This study was conducted to find out that how much does it effects as it considered not only animal additive genetic effect but also maternal genetic effect for improving litter traits of pigs. The data of 10,836 records on 2,636 sows in Landrace and 14,463 records on sows in Yorkshire were analyzed which had been measured from 1998 to July 2017 in a nucleus herd of pig population. The traits used on this analysis were total number of born with (TNB2) and without mummy (TNB1) and number of born alive (NBA). Two different multivariate animal mixed models were considered and compared of variance components estimated from these models. The one (Model 1) was set up with assumed to parity, return events and batch effects as fixed and service sire, permanent environment and animal additive genetic effects as random. The other (Model 2) was same with Model 1 except considering maternal additive genetic effects as random. (Co)variance for random effects and genetic parameters were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood method and breeding values as best linear unbiased prediction were estimated using preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm on each model and breed. From these models, heritability estimates for NBA were about 0.10 and 0.11 on both models in Landrace and Yorkshire, respectively. Forthermore, it was estimated that there were little variations in the maternal genetic effects with roughly 1~2% of total variation. Result from comparing estimated breeding values for each trait between each model, ranking of genetic capability through total breeding values on model 1 and on model 2 showed highly correlated with more than 0.92. Consequently, for improving litter traits, selection based on breeding values by direct genetic effects without considering maternal genetic effects were reccommendable.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of using corn flakes, produced by pressurized steam chamber, on nutrient disappearance rate and energy value in three Hanwoo and three Holstein cows, implanted with a ruminal fistula. Corn flakes were categorized in 2 groups based on the chamber type: control (corn flakes produced using a steam chamber) and treatment (corn flakes produced using a pressurized steam chamber). Dry matter (DM) disappearance rate was 5.17% higher in treatment than in control (p<0.01). Starch disappearance rate was also higher in the treatment than in the control (p<0.01). Nitrogen free extract (NFE) and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) disappearance rates were 6.08 and 5.71% higher in treatment compared to control, respectively (p<0.01). In comparison by breed and incubation time, DM, starch, NFE, and NFC disappearance rates were higher in treatment than in control. The mean total digestible nutrients (TDN) was higher in treatment than in control (p<0.05). In comparison between Hanwoo and Holstein, TDN of corn flakes was slightly but not significantly higher in Holstein than in Hanwoo. Thus, these results indicate that the use of the pressurized steam chamber is recommended to increase the nutrient (starch, NFE, NFC etc.) disappearance rate and TDN.
The objective of this study was to investigate changes in drying yield, pH, water activity, microbial growth, and storage stability of bottom rounds of Hanwoo beef under four different dry-aging treatments (T1–T4) as temperature (2~4℃), relative humidity (65~86%) and dry-aging period (20~90 d). The drying yield decreased by 83.13–97.05% as the drying period increased. Among the four treatments, there were no significant differences in drying yield after 60 d of dry-aging. The total plate aerobic counts (TPC) increased by 1.07–4.39 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g as the dry-aging period increased. Of the four treatments, T4 at 40, 60, and 90 d had significantly higher TPCs than those observed for the other treatments on the same days (p<0.05). As the period of dry-aging increased, pH values increased by 5.35– 5.88 for knuckle and 5.34–5.62 for sirloin muscle, and water activity values decreased. For knuckle and sirloin muscle, the water activity values at 40 d and 60 d of T1 and T4 were significantly higher than those of the other treatments on the same days (p<0.05). The thiobarbituric reactive substances and volatile basic nitrogen values of the aged products increased as the dry-aging period increased. The results of this study showed that dry-aging conditions such as those in the T2 or T3 treatments (with a gradual increase in temperature and humidity) for less than 60 d would be best for yield, reduction of microbial growth and storage stability by dry the muscle surface quickly at the beginning period. Further research should include meat quality and economic analysis for these conditions that examines the benefits of these dry-aged products for the end processor.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of sugars and stabilizers on the qualitative properties of frozen-yogurt. To prepare the yogurt mix, market milk was fermented using a commercial starter culture and sugars, trehalose and sucrose, and to prepare the ice cream mix, stabilizers, carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) and guar gum, were used. The yogurt and ice cream preparations were mixed in a 1:1 (v/v) ratio to produce frozen-yogurt. Yogurt prepared using trehalose showed a significantly faster increase in pH, titratable acidity, and viable cell count than that prepared using sucrose (p<0.05). Ice cream prepared using guar gum showed a significantly higher viscosity and overrun than the CMC-stabilized preparation (p<0.05). Frozen-yogurt produced using the yogurt-trehalose mix and ice cream-CMC mix showed the highest hardness and lowest overrun. The melt-down rate of frozen-yogurt prepared with the yogurt-trehalose mix was significantly slow (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences among the yogurt mixes in terms of changes in the viable cell count at 0, 7, 15, 30, and 45 days (p>0.05). In a sensory evaluation, most panels preferred the frozen-yogurt with sucrose over that with trehalose. However, it is expected that using trehalose with other sugar substitutions and guar gums in manufacture of frozen-yogurt have high potentiality than using sucrose and CMC, and it is considered that it could reignite the stagnant domestic milk processing industry.
This study measured the economic values of landscape and species diversity in mountainous pasture using a choice experiment. The attributes considered were landscape (forest, pasture, or pasture in forest), species diversity (180, 200, 225, or 250), and levy (five levels from 4,000 to 12,000 won/household). An online survey was administered to residents in 17 metropolitan cities and provinces in Korea. The results of the multinomial logit model showed that pasture in forest, all variables for species diversity, and levy were statistically significant. Age was statistically significant, implying that older people tend to prefer forest areas. The results also indicated that the willingness to pay for changing 1 ha of forest into pasture decreased by 74.3 won/household, while that for changing forest to pasture in forest increased by 1,338.1 won/household. The marginal willingness to pay for changing from species 250 to 225, 200, and 180 was estimated as -782.7, -2,647.1, and -4,492.6 won/household, respectively. The results of this study can provide useful insights for the development of mountainous pasture in Korea.
In Korea, ecological research on the goral is underway to restore and increase population size of these ungulates, but clinical research on gorals species is still in its infancy. Owing to the nature of the gorals’ habitat, several animals live together within limited areas; so, the risk of parasitic infection is very high. In this study, we performed physical examination of 17 gorals undergoing breeding and restoration at the Korean Goral Restoration Center. Weight, ear height, horn length, withers height of the anthropometric data of this study were no differences from other researchers. Blood samples from each species were analyzed. There was no significant difference among individuals in terms each value examined, although some hematological and biochemical values, such as neutrophils, lymphocytes, glucose and amylase showed differences among individuals. The average values of blood tests in gorals ware lower in lymphocytes, blood urea nitrogen, and calcium than in livestock goats, and hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and glucose were higher in livestock. Helminth eggs were detected in 15 out of 17 gorals by microscopic examination of their fecal samples, and Eimeria spp. and Strongyloides spp. were detected in all the gorals. However, there may be cases of death due to diarrhea, which may lead to a decrease in growth and production. Therefore, proper prevention and treatment are needed. These results may serve as an important reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment of gorals. This information helps further understand the current health status of these species and may contribute to a more systematic restoration of the gorals.