This study was performed to evaluate the effect of pork belly thickness on physicochemical and sensory characteristics after pan frying. Pork belly with three different thickness (5, 10, 20 mm) from three different parts (A:thoracic vertebrae no. 5-9, B:thoracic vertebrae 10-14, C:lumbar vertebrae 1-6) was pan grilled with electronic grill until it reached an internal temperature of 71℃. Cooking loss, shear force, sensory characteristics, volatile compounds of cooked pork belly were determined. Electric nose analysis was performed to support descriptive analysis and consumer sensory analysis. The cooking loss of pork belly with 20 mm thickness from all positions was significantly low (p<0.05). Shear force increased with increase in thickness (p<0.05). Electric nose identified major seven volatile compounds such as acetonitrile, (Z)-4-heptenal, 2-octanol, linalool, carbon disulfide, methylcyclohexane, n-nonanal to discriminate those samples. The part of pork belly significantly affected the intensity of volatile compounds rather than thickness. In discriminate analysis, the overall acceptability of pork belly (A and B parts) with 20 mm thickness was higher than that of pork belly with 5 mm thickness. In addition, the overall acceptability by consumers for pork belly with 20 mm thickness from A, B, and C parts was higher than the overall acceptability for pork belly with 5 mm thickness. This preliminary study suggests that it is more desirable to use pork belly with 20 mm thickness from part A when cooking on a pan gril compared with pork belly of 10 mm or 20 mm thickness from part B or C in the meat markets and restaurant.
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in pigs has been used as a very important tool to produce transgenic for the pharmaceutical protein, xenotransplantation, and disease model and basic research of cloned animals. However, the production efficiency of SCNT embryos is very low in pigs and miniature pigs. The type of donor cell is an important factor influencing the production efficiency of these cloned pigs. Here, we investigated the developmental efficiency of SCNT embryos to blastocysts and full term development using fetal fibroblasts (FF) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to identify a suitable cell type as donor cell. We isolated each MSCs and FF from the femoral region and fetus. Cultured donor cell was injected into matured embryos for cloning. After that, we transferred cloned embryos into surrogate mothers. In term of in vitro development, the SCNT embryos that used MSCs had significantly higher in cleavage rates than those of FF (81.5% vs. 72%) (p<0.05), but the blastocyst formation rates and apoptotic cell ratio was similar (15.1%, 6.18% vs. 20.8%, 9.32%). After embryo transferred to surrogates, nine and nineteen clone piglets were obtained from the MSCs and FF group, respectively, without significant differences in pregnancy and birth rate (50%, 40% vs. 52.3%, 45.4%) (p>0.05). Moreover, there was no significant difference in the corpus hemorrhagicum numbers of ovary, according to pregnancy, abortion, and delivery of surrogate mothers between MSCs and FF groups. Therefore, the MSCs and FF are useful donor cells for production of clone piglets through SCNT, and can be used as important basic data for improving the efficiency of production of transgenic clone pigs in the future.
This study was conducted to investigate the potential of toy provision for stress reduction, welfare improvement and toy preference in finishing pigs. Toy shape was expected to exert effects on stress related behaviors including fighting, bothering, and feed competition. Three different toy shapes (i.e. square, round, and oval) were given to groups of finishing pigs. A no toy control group was also included. The duration and frequency of abnormal behaviors and use time for toy preference were compared among groups. The duration and frequency of stress related behaviors was higher (p<0.01) among the non-toy-using finishing pigs on 20 minutes and 118 times than 16 minutes and 57 times of toy-using finishing pigs. Toy shape exerted no significant effects, however, toy use displayed a clear ability to reduce stress related behaviors among finishing pigs. Toy use time and shape both displayed no clear effect on the duration of stress related behaviors. These behaviors were most frequently displayed in the afternoons when the finishing pigs become most active, and were not affected by toy shape. Overall, the square shaped toy was used much longer (9.7 hours) and more frequently (566 times) in a 24 hour period by the finishing pigs (p<0.01). In conclusion, providing toys to finishing pigs reduces stress and stress related behaviors. This finding is expected to positively impact welfare and improve finishing pig productivity. Square shaped toys were most preferred by the finishing pigs, therefore adopting toys with square features is recommended.
When researchers performed intestinal microbiota analysis using fecal samples, sample preparation processes are not standardized as of now. In particular, contrary to lab conditions, there are various factors hard to be controlled when sampling livestock feces on the farm. In this study, we wanted to know the influences of sample preparation conditions on fecal microbiota. We designed an experiment considering various sample preparation conditions (sample origin: rectum and ground; transporting condition: lysis buffer-treated, dry ice, ice, and room temperature; delayed times to extract DNA: 0, 1, 6, and 24 h) that can occur during microbiota analysis using cattle feces. First, we investigated the influences of sample origin, and microbial diversity (observed OTUs, p<0.001) was significantly higher when fecal samples were obtained from the ground than from the rectum and the principal coordinates analysis plot showed that samples were divided into two groups by origin. When we investigated the influences of transporting and storage conditions, observed OTUs (p<0.05) was significantly higher when samples were transported at room temperature than other conditions, and microbiota was affected by transporting and storage conditions. Finally, we investigated the effects of delayed time before DNA extraction from frozen fecal samples on microbial composition. Although this factor did not have a significant influence on microbial diversity, multidimensional scaling revealed its impact on microbial composition. Our findings will contribute to establishing an optimal procedure for microbiota analysis using farm-housing livestock feces.