이 논문은 경제적 착취를 예방하기 위해 금융회사의 신고의무와 거래유 예 제도를 적극 도입하고 있는 미국의 법제도를 연구하고 우리나라의 개 선방안을 제시는 것을 목적으로 한다. 미국에서는 경제적 착취 행위가 형 사처벌의 대상이 됨에 따라 금융회사 등의 신고의무가 강조되고 있는 추 세이다. 금융회사 신고의무 제도를 도입한 주의 경우, 노인 학대 신고의 무자에 포함하여 규정하는 것이 일반적인데, 금융회사 직원이 경제적 착 취와 관련된 거래라고 합리적으로 의심하는 경우 관할 기관에 신고하여야 하며, 이 경우 민․형사상 면책규정이 적용된다. 의심거래 발견 시 금융회 사의 거래거절 또는 일시 거래정지를 의무화하거나 금융회사의 재량으로 규정하고 있다. 가장 큰 특징은, 금융회사의 신고, 거래거절 또는 정지 등 에 있어서 금융감독기관, 수사기관은 물론 노인보호전문기관이 서로 해당 정보를 수시로 공유하도록 함으로써 노인학대 상담 및 조사가 다각적이고 면밀하게 이루어지도록 협조 체제가 구축되어 있다는 점이다. 노인을 대상으로 하는 경제적 착취를 예방하기 위해 다음과 같이 개선 할 필요가 있다. 우선, 경제적 착취를 효과적으로 예방하기 위해 현행 ｢ 노인복지법｣을 개정하여 금융회사의 신고의무를 규정할 필요가 있다. 이 를 위해서는 경제적 착취 개념부터 구체적으로 정할 필요가 있다. 경제적 착취를 65세 이상 노인의 재산, 자원 등을 부당하게 빼앗거나, 부적절하 게 사용하거나, 노인에게 경제적 손해를 가하는 행위로 규정할 것을 제안 한다. 경제적 착취와는 별도로 사기 등 일반 형법상의 범죄를 노인경제적 착취관련범죄로 규정하고, 금융회사 직원이 해당 거래가 노인경제적착취 관련범죄와 관련이 있다고 합리적인 의심이 드는 때에는 노인보호전문기 관이나 수사기관에 신고하도록 의무규정을 둘 필요가 있다. 다만, 금융회 사가 의심거래를 신고할 경우 거래정지 등 임시조치는 업무 부담을 고려 하여 재량 사항으로 규정하는 것이 바람직하다. 또한 경제적 착취 신고를 받고 출동한 사법경찰관리가 금융거래 현장에서 해당 거래내역을 확인하 고 관련 자료를 제공받을 수 있도록 근거 규정을 둘 필요가 있다. 마지막 으로 금융회사의 내부 모니티링 시스템 및 교육훈련 강화, 정부의 재정 지원에 관한 책무를 ｢노인복지법｣에 규정할 필요가 있다.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary total mixed ration (TMR) supplementation and dry-aging period on the physico-chemical and sensory quality of striploin (longissimus lumborum) from multiparous Hanwoo cows. The experimental cows were divided into two treatments (n=3/treatment) according to the type of feed: in one treatment (slaughter age: 87±6 months old, parity: 5±1) the cows were fed on TMR for 7 months before slaughter, while in the other treatment (slaughter age: 83±9 months old, parity: 5±2) the cows were fed on concentrate and rice straw (CRS) for the whole rearing period. After slaughtering, the striploins were dry-aged for 20 or 40 days at 2±1℃, 85% relative humidity and 2 m/sec air flow velocity and then utilized for quality measurements. The pH value, cooking loss, and hypoxanthine content were higher (p<0.05) for the striploins dry-aged for 40 days than for those dry-aged for 20 days. Notably, the inosine 5’-monophosphate content was decreased (p<0.05) by increasing the dry-aging time. With regard to microbiological quality, the striploins dry-aged for 40 days exhibited lower (p<0.05) lactic acid bacteria counts and higher (p<0.05) coliform counts than those dry-aged for 20 days. Moreover, the tenderness and overall liking scores based on sensory evaluation were higher (p<0.05) for the dry-aged striploins of the TMR treatment and those dry-aged for 40 days than for the CRS treatment and those dry-aged 20 days, respectively. These findings suggest that dietary TMR supplementation leads to an increase in the sensory preference of dry-aged striploins from multiparous Hanwoo cows, and alteration of the CRS into the TMR may improve the quality of dry-aged Hanwoo beef.
This study investigated the antioxidant properties of the Radix isatidis extract and the effect of substituting it with sodium nitrite (SN) in a pork patty. The antioxidant activity of the Radix isatidis water extract (RIWE) was compared to those of the methanol and chloroform extracts (RIME and RICE, respectively). Patties were prepared with five different treatments: (1) a control with no RIWE and SN, (2) T1 with 150 ppm SN, (3) T2 with 100 ppm SN + 0.1% RIWE, (4) T3 with 50 ppm SN + 0.3% RIWE, and (5) T4 with 0.5% RIWE. They were used to compare the oxidation stability for 12 days at 4℃. The extraction yield of RIWE was 3.2 and 18.7 times higher (p<0.05) than those of RIME and RICE, respectively, but RIWE had the lowest (p<0.05) 1,1`-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutase-like activity, and total reducing ability. Patties with RIWE and SN exhibited lower (p<0.05) pH values after 12 days, compared to the control. After 4 days, the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content was lower (p<0.05) in T1, T2, T3, and T4 than in the control. The oxidation-reduction potential value was the lowest (p<0.05) in T3 and T4 after 4 days (p<0.05). T1, T2, T3, and T4 had a lower (p<0.05) volatile basic nitrogen content after 12 days, compared to the control. These findings suggest that RIWE has an antioxidant effect similar to that of SN, but further research on its antimicrobial effect may be required to determine if it is a good substitute for SN.
This study was conducted to evaluate the acceptability of cured cooked boneless chicken drumettes as a raw material for Chuncheon Dakgalbi and to observe its effect on pH, lipid oxidation, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) content and total viable count (TVC) during refrigerated storage under vacuum. Boneless chicken drumettes were dry cured with a mixed curing agent (0.20% w/w) consisting of sodium chloride (93.1%), sodium nitrite (5.9%) and sodium bicarbonate (1.0%) for 24 h at 2±2℃. Cured samples were cooked using an oven at 150℃ for 20 min and stored at 5.5±0.5℃ for 60 days under vacuum. Non-cured cooked sample was used as a control. Sensory evaluation was performed on day 2 of storage using 22 untrained panelists and samples were mixed with Dakgalbi sauce and reheated using a microwave for 2 min. There were no significant differences between control and treatment group on appearance, flavor, texture, juiciness and overall acceptability. Cured cooked boneless chicken drumettes had significantly (p<0.05) higher pH, lower lipid oxidation, VBN and TVC consistently during storage in comparison with control. These results suggest that dry curing could be applied to boneless chicken drumettes as raw material for Chuncheon Dakgalbi and could extend its shelf life during refrigerated storage under vacuum.
저장조에 위치한 사용후핵연료는 가혹한 원자로 조건에 의해 구조적 건전성이 와해되므로 외력에 취약하다. 따라서 운반 및 취급 중 사고 상황이 고려되어야 한다. 극단적인 경우, 핵연료 취급 중 사고로 인해 핵연료 저장조에서 핵연료집합체 낙하 가 발생할 수 있다. 이러한 사고 상황 하에서 연료봉 파손 등을 평가하기 위해서 수조에 충돌할 때 발생하는 충돌력을 분석 할 필요가 있다. 이는 핵연료가 수조 바닥에 충돌할 때의 속도를 입력으로 하여 평가될 수 있다. 연료봉이 핵연료 중량 및 부 피의 대부분을 차지하고 있으므로, 연료봉 다발은 수중 항력을 예측하는데 중요한 역할을 한다고 볼 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 3×3 의 짧은 연료봉 다발을 모델로 사용하여 수중에서 낙하할 때 받는 수력을 계산하였고, 이를 전산모사와의 비교를 통하 여 검증하였다. 본 방법론을 사용후핵연료 건전성 평가에 적용할 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.
This research was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical properties of semi-dried jerky made from uncastrated (U) and castrated (C) deer meat. The jerky was manufactured by mixing the ground lean meat with spices followed by drying process, packed and stored aerobically at 25℃ for 20 days. The pH of uncastrated raw meat was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of castrated meat as well as the pH of the jerky. No effects were found on color, hardness and sensory scores of jerky. Castrated jerky had higher fat content than uncastrated jerky (p<0.05), after 20 days of storage, its TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) value was higher than uncastrated jerky (p<0.01). These results suggest that castration contributed to higher fat content and lipid oxidation of semi-dried venison jerky than the uncastrated, without any significant effects on texture and sensory attributes. However, proper packaging should be considered to inhibit lipid oxidation.
최근 헌법재판소는 배임죄의 재산상 손해개념이 명확성 원칙에 반하지 않는다고 보아 합헌 결정을 하였다. 그동안 기업의 배임죄와 관련하여 상법학자와 형법학자간 찬･반 논쟁이 있었으나 배임죄의 재산상 손해개념에 대하여는 공통적으로 비판적 견해가 제기되어왔다. 배임죄의 재산상 손해귀속 주체와 손해발생의 기수시기 및 범위에 관하여 판례를 검토한 결과, 배임죄의 재산상 손해귀속 주체와 관련하여 판례는 원칙적으로 회사기준설을 취하면서도 그 배후에 있는 주주 또는 채권자의 이익을 고려하고 있으므로 재산상 손해의 발생 시기와 범위를 산정함에 있어서도 이와 일관성이 유지되어야 한다. 따라서 배임죄의 기수시기와 관련, 법인 배후의 주주 또는 채권자에 대한 손해 여부를 고려하기 위해서는 침해범설이 타당하다. 추상적인 개념의 회사를 기준으로 범죄성립의 시기를 앞당기는 구체적 위험범설에 따른 재산상 손해의 개념은 잠정적이고, 불확정적이어서 재산상 손해의 개념을 형해화하고 과도한 사법부의 재량을 확대하는 문제를 야기하며, 문언의 규정에 반하여 피고인에게 불리한 유추를 허용하게 된다. 이러한 판례의 태도는 특히, 소극적 손해의 적극적 인정을 통해 그 문제점을 노정한다. 법원은 임무위배와 손해사이의 인과관계에 대한 구체적인 논증 없이 손해를 인정하며, 배임행위자의 인식을 초과한 손해의 범위를 인정함으로써 자칫 과실범을 고의범으로 인정할 여지가 크고, 비경제적 사안에까지 손해를 인정하며, 손해액의 범위를 부당하게 확대시키고 있다. 따라서 배임죄에 있어서 재산상 손해는 손해의 현실화를 기준으로 하는 침해범설의 입장에서 재 논의될 필요가 있다.
The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic interrelationships between economic or meat quality traits (birth weight, weaning weight, average daily gain, market weight, carcass weight, backfat thickness, water, ash, fat, protein, water holding capacity and pH) and 6 SNPs located on six selected candidate genes (MC4R, PGK2, TNNI1, TNNI2, PIK3C3, and CTSK) in Korean native pigs. The genotypes were identified in the 6 SNPs by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) procedure, and association of the genotype on economically important traits was analyzed by general liner model. According to the analyzed results, the MC4R c.1426A>G was correlated with birth weight (p=0.032) and the PGK2 g.122T>G was associated with pH (p=0.026). These findings obtained in the present revealed that the each SNPs of MC4R and PGK2 could be useful as potential genetic markers for birth weight and pH in Korean native pigs, respectively.
The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of dietary cottonseed meal (CSM) supplementation on carcass and meat quality characteristics of Hanwoo (Korean cattle) bulls. Twenty two months-old-Hanwoo bulls of eight heads (4 heads per treatments) were fed for 5 months on a diet with or without (control) CSM (500 g/head/day). The samples of M. longissimus dorsi from carcasses were used for the quality measurement. Dietary CSM supplementation did not affect the carcass traits of bulls and pH value, drip loss, water-holding capacity and fatty acid composition of beef loin. Crude protein and crude ash content of beef loin were significantly (p<0.05) higher in beef loin from bulls fed CSM than in the control. During storage of 5 days at 4℃, CIE a*, b*, C* and total color values were significantly (p<0.05) higher in beef loin from bulls fed CSM than in the control. Overall, the present results indicate that dietary CSM supplementation may improve the oxidation stability of Hanwoo beef loin.
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of amino acids complex and choline supplementation on the antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative stability of Hanwoo (Korean cattle) beef. Fifteen months-old-Hanwoo steers were assigned into two groups and fed on a basal diets with or without amino acids complex (≥25% L-lysine monohydrochloride+≥8% DL- methionine)+choline (≥25% choline chloride) for 12 months. After slaughter, the M. longissimus from carcasses were stored at 4℃ for 7 days. Catalase, glutathione peroxidase and total superoxide dismutase activities were found to be unaffected by supplementation of amino acids+choline. After 2 days of storage, significant decline (p<0.05) in lipid oxidation (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) was observed when supplemented with amino acids+choline. However, supplementation of amino acids+choline maintained meat color as indicated by higher CIE L* (Lightness), a* (Redness), b* (Yellowness) and C* (Chroma) values during storage. It was therefore concluded that supplemental amino acids+choline could stabilize the lipid oxidation stability and meat color in Hanwoo beef.
The current study was carried out to investigate the effect of addition of Rhus veniciflua Stokes oil (RVSO) and black garlic extract (BGE) on the lipid oxidation in Hanwoo (Korean cattle) beef model systems. The RVSO at 0.2% inhibited the TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) formation when tested in liposome model system. The antioxidant effect of RVSO was further found to be similar to 0.2% butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and 0.01% vitamin E. On the other hand, BGE at 0.1% also showed the inhibition of TBARS formation in 4% NaCl-added Hanwoo beef patty and found to have slightly lower (p<0.05) effect than 0.1% vitamin E but higher (p<0.05) effect than 0.1% BHT. Results of this study indicated that both RVSO and BGE possess strong antioxidant effects and help to increase the oxidative stability in Hanwoo beef products.
The present study investigated the dealing mode and the quality of Chuncheon Dakgalbi on marketing. Distribution of chicken as raw material for Dakgalbi at 100 restaurants in Chuncheon was studied. Boneless chicken was sold at 89, bone-in chicken was sold at 9 and both of them were sold at 2 restaurants, respectively. Consumer's taste for Dakgalbi was surveyed at different area such as apartment (A), university (B) and downtown area (C) in Chuncheon. The redness and taste score of Dakgalbi was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) among the members of family (A) as compared to others. Saccharinity and salinity of Dakgalbi were rated significant (p<0.05) among university student (B) than other consumers. In conclusion, quality characteristics of Dakgalbi differs with marketing area or consumer group in Chuncheon.