyzed by general liner model. According to the analyzed results, the MC4R c.1426A>G was correlated with birth weight (p=0.032) and the PGK2 g.122T>G was associated with pH (p=0.026). These findings obtained in the present revealed that the each SNPs of MC4R and PGK2 could be useful as potential genetic markers for birth weight and pH in Korean native pigs, respectively.
The melanocortin receptor type 4 (MC4R) gene is expressed in the hypothalamus and regulates energy intake and body weight. Recently, it has been reported that obesity and energy balance in human were also regulated by the MC4R gene. Therefore the objective of this study was to identify the polymorphism on the MC4R gene SNP C1786T and its association with economic traits in Korean native cattle (brindle and black cattle) by PCR-RFLP. A total of 125 cattle from the two breeds were tested for economic traits (meat quality index, backfat, thickness, carcass weight, longissimus muscle area and marbling score) and data was analyzed using SAS program. In the results, C allele had highest frequency than G allele frequency in the both breeds and the gene was significantly associated with meat quantity index and backfat thickness in brindle cattle breed. However, in black cattle, the gene was significantly associated with longissimus muscle area (p<0.05). These results suggest that C1786T SNP of the MC4R gene may be useful as a genetic marker for economic traits in the brindle and black cattle.
This study was carried out to investigate the influence of artificial insemination (AI) failure in 1,619 Korean native cows at Gangwon East area, Korea. The average AI failure rate was 37.02% in the cows and the highest rate was 40.85% in Yangyang-city. Based on the parity in the cows, the AI failure rate was 49.14% and 29.91% in the first and fifth parity cows, respectively. Whereas cows until fifth parity were decreased in AI failure, cows with sixth or more parity showed an upturning AI failure trends with the increasing of parity number. AI failure rate incidence according to the rump fat thickness measured by ultrasound was 28.9% and 33.4% at 5 mm to 10 mm and over than 15 mm, respectively. There was a positive correlation (0.2186) between AI failure rate of mother and that of their offspring cows. That is, offspring of dams with high AI failure rate showed also higher AI failure than those of dams having lower AI failure rate. In conclusion, these results indicate that the AI failure rate was closely related to the rump fat thickness, parity number, and conception rate of mother cows. In addition, these results might strengthen the basis to improve the reproductive performance in Korean native cows.
Osteoarthritis is one of the commonest causes associated with age-related damage of articular cartilage. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used in osteoarthritic patient. However, long term administration of these drugs results gastrointestinal disorders. Though, most studies have demonstrated in the past that bee venom has therapeutic effect on diseases related to inflammation and pains, but its anti-inflammatory properties have not been so far studied on inflamed chondrocytes (LPS induced) invitro. For the purpose, the study was carried out to determine the effect of bee venom on porcine articular chondrocyte cell using microarray. In this study, we found that 2,235 significantly associated gene (1,404 up-regulated genes and 831 down-regulated genes) that were expressed on inflamed and non inflamed chondrocytes during proliferation. Among the 1,404 up-regulated genes and 831 down-regulated genes, known genes were 372 and 237, respectively. On the other hand, bee venom significantly reduced expression of fetuin involved in acute inflammatory reaction. Our results suggest that this study could be useful database in gene expression profiling of chondrocyte cell treated with bee venom.
Since the Bovine sequencing and HapMap projects, there have been millions of genetic variations particularly including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) available throughout the cattle genome. While cataloguing substantial amounts of SNPs, copy number variation (CNV) has recently become getting great attention as an another form of genetic variation which is extensively distributed across the cattle genome. As it has been well known that CNVs can account for substantial proportions of phenotypic variance in other species including human, CNVs are highly expected to explain genetic variations of diverse economically important traits in cattle. Currently, two main approaches such as hybridization-based microarray and massively parallel sequencing-based method have been successfully applied to detect CNVs throughout the cattle genome. Although there is obvious difference of capabilities to detect genome-wide CNVs at fine scales between different platforms applied, all currently completed investigations exhibited that CNVs are extensively spread throughout the cattle genome as observed in other species. Despite these successes, there are still severe lacks of researches to identify multiple levels of CNVs from diverse cattle or multiple individuals, suggesting that there are a number of CNVs remained undiscovered. Furthermore, there are almost few investigations available to elucidate how each CNV is associated with traits of interest in cattle, so such functional study should be followed along with saturating most of potential CNVs on cattle genome.
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of wormwood meal addition on constituent of blood, and liver fatty acid in broiler chickens. Two-day old 25 male commercial broiler chicks were distributed to 5 treatments (wormwood meal levels ; T1 (1%), T2 (3%), T3 (5%), T4 (10%), and control (C)) for 5 weeks. Free fatty acids of liver were a little different among the treatments and the palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids were occupied 92.5% of total free fatty acids. Hemoglobin and hematocrite concentration of blood were significantly decreased (p<0.05) as the levels of wormwood meal increased, and serum albumin concentration of broilers was little different between 0 week and 5 week experiments. Also serum cholesterol, phospholipid, total cholesterol, and triglyceride concentration of liver in broilers were little different during the 5 weeks experiment. Serum triglyceride concentration was significantly increased (p<0.05) as levels of wormwood meal increased. These results indicate that dietary wormwood meal addition has a little positive effect on increasing unsaturated fatty acid and decreasing saturated fatty acid.
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) gene plays important role in fatty acid composition. In order to find marker-assisted selection (MAS) for improving the economic trait, this study was performed to identify the 878T>C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on SCD1 gene. Three genotypes (CC, CT, and TT) were detected in 878T>C SNP of SCD1 gene from 103 Hanwoo population by polymorphism chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and economic traits were analyzed by general linear model. The frequency of allele C and T was 0.534 and 0.466, also the genotype frequency of CC, CT and TT was 0.252, 0.563, and 0.184, respectively in the Hanwoo population. The TT genotype of SCD1 gene showed a significantly higher measures (p<0.05) of carcass weight (CW) than CT, CC genotype. No significant association was detected between genotype and other economic trait (marbling, backfat thickness, and longissimus muscle area) in this study. The results revealed that SCD1 gene 878T>C SNP could be useful for effective MAS to increase the economic quality in Hanwoo population.
Animal genomics and breeding center works for development of livestock industry through development of breeding technologies based on genomes. Through analysis technology of genomic information with commercialization of DNA chip and development of NGS technique at present, we can select and improve superior breeding stock. DNA chip technique using microarray can analyze millions of SNP genotypes in a short period and we are studying these techniques to make a tool for genomic selection. In the United States, they made a guideline for genomic selection in dairy cattle and this guideline is utilized. In addition Semex company and CRV center use genomic selection for Holstein dairy cattle. Semex says genomic selection reduce two years compared to the existing selection, cost will be shortened 50% and improving speed will be more than 30% accelerated. In Australia, the case of using genomic information has more 10% accuracy than the case of using parent's breeding value without phenotype information. Recently development of NGS technology leads to reduction of analysis costs, increase in analysis data quantity and shorten time of analysis genome. NGS technology is innovative tool in life science. With development of NGS technology, we can expect to increase the efficiency of genomic analysis. Development of NGS technology leads us to expand whole genome study from limited gene study. Human and rodential genome is researched over the past five years, but only recently lots of livestock's genomes like cattle and pig are researched. Also for domestic, studies on livestock genome and genomic information are accomplished but we have a poor infrastructure of genomic analysis. Thus, through the application technology using SNP chip data and NGS, new breeding technology is very important for prior occupation. Animal genomics and breeding center has four strategies and these are divided by application technology. 1. Development of animal breeding and statistical genetics based on genomic information. 2. Development of genomic analysis and application technology through analysis of genetic diversity and structure. 3. Registration of traditional breeds and securing intellectual property rights based on the genome of the unique genetic resources. 4. Development of technologies for improvement of disease resistance and economic traits.
This study was carried out to investigate artificial insemination (AI) failure status and frozen semen characteristics in Korean proven bulls‘ number (KPN) semen used for AI of Hanwoo cows in Gangwon East region (Gangneung, Donghae, Taebaek, Samcheok, Sokcho, Yangyang, Goseong). Among semen used for AI, AI failure rate showed lowest at KPN506 (27.6%), whereas highest at KPN593 (77.2%). Correlations of AI failure in between Korean proven bulls semen and cows was 0.2941, which means that AI failure rate of Korean proven bulls semen may have respectable effect on reproduction of Hanwoo cow. In addition, present study was conducted to investigate spermatozoal viability rate, ruptured acrosome rate and active mitochondria in frozen Korean proven bulls semen with flow cytometry. The semen of KPN593 showed significantly (p<0.05) higher viability rate in KPN593 (30.49%) than that in KPN637 (37.34%). Furthermore, percentage of ruptured acrosome was lower in KPN637 as 21.37% than in KPN637 (21.37%), but it was not statistically significant. In conclusion, these results indicate that choice of Korean proven bulls semen may correlate positively with conception rate in Hanwoo cow. Therefore, KPN with high AI failure rate might be avoid to increase conception rate and characteristics of frozen semen might be evaluated before its use for AI.
To estimate the genetic characteristics and cumulative power of discrimination (CPD) existing among Hanwoo (Korean cattle) and exotic foreign population (Angus, Herford, Charolais, Holstein) we used a total of 414 genomic DNAs from five breeds population (Hanwoo, Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Holstein). Genetic characteristics indices including mean allele number among loci, unbiased heterozygosity () within locus and polymorphic information content (PIC) and unbiased average heterozygosity (H) among loci in four breeds were calculated using the generated allele frequencies by each marker. The mean allele numbers for all loci ranged between 5 and 7 while heterozygosity (H) ranged from 0.75 (HW) to 0.64 (HF) among loci and across breeds heterozygosity (H) was 0.69. The generated unbiased average heterozygosity among loci in each breed was integrated to the global formula of CPD resulting in 99.71 % within the populations. The genetic variation of HW (Hanwoo) showed highest estimates among the analyzed breeds.
Pituitary-specific transcription factor (PIT1) 유전자는 동물의 성장을 조절하고 근육 형성에 관여하는 유전자로서 최근에는 단일염기다형성 변이가 한우를 비롯한 동물에서 관찰되었으며, 한우의 경제 형질과 연관성이 보고되었다. 본 연구는 PIT1 유전자의 단일염기다형성 변이가 한우에서 성장 인자에 미치는 영향과 경제 형질에 대한 유전자형간 육종가와의 상관성에 대해 알아보고자 하였다. 도체 성적을 보유하고 있는 한우 후보종모
본 연구는 재래 돼지의 산육 능력을 개량하기 위한 기초 자료를 제공하기 위하여 축산과학원에서 2001년부터 2006년까지 20 kg에 검정을 개시하고 70 kg에 검정을 종료하여 발육 능력을 조사한 546개의 재래 돼지 산육 능력 검정 자료를 활용하여 유전모수를 추정하였으며, 재래 돼지 사육 농가의 사양방법 개선을 위하여 2003년부터 2005년까지 조사된 재래 돼지성돈 및 검정돈 132두의 발육 단계별 체중 및 체위 조사 자료를 다중 회귀 분석하여 재
한우에서 도축 전 혈청 호르몬 및 혈액 성분의 농도 변화가 거세우와 비거세우에서 공통적으로 나타난 현상은 도축 2개월 전에서 수송 직전 사이에 cortisol과 creatinine이 증가하였고 calcium은 감소하였다. 수송 직전에 비해 수송 직후에는 IGF-1 농도가 감소하였으나 수송 직전에 비해 도축 시에는 IP농도가 감소했다. 혈청 호르몬 및 대사 물질들에서 도축 2개월 전, 수송 직전, 수송 직후 및 도축시 혈청들 간의 상관 관계는 도축 2개월