This study was carried out to investigate the usefulness of kenaf as a forage crop by studying dry matter (DM) yield and nutritive value of four different kenaf cultivars (Tainung, Fuhong, Everglade and Dowling). They were planted in Chunchon area on May 24, 2004 and harvested on July 2, 8 and 13, 2004, respectively. The DM yields were similar in all four cultivars as about 2 ton/ha on July 2, but the DM yields were significantly higher in Tainung (5 ton/ha) and Dowling (4.9 ton/ha) on July 13. In all four cultivars, the crude protein (CP) contents decreased as the harvest was delayed. In all three harvests, the CP content was highest in Dowling (17.9, 16.0 and 14.2% on July 2, 8 and 13, respectively) and lowest in Fuhong (13.3, 12.3 and 11.2% on July 2, 8 and 13, respectively). The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents of all four cultivars increased with the delayed harvest, although in Dowling and Everglade, the increase was rather slow after July 8. The CP cotent of leaf decreased with late harvest. The CP content was significantly higher in Dowling (about 24. 5%) compared to others. The NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of leaf tended to increase as the harvest was delayed, but there was no significant difference among cultivars. The CP content of stem tended to decrease and this tendency was most significant on July 13. When averaged three harvests, the CP content of stem was significantly higher in Dowling as 7.5% and lower in Fuhong as 4.9%. The NDF and ADF contents of stem increased as the harvest was delayed. The results showed that the DM yields of kenaf grown in Chunchon area were similar to those of kenaf grown in Jeju area. The nutritive values of kenaf were higher than those of other forage crops such as rye or oat. Especially, the leaf of kenaf has higher CP content than alfalfa hay. However, the DM yields of kenaf were lower than those of rye, oat and Sudan grass. Therefore, we consider the harvest to be delayed after July 13 for greater DM yield, which cause the relationships between the DM yield and nutritive value to be weighed.
In view of recycle or treatment of swine manure, the physico-chemical characteristic including the thermal reaction curve by DSC were evaluated. After extrusion processing of swine manure, durability of the pellet and the degree of odor reduction by olfactory detection were also evaluated. Fresh swine manure solids contains more than half of 106㎛ or smaller particles, that could cause a difficulty in physical separation. Totally, 80.34% of solids were volatile solids. As the urea level is increased, the gelatinization temperature of the manure added feed mixture is decreased although the specific energy for gelatinization is increased. The level of fiber and ash did not affect the thermal modification pattern. A durability of extruded and pelleted swine manure-incorporated feed depend primarily upon processing moisture content then secondarily upon both processing temperature and addition level of swine manure. Olfactory odor intensity of swine manure decreased with extrusion of the swine manure although the post processing emission intensity of NH3, SO2, and H2S were not changed due to the processing.
Hybridization system, Spraying chamber coating system and aerothermal fluidization spraying (ATFS) system, were tested to find an economic and practical method for vitamin coating. Ae coating by hybridization was done by commercial hybridizer. But both spraying chamber and aerothermal fluidization spraying system were developed by authors for this test. Two vitamins, Vit. E and Vit. C, were employed for coating with four different coating materials, such as eudragit, corn zein, ethylcellulose and gelatin. Coating by hybridization was unsuccessful due to high intake velocity, temperature increase, and bridge formation between vitamin particles. Spraying chamber system was marginally successful to coat vitamins. But the quality of coated vitamin was poor possibly because of the failure of uniform mixing between vitamin and coating materials inside the chamber. Vitamin coating was successfully achieved by ATFS system. The system enables to give not only uniform mixing between coating material and vitamin, but also drying of coated vitamin and uniform diffusion of vitamin particles by thermal aeration. This result was also confirmed through surface micrograph by scanning electron microscope. Therfore, the ATFS system can be considered as a practical system for coating sensitive materials such as vitamins as well as other feed additives.
These studies were carried out to improve the reproductive efficiency through embryos transfer of Hanwoo IVM/IVF embryos. Following routine IVM/IVF procedure, Oocytes and zygotes were cultured for 40 to 44 h in CR1aa medium with BSA. Then 2 to 8-cell embryos were removed the cumulus cell and were cultured in CR1aa medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum and 2.5 mM taurine in 5% O2 and 5% CO2 at 38.5℃. The fresh and frozen thawed embryos of the morulae and blastocysts cultured for 6 to 9 days in vitro were transferred into recipients. The pregnancy rates of the blastocyst produced for 6, 7, 8, and 9 days in in vitro culture were 41.9, 48.6, 57.9 and 47.4%, respectively. In the developmental stage, pregnancy rates of early blastocysts (41.7%), blastocysts (57.6%) and expanded blastocysts (50.0%) were higher than that of morulae stage (00.0%). Fresh and frozen embryos on the pregnancy rates were 48.9 and 50.0%, respectively. These results indicate that the pregnancy rate after transfer were affected on embryonic stage of in vitro embryos and in vitro culture periods.
This study was carried out to establish an effective system for embryo transfer techniques by educational-industrial complex. The embryos of Korean Cattle were transferred into a total of 79 recipients. The pregnancy rate were higher in Korean Cattle (38/53, 72%) than Holstein (17/26, 65%) in recipients. However, there were no significantly difference between Korean Cattle and Holstein in recipients. In embryo transfer using fresh embryos (28/39, 72%), the pregnancy rate was slightly higher than frozen-thawed embryos (68%, 27/40). In another experiment, the number of transferred embryos showed no difference in pregnancy rate, but when two embryos (75%, 21/28) transferred, the pregnancy rate was slightly higher than with one embryo (65%, 33/51). In summary, it will be useful to apply effective system for improvement of pregnancy rate and increase of the income in a farmhouse on embryo transfer of Korean Cattle by educational-industrial complex.
This study was carried out to determine the storage, cryotolerance, heat and drying resistance when the L. acidophilus growing at optimal temperature was changed growth temperature and to apply it to probiotics production so as to help intensify the viability of lactic acid bacteria in the products. L. acidophilus CT 01 was changed temperature at 22℃ and 28℃ after incubated at 37℃ for 18hours. The viable cell number increased to 4.9×108 and 5.0×108 cfu/mL, respectively in the changed temperature groups, but decreased in the control, rapidly down to 7.4×105 cfu/mL in 36 hours. L. acidophilus CT 01 was stored at 4℃ for 12 days after changed temperature at 22℃ and 28℃ for 48hours, changed temperature groups had a survival rate of 112% and 94.43%, higher than that of control (p<0.05). When stored at room temperature, survival rate in the control was 10.88%, very low, but changed temperature groups had very high survival rate, 74.43% and 85.62% (p<0.05). The cryotolerance of L. acidophilus CT 01 appeared higher than changed temperature groups was observed at 37℃ for 66hours. L. acidophilus CT 01 was heat treated at 60℃ for 15 minutes and 30 minutes to examine heat resistance after changed temperature, the heat resistance of L. acidophilus CT 01 appeared higher than control was observed changed temperature groups. L. acidophilus CT 01 was inoculated by 30% to the carrier after changed temperature, and dried at 50℃ for 12 hours. The highest survival rate of L. acidophilus CT 01 was observed changed temperature groups.
This study was carried out to investigate aroma patterns of Hanwoo (Korean cattle) beef by using an Electronic nose. The M. longissimus muscle and Semimembranosus muscle after 24 hours postmortem was obtained, and half muscles cooked in water batch until internal temperature arrived at 70℃ or microwave for 30 sec. The raw and cooked beef samples stored at 1℃ for 11 days. Sensitivity values (dR/RO) among electronic nose data were changed differently by muscle parts, heat treatments and storage days. The dR/RO values from SY/LG, T30/1, P10/1, P10/2 were decreased at 11th storage compared with those at 1th storage. Mapping these data by using PCA (principal component analysis) showed that raw and cooked beef data were presented on the right and left side of board, respectively. The data of 1st storage were presented on the right side, and flock together. Otherwise, the data of 11th storage were spreaded out more widely on the left side. Consequently, the dR/RO value and PCA mapping by Electronic nose data showed difference by sample treatments and storage days. Therefore it will be possible to able to detect separated aroma patterns of Hanwoo beef by using an Electronic nose.
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of feeding level of dietary lysine on the quality of Korean native black pork during cold storage (4℃). After 54 Korean native black pigs was fed by the high, medium, low lysine dietaries at 25 kg live weight, the M. longissimus from 6 carcasses (3 gilts, 3 barrows) slaughtered at 65 kg live weight stored at 4℃ for 7 days. The proximate composition, drip loss, cooking loss, sensory evaluation was affected by feeding level of dietary lysine. The pH value was significantly higher in high lysine treatment than in the other treatments until 5 days (p<0.05) and significantly lower in medium lysine treatment (p<0.05). The CIE L* value was significantly higher in gilts among high lysine treatment (p<0.05) and increased significantly in all treatments until 5 days (p<0.05). The CIE a*, b*, C* values were higher in low lysine treatment. The hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesineness, guminess, chewiness were lower in low lysine treatment and those in 7 days were lower than in 0 day.
This morphological study was performed on the stomach of ducks at 6, 12, 18 months after feeding the 6% of sulfur in diet and control fed the same diet without sulfur. After weighting of body of 36 ducks, we sacrificed the ducks and harvested stomach. Then we check the fed materials and the lumen of stomach. H-E, alcian blue - PAS (pH 1.0), and alcian blue - PAS (pH2.5) stains were used to histological and histochemical observation for the mucus The body weights decreased dependent upon the duration of feeding sulfur statistically, however, the stomachs kept their weight except the 18 month fed group. Ulcerative papillae containing caseous necrotic region were conspicuous on the lumen of proventriculus of sulfur-fed ducks. In addition, some lobules of proventricular glands adjacent to the papillae were observed with severe atrophy. mucus secreted from mucous epithelium showed same pattern between control and sulfur-fed ducks, but the ducts of proventricular glands in 12, 18 months groups had nonsulfated mucopolysaccharides. Gizzard had no pathological changes, however, ingested feed were mixed with re-fluxed bile juice from duodenum. Gastric glands in the gizzards of sulfur-fed ducks had increased the number of acidic mucin positive cells as well as surface cells containing PAS positive materials, which were thought to bring the change of matrix that observed with strong purple color. These data suggest that sulfur feeding for long term causes the damage on the proventriculus mucosa and its glands and also the change on the cuticle secreted from giazzard glands. These changes may be related to decrease of body weight.