This study was performed to evaluate the effect of pork belly thickness on physicochemical and sensory characteristics after pan frying. Pork belly with three different thickness (5, 10, 20 mm) from three different parts (A:thoracic vertebrae no. 5-9, B:thoracic vertebrae 10-14, C:lumbar vertebrae 1-6) was pan grilled with electronic grill until it reached an internal temperature of 71℃. Cooking loss, shear force, sensory characteristics, volatile compounds of cooked pork belly were determined. Electric nose analysis was performed to support descriptive analysis and consumer sensory analysis. The cooking loss of pork belly with 20 mm thickness from all positions was significantly low (p<0.05). Shear force increased with increase in thickness (p<0.05). Electric nose identified major seven volatile compounds such as acetonitrile, (Z)-4-heptenal, 2-octanol, linalool, carbon disulfide, methylcyclohexane, n-nonanal to discriminate those samples. The part of pork belly significantly affected the intensity of volatile compounds rather than thickness. In discriminate analysis, the overall acceptability of pork belly (A and B parts) with 20 mm thickness was higher than that of pork belly with 5 mm thickness. In addition, the overall acceptability by consumers for pork belly with 20 mm thickness from A, B, and C parts was higher than the overall acceptability for pork belly with 5 mm thickness. This preliminary study suggests that it is more desirable to use pork belly with 20 mm thickness from part A when cooking on a pan gril compared with pork belly of 10 mm or 20 mm thickness from part B or C in the meat markets and restaurant.
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of administering dietary tomato powder (TP; 1, 5, and 10%) to mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity for 12 weeks. The TP used in this study was prepared using unmarketable tomatoes. Male C57BL/6J mice (n=60) were randomly divided into five groups, namely, CON, mice fed a basal diet (10% fat); HFD, mice fed HFD (60% fat); HFD+TP1, mice fed HFD (60% fat) supplemented with 1% TP; HFD+TP5, mice fed HFD (60% fat) supplemented with 5% TP; HFD+TP10, mice fed HFD (60% fat) supplemented with 10% TP. The HFD+TP10 group showed lower final body weight (34.23 g) than the HFD group (39.41 g), along with decreased epididymal fat weight (p<0.05). In addition, the HFD+TP10 group showed significantly lower serum cholesterol and triglyceride contents (136.32 and 33.20 mg/dL, respectively) that the HFD group (175.68 and 59.52 mg/dL, respectively). Increased serum leptin and insulin levels (66.36 and 1.80 ng/mL, respectively) in mice with HFD-induced obesity could be rescued in mice fed HFD supplemented with 10% TP (35.94 and 1.23 ng/mL, respectively). Additionally, the epididymal fat content and hepatic steatosis area showed a dose-dependent decrease with increase in dietary TP supplementation. The anti-obesity effect of 10% TP was linked to reduced serum trimethylamine-N-oxide levels. These results suggested that 10% TP was effective at inhibiting the accumulation of fat in the serum and tissue, and ameliorating lipid metabolism disorders observed in HFD-fed mice. In addition, such utilization of unmarketable tomato to inhibit obesity-associated pathologies is expected to add value and increase profits in the functional food industry.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary total mixed ration (TMR) supplementation and dry-aging period on the physico-chemical and sensory quality of striploin (longissimus lumborum) from multiparous Hanwoo cows. The experimental cows were divided into two treatments (n=3/treatment) according to the type of feed: in one treatment (slaughter age: 87±6 months old, parity: 5±1) the cows were fed on TMR for 7 months before slaughter, while in the other treatment (slaughter age: 83±9 months old, parity: 5±2) the cows were fed on concentrate and rice straw (CRS) for the whole rearing period. After slaughtering, the striploins were dry-aged for 20 or 40 days at 2±1℃, 85% relative humidity and 2 m/sec air flow velocity and then utilized for quality measurements. The pH value, cooking loss, and hypoxanthine content were higher (p<0.05) for the striploins dry-aged for 40 days than for those dry-aged for 20 days. Notably, the inosine 5’-monophosphate content was decreased (p<0.05) by increasing the dry-aging time. With regard to microbiological quality, the striploins dry-aged for 40 days exhibited lower (p<0.05) lactic acid bacteria counts and higher (p<0.05) coliform counts than those dry-aged for 20 days. Moreover, the tenderness and overall liking scores based on sensory evaluation were higher (p<0.05) for the dry-aged striploins of the TMR treatment and those dry-aged for 40 days than for the CRS treatment and those dry-aged 20 days, respectively. These findings suggest that dietary TMR supplementation leads to an increase in the sensory preference of dry-aged striploins from multiparous Hanwoo cows, and alteration of the CRS into the TMR may improve the quality of dry-aged Hanwoo beef.
The experiment was undertaken to measure the potential impact of animal welfare on the pork quality under two different farming systems: C1 and C2, two conventional farms; W, an animal welfare farm. Ten pigs (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) of live weight 110 kg were randomly selected from each treatment, and slaughtered under uniform conditions. The left loins were collected, and subsequently analyzed for proximate composition, meat quality traits, fatty acids, free amino acids, and antioxidative dipeptides. Pork from the welfare farm (W) had greater back-fat depth and fat content, but the values were not significantly different from C1 or C2. The W loins had significantly lower moisture contents and pH values compared to C1 or C2. The C2 loins showed highest contents of unsaturated fatty acids, whereas C1 had higher polyunsaturated fatty acids as compared to W. The treatments did not show any significant differences in the contents of free aspartic acid. Anserine (an antioxidant dipeptide) from the W loins was significantly lower than that from the conventional farms. The results indicate that pork quality characteristics from animal welfare-farmed pigs were not different from those of conventional farms. Therefore, it would be appropriate to evaluate the industrial value of animal welfare livestock only at the stage of pig production, rather than the meat quality of pork.
L-carnitine은 라이신과 메티오닌으로 생합성되며 골격근 과 심근을 포함한 다양한 동물조직에서 발견된다. L-carnitine이 포함된 식품으로는 양고기, 소고기, 돼지고기 등이 있고 근육발달에 도움을 주며 뼈를 강화하거나 대사작용을 도와주는 기능을 하여 영양 보조제로 많이 섭취하는 것으로 알려져 있다. 최근 L-carnitine은 제 2형 당뇨병, 골다 공증, 대사성 신경증후군 등의 다양한 질병의 약물로도 연구 되고 있으며 암에서는 치료 보조제로 개발되어있다. 하지만 대장암에서의 L-carnitine에 대한 효과 및 기전에 대해서는 명확하지 않고 연구된 바가 없기 때문에 본 연구에서 저자들은 L-carnitine의 효능을 인간대장암세포주 HCT116에서 규명하고자 하였다. L-carnitine은 세포 내 활성산소종 (ROS)를 높은 수준으로 증가시켜 세포 증식을 억제하였다. 또한, 세포 증식과 죽음에 관련한 단백질 ERK1/2와 p38을 유의적으로 활성화 시킨다는 것을 입증 하였다. 이때, ERK1/2 억제제(PD98059)를 처치하여 ERK1/ 2의 활성화가 활성산소종 발생 및 세포사멸에 중요하다는 것을 밝혔다. 따라서, 본 연구 결과는 L-carnitine이 대장 암세포주의 증식을 억제 할 수 있고 이는 대장암의 치료에 있어 잠재적인 치료 물질이 될 수 있음을 시사하며 이 과정에 관여하는 신호전달기전을 조사하여 항암의 치료기 전에서 활성산소종이나 ERK1/2, p38 단백질의 활성화의 중요성을 제시하였다.
Low molecular weight hydrolysates from donkey bone extracts (LHDB) was prepared with different food enzymes, and its antioxidative, elastase and collagenase inhibitory, and fibroblast cell protection effects against photoaging were evaluated. Gelatin from donkey bone was extracted three times at 121℃ for 1 h and was lyophilized. The lyophilized powder (5 g) was dissolved in 95 mL distilled water with 1% FoodPro alkaline protease (A), 1% Protease P (P), 1% Protease M (M) and a 0.3% A + 0.3% P + 0.3% M (APM) mixture and was hydrolyzed for 3 h at 45℃. After enzyme inactivation at 90℃ for 10 min, the LHDBs hydrolyzed by A, P, M, and APM were separated by centrifugal filtration and were lyophilized and marked as LHDB-A, LHDB-P, LHDB-M, LHDB-APM. The LHDB-M showed higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline–6- sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) than the other treatments (p<0.05). The elastase inhibition effect (37.49%) of LHDB-M were significantly higher than those of the other treatments (9.97-34.18%). The viability of human fibroblast cells (Hs68) after UVB irradiation was significantly increased by LHDB-M, indicating that it can be used as an antioxidant or as a UVB stress protector. However, further in vivo studies should precede its usage in the bioactive compound industry.
본 연구는 키토산 및 생균제를 급여한 한우의 채끝등심의 품질 및 화학적 특성에 미치는 영향에 대해 조사하기 위해 실시 하였다. 거세한우(n=20)를 시험구별 완전 임의 배치한 뒤 대조구(n=10)는 일반 배합 사료를 급여하고, 처리구(n=10)는 키토산 및 생균제 배합사료(생균제 1%, 키토산 0.1%)를 4개월 동안 급 여하였다. 각 처리구는 1등급을 받은 채끝등심을 이용하였다. 일반성분 결과 수분(64.13~65.00%), 조회 분(1.47~1.69%), 조단백질(19.56~20.25%), 조지방(15.69~15.88%)은 처리구간 유의적인 차이가 없었다. pH, 가열감량, 전단력, 육색 모두 처리구간의 유의적인 차이는 없었으며, 보수력의 경우 대조구(69.60%) 보다 처리구(74.29%)가 유의적으로 높았다(p<0.05). 지방산패도는 처리구간의 유의적인 차이는 없었으 나 휘발성염기태질소 함량은 처리구에서 유의적으로 낮은 함량을 나타내었다(p<0.05). Collagen함량과 anserine 함량은 처리구간의 유의적인 차이는 없었으나, carnosine은 처리구(51.22mg/dry base)가 대 조구(47.08mg/dry base) 보다 유의적으로 높은 함량을 나타내었다(p<0.05). Palmitoleic acid와 다가 불포화지방산 함량은 대조구보다 처리구에서 유의적으로 높았으며, 키토산과 생균제 급여는 한우 채끝 등심의 아미노산과 무기질 함량에는 영향을 미치지 않았다. 따라서 거세 한우에 1% 생균제 및 0.1% 키 토산 배합사료 급여는 한우 채끝등심의 보수력 향상 및 단백질 변패 억제, 기능성 성분인 carnosine 함 량과 다가 불포화 지방산의 함량을 높이는 효과를 보여 추후 이들 성분이 기능성 사료 첨가제로서 사용 가능성이 있을 것으로 사료된다.
This study was conducted to investigate the quality characteristics, anti-oxidation activity and di-peptide (anserine, carnosine) contents of marinated pork loin from Korean native black pig (KNBP) and crossbred of Landrace×Yorkshire×Durock (LYD) by addition of fruits (pineapple and gold kiwi). Sliced pork loin (13~15 mm) was marinated in three different treatments: 1) no fruits addition, 2) with seasoning and pineapple for 5 h, 3) with seasoning and kiwi for 5 h. Addition of fruits significantly decreased pH, hardness and chewiness of marinated KNBP and LYD pork loin. Anti-oxidation activity in pork were significantly increased by addition of fruits. Especially, addition of gold kiwi in the pork loin marinated for 5 h showed the highest anti-oxidation activity and carnosine contents. Also, it showed the highest score in the sensory characteristics (juiciness and tenderness). These results suggested that the pork loin marinated with gold kiwi for 5 h could be one of the solutions to enhance quality characteristics of marinated KNBP and LYD.
To increase the collagen recovery rate, bromelain (PB) and a microbial enzyme (PM) were used to treat to pork skin with single agent or combinations. The quality of collagen from the pork skin was evaluated by enzymatic treatments. The highest results for the solid contents and pork skin recovery rate obtained with the microbial-enzyme-bromelain mixtue (PMB) were 13.60% and 18.05% respectively. The result also showed that the color was affected by different types of enzyme treatments. Although PM treatment showed the highest result in the protein content of 251.30 mg/100 g, PMB treatment was the highest in the test of collagen content of 37.73 g/100 g among the treatments. However bands of the pork skin were detected widely at 130 kDa and 170 kDa ranges in SDS-PAGE. The band of PB treatment showed at the range of below 17 kDa, changed into a smaller molecular weight. The collagen content test of the pork skin by the treatments, collagen contents with combination treatment of pork skin with PMB (0.5%) resulted the highest in 43.76 g/100 g. Also the fat content at the above treatment was reduced to 11.12% compared to the other treatments. With these results of this experiment, we conclude that the enzymatic treatments were effective for the processing property of pork skin like enhancing the yield of collagen
In order to determine the material characteristics of pork rinds according to the breeds, the chemical composition, color, pH, collagen contents, shear force, fatty acid and amino acid contents of pork rinds were investigated. White pork rinds (WPR) and black pork rinds (BPR) were evaluated before and after heating to compare the differences between breeds and the effects of heating treatment. In the chemical composition test, the respective moisture contents for WPR and BPR before heating were 49.90% and 53.75% but increased to 60.75% and 61.09% after heating. The test for crude protein and crude fat contents showed lower values after heating but WPR was higher than BPR. In the color test, the L value decreased rapidly with heating, dropping from 68.75 to 45.11 in WPR and from 67.22 to 49.64 in BPR. WPR had a higher L value and a lower a value than BPR before heating but had a higher L value and a lower a value than WPR after heating. pH was significantly higher in WPR than BPR regardless of heating (p<0.05). The collagen content for WPR and BPR was 10.38 g/100 g and 11.54 g/100 g but increased to 12.00 g/100 g in WPR and decreased to 11.40 g/100 g in BPR after heating. The shear force of 26.14 kgf in WPR was significantly higher than 12.89 kgf in BPR before heating (p<0.05), but the values decreased significantly after heating in both WPR and BPR. Linoleic acid in WPR was 17.29%, which was higher than 15.13% in BPR. The USFA for BPR was also higher than WPR. In amino acid composition, the EAA contents in WPR was 7,190 mg%, which was higher than 5,520 mg% in BPR.
This study was performed to investigate the phyico-chemical characteristics of breast meat from spent hens (SP) in comparison with the same part from the broilers (BR). The moisture and crude protein contents for SP were 72.56% and 24.26%, which were lower than 75.87% and 24.64% for BR. Crude fat and crude ash contents in SP were 0.45% and 1.00%, which were higher than the BR contents of 0.41% and 0.51%. The respective L, a and b value for SP were 48.61, 2.40 and 2.42, which were lower than the BR values of 49.41, 1.45 and 3.06 respectively. The pH for SP was 5.89, which was higher than pH 5.79 for BR. The WHC for SP was 50.29%, which was lower than that of BR at 62.31%. SP scored 28.04% in the heating loss test, which was significantly higher than 19.09% for BR. The shear forces for SP and BR were 4.86 kg and 1.36 kg respectively, which meant that the texture of SP was much tougher than that of BR. Hardness for SP was 8.89 kg while that of BR was 3.92 kg indicating that the SP texture is firmer than that of BR. Oleic acid was most abundant fatty acid in both samples and was at 44.15% in SP and 27.68% in BR.
This study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and physico-chemical meat quality properties for Jeju-horse (Jeju-horse×Thoroughbred) with different fattening periods (4-, 8- and 13.5-month). In chemical composition, the moisture contents were decreased as the fattening periods increased. The fat contents were 3.78% at 4-months and they were decreased such as 70∼76% at 13.5-months whereas the protein contents increased as the fattening period increased. The cooking loss was highest (33.41%) at 4-months group and decreased after that periods, however, there was no significant difference among 3 fattening period groups. The Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) values were lowest at 4-months group and tended to increase as the fattening period increased. In mineral contents, the contents of Fe, Na, Zn were significantly higher for 4-month group than 8- and 13.5-month group whereas the contents of Mg were significantly lower for 4-month group than 8- and 13.5-month group (p＜0.05). The results of the amino acid composition analysis showed that cystein, methionine, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, alanine, valine, lysine, histidine, arginine contents were significantly increased and tyrosine contents were significantly decreased as the fattening period increased (p<0.05). The contents of palmitic acid (C16:0) were highest at 4-month group and they decreased as the fattening period increased (p＜0.05). The contents of oleic acid (C18:ln9) were highest at 8-month group and they were lowest at 13.5-month group. The total contents of unsaturated fatty acids were significantly higher for 13.5-month group than those for 4-month groups (p＜0.05). In conclusions, the fat contents were decreased whereas the protein, Fe, Mg contents and WHC increased as the fattening periods increased. Overall contents of amino acids increased only except several amino acids. The total contents of unsaturated fatty acids were increased as the fattening period increased, however they were not significantly different when those were fattened more than 8-month. These results indicated that longer fattening period could be more effective to enhance horse meat quality.
Horse leg bone has been used as a traditional folk medicine for the sick and weak. Bone primarily contains collagen, a key building block of cells for bones, cartilage, and ligaments. In our previous study, horse leg bone hydrolysates showed anti-oxidation and skin protection effects against UV light. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of jelly containing Jeju crossbred horse leg bone hydrolysates at 0.3 (HLBH 0.3), 0.5 (HLBH 0.5) and 1.0% (HLBH 1.0). The HLBH 1.0 showed the highest pH and Brix values compare to control. Lightness (L*) and redness (a*) of HLBH 1.0 showed the lowest value compare to other treatments. However, yellowness (b*) of HLBH 0.3 and 0.5% was increased significantly with increasing levels of Jeju crossbred horse leg bone hydrolysates (p<0.05), while HLBH 0.5 and HLBH 1.0 showed no significant difference. Hardness and chewiness of jelly was decreased with increase of HLBH up to 0.5%, whereas no significant difference was found between HLBH 0.5 and 1.0. In sensory evaluation, panels did not tell the difference of jelly with different level of HLBH in all sensory factors likely color, appearance, flavor, chewiness, taste, and overall acceptability. This result suggests that Jeju crossbred horse leg bone hydrolysates can be used up to 1% without any significant bad influence on quality and sensory characteristics of jelly.
Horses are non-ruminant and monogastric animal. If concentrates are fed plentifully at a time, undigested starch reaches large intestine and it activates amyloytic bacteria. Finally, it lowers a pH level and causes colic. Therefore, standard feed of concentrates and period of feed are important factors to fat up horses. This study was conducted to evaluate the productivity and carcass quality, quantity grade for Jeju horse (24 month old) with different fattening periods (4-, 8- and 13.5-month). The body weights were increased as the fattening periods increased and the increase rate was highest at 4-month group. The daily weight gain was decreased as the fattening periods increased such as 0.46 kg for 4-month group, 0.39 kg for 8-month group and 0.34 kg for 13.5-month groups. The daily intake was increased as the fattening periods increased such as 4.42 kg for 4-month group, 5.00 kg for 8-month group and 5.26 kg for 13.5-month groups. The daily feed conversion was increased as the fattening periods increased such as 11.71% for 4-month group, 17.69% for 8-month group and 18.53% for 13.5-month group. The backfat thicknesses and loin-eye areas were 3.50 mm, 83.50 ㎠ and increased to 4.20 mm, 94.00 ㎠ until they were fattening up for 8-month then they were decreased to 4.00 mm, 89.40 ㎠ when they were fattening up to 13.5-month. There was no significant difference in the meat color among 3 fattening groups, however, the a-values (redness) of meat color and b-values of fat color were highest (5.0 and 3.80, respectively) for 13.5-month group. The texture was not significantly different among 3 fattening groups. The maturity levels were in the 3.8∼4.5. All horses used in the experiment had the quality grade 2 and the horses for 13.5-month group had the quantity grade A, whereas the horses for 4-month group had the quantity grade B or C. Jeju horse had the low quality grade (quality grade 2) although the carcass yield increased when they were fattened from 24 month to 37.5 month.
This experiment was conducted to verify the effect of spraying ethanol extracts (green tea and wormwood) on pH, TBARS, VBN, and total microbes of chicken meat during storage. The ethanol extracts of green tea and wormwood were sprayed on the chicken carcasses (0.2 and 0.2 g extract/㎏meat, respectively). Treated sample showed higher lightness (L* values) and yellowness (b* values) and lower redness (a* values) than those of control. The TBARS values were significantly lower for the treatments than the control on storage day 4, especially, the treatment of the wormwood extracts had lowest TBARS value. The VBN values were relatively lower values for the treatments than the control on storage day 4, especially, the treatment of the wormwood extracts had lowest VBN value on storage day 6. Wormwood samples showed lower total aerobic and E. coli counts than the others on day 6. Therefore, the spray with natural wormwood extracts could be useful to extend the shelf-life by preventing lipid oxidation and reducing the microbial growth during storage of chicken meat.
The present study was performed to determine beneficial effects of donkey meat extract supplementation (15 and 30 mg/kg B.W.) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rat. Rump muscle of donkey was extracted by boiling in water for 3 hrs and supplemented to STZ induced diabetic rats for 6 weeks. Feed and water intake of STZ induced diabetic rats were higher than those of normal rats, while no significant difference was found in DME treated rats as compared to the rats in control group. STZ-induced diabetic rats did not improved their body weight as compared to that of rats in the control group. However, blood glucose level of 30 mg DME supplemented rats was found to be significantly reduced after 4 weeks of supplementation (p<0.05) when compared to the control animals. Administration of DME did not show any improving effect on serum lipids (HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride). No significant changes were noticed in terms of weight of all the visceral organs of animals fed on DME except liver. It is therefore, concluded that supplementation of DME with dose of 30 mg/B.W. resulted in decreased blood glucose levels, however, blood lipid profile of diabetic rats, having more than 400 mg/dl glucose level, did not change.
명란젓갈은 한국 전통 발효 식품중 하나로, 본 연구에서는 명란젓갈의 유통기한 연장방안으로 감마선 조사를 적용하여 미생물학적, 관능적 품질 실험을 행하였다. 명란젓갈과 고춧가루, 생강, 마늘, 복합시즈닝 믹스 등의 부재료에 각각 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 및 5.0 kGy의 선량으로 감마선 조사를 하여 에서 4주간 저장하며 관찰하였고, 이들의 수분활성도는 각각 0.89, 0.56, 0.98, 0.99 및 0.07 이었다. 명란젓갈의 초기 호기성