collected from approximately 1100 purebred Duroc pigs between 2011 and 2017. The meat quality traits evaluated were: moisture content (MC), fat content (FC), water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss (CL), and shear force (SF). Meat samples were evaluated for the following fatty acids: palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids. We evaluated the meat for the following sensory traits: color, flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and acceptability of the meat. Variance and covariance components were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood procedures on different animal models. The results showed that the estimates of heritability for MC, FC, WHC, CL, and SF were 0.17, 0.58, 0.34, 0.31, and 0.42, respectively. The heritability estimates for fatty acid composition were moderate to high (0.34 to 0.63). The estimates of genetic correlation were -0.60 and 0.46 between MC and FC, and MC and SF, respectively. Generally, phenotypic correlation between meat quality traits was low. Linoleic acid had moderate to high negative phenotypic and genotypic correlation with both palmitic and oleic acid. Comparison of meat quality traits and sensory traits revealed a positive correlation (0.208) between acceptability and WHC, while the correlation between acceptability and SF was negative (-0.207). The estimated genetic parameters among meat quality traits, sensory traits, and fatty acid composition in this study are expected to be used to improve pork to suit consumer preferences.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects by supplementing concentrates during the late fattening phase in TMR (total mixed ration) feeding of Korean steer on the performance, carcass traits, physico-chemical characteristics and sensory test of the longissimus dorsi muscle. Eight Korean steers (24 months of age) averaging 604 kg in body weight were fed the TMR (Control) or the TMR supplemented with concentrates (TMR+conc.) until 30 months of age, then they were slaughtered. Steers fed the TMR supplemented with concentrates had a higher (p<0.05) intakes of dry matter and TDN (total digestible nutrient), carcass weight and marbling score compared to those fed TMR only, but carcass grade did not differ (p>0.05) between treatments. Amino acid concentration of the longissimus dorsi muscle did not differ between treatments, However, the highest concentrations were for glutamic acid and lowest for cystine; further, and the content of essential amino acids was highest for lysine, leucine, threonine, arginine, and isoleucine in that order. Cis-oleic acid and arachidonic acid of fatty acids in the longissimus dorsi muscle were higher (p<0.05) in the control condition compared to TMR+conc. The contents of oleic acids, palmitic acid, stearic acid constituted about 88% of the total fatty acids. Although the physico-chemical characteristics of the longissimus dorsi muscle did not significantly differ between treatments (p>0.05), but the sensory test results were lower for the TMR+conc. condition. These results suggest that supplementing concentrates during the late fattening phase of Korean steers resulted in increasing the carcass weight and marbling score. However, the cis-oleic acid content of the longissimus dorsi muscle was decreased as a result of supplementing concentrates, which could affect negatively in meat sensory evaluation.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gender on meat quality traits and sensory characteristics of pork loin. A total of 90 pork carcasses (180 days old, 45 barrows and 45 gilts, each gender group was consisted of fifteen 1+, 1 and 2 carcass grades) were selected and loin cuts were excised to investigate meat quality, electronic tongue measures and sensory panel test. There were significant differences in drip loss (1.66% vs 1.21%), released water (12.19% vs 10.68%) and cooking loss (23.67% vs 21.04%) between loins from barrow and gilt (p<0.05). However, no significant differences in meat color (CIE L* a* b*) and shear force were observed between gender groups (p>0.05). Umami and richness values of barrow were significantly higher than those of gilt, while barrow had significantly lower sourness value compared to gilt (p<0.05). On the sensory evaluation, barrow scored higher in flavor, juiciness and tenderness both, and as a result, barrow (5.51 points) also scored significantly higher than gilt (4.86 points). These results suggest that the umami intensity and sensory taste of barrow loin are superior to gilt loin due to its high water-holding capacity.
This study was designed to investigate the effect of parity and lactation stage of sows on the behavior of nursing sows and their suckling piglets. In total 18 Yorkshire × Landrace F1 sows (range of parity: 1 to 6) and their litters (range of litter size: 10 to 14 piglets) were assigned according to the sow's parity (1-2, 3-4 and 5-6) and lactation stage (early, middle, and late). The sows were housed in farrowing crates (0.8 × 2.1 m) located in pens (2.1 × 1.75 m) with totally perforated flooring. The behaviors of the sows and their piglets were recorded over a 72-h period for each parity and lactation stage. The sows and piglets were conventionally managed. All nursing sows in both group showed lying behavior for more than 80% of the experimental period, regardless of parity and lactation stage. The behavioral frequency of sows was, in descending order, as follows: lateral lying, ventral lying, eating, standing, and sitting. The parity of sows did not affect their behavior, but the lactation stage did. Ventral lying showed decreased frequency in late stage compare to that in the early or middle stage. The lying, standing, sitting, and eating behavior of sows were not affected by their parity. Sow parity did not affect the behavior of suckling piglets, but the lactation stage did. The behavioral frequency of piglets for the whole lactation period was, in descending order, as follows: lying, suckling, and walking. The lying frequency of piglets was higher in the sow's middle lactation stage than in the early or late lactation stage. It is concluded that the sow parity did not affect the behavior of nursing sows and suckling piglets, but the lactation stage did.
The conformational characteristics and performance of the horse breed should be evaluated to establish the breeding goals for a riding horse breed. Halla horses are cross-bred from Thoroughbred horses and Jeju ponies. Halla horses have been bred for speed as racing horses in Jeju Island in South Korea. However, some horses have also been used for riding purposes. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of Halla horses for riding purposes, which can be used as a guideline to define the breeding goals of Halla horses. Therefore, we evaluated the athletic performance of Halla horses by analyzing 3-year records of dressage (from S-3 Class to F Class) and show-jumping competitions (from S-2 Class to G Class) held in South Korea. We also examined the conformational characteristics of 15 Halla horses and compared them with those of 15 Thoroughbred and 15 Warmblood horses. In the results of dressage competitions over 3 years, Halla horses were awarded in D Class dressage only. In contrast, in the show-jumping competition, Halla horses were awarded in the D, E, F, and G classes. Overall, most body parts measured were smaller than those of Thoroughbred and Warmblood horses. When the rate of body parts per the average height of each breed was compared, Halla horses showed a higher rate of head length, head perimeter, and lumbar back length and croup length. In contrast, Halla horses had a shorter neck length. Based on the results of horse competition and conformation analysis, it is concluded that Halla horses are suitable for youth show-jumping competitions and have the potential to be representative riding horses in South Korea.