The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters on days to 90 kg body weight and ultrasound measured traits (back fat thickness, eye muscle area, retail cut percentage) and predict genetic progress when the weights for selection on the paternal traits of Duroc, which can be incorporated into sire line selection indexes. A simulation program, ZPLAN+, was used for the simulation. Genetic parameters of days to 90 kg body weight (D90KG), back fat thickness (BFT), eye muscle area (EMA) and retail cut percentage (RCP) used in the simulation were estimated from 27,972 heads of farm tested Duroc pigs from 2005 to July, 2012. Parameters of simulation used genetic parameters with parturition rates, ratios of test pigs and replacement rates that were dependent on selection protocols of simulated farms. Different weights of selection for traits of days to 90 kg and backfat thickness were compared. Estimates of heritability were 0.406, 0.355, 0.159 and 0.379 for D90KG, BFT, EMA and RCP, respectively. Genetic correlation of D90KG with BFT, EMA and RCP were –0.043, 0.049 and 0.021, respectively. Genetic correlation of BFT with EMA and RCP were –0.394 and –0.937. And genetic correlation between EMA with RCP were 0.524. Simulation result showed that index weight of 3:1 on D90KG and BFT was effective to shorten days to 90 kg without any significant changes in backfat thickness. Generally the genetic changes were greater as parturition rate and ratios of test pigs increased. Increase in replacement rate had a small effect on genetic changes in negative way. Thus, we recommend that index weight of 3:1 on days to 90 kg and backfat thickness could be utilized for sire line selection.
The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for 10 linear conformation traits and final score in Hanwoo cows. A total of 53,277 records for type traits of Hanwoo cows were collected from 2008 to 2012 from Korea Animal Improvement Association. Ten linear traits studied were stature, body length, chest depth, body rump angle, rump length, pin bone width, udder volume, foot angle, rear legs side view, and rear legs rear view. The model included the fixed effects of herd-year-classifier, age at measurement and age after calving, the random animal additive genetic effect and residual effect. Heritability estimates for linear type traits were ranged from 0.003 for rear legs side view to 0.213 for final score. Genetic correlations among linear type traits were ranged from -0.068 (for rear legs side view and rear legs rear view) to 0.982 (for body length and rump length). The final score was found to be in a strongest genetic correlation with rear legs rear view (0.947), followed by pin bone width (0.918), body length (0.887), rump length (0.883), chest depth (0.883), udder volume (0.811), stature (0.802), rump angle (0.637), foot angle (0.519) and rear legs side view (0.176). Corresponding phenotypic correlations for pairs of linear type traits were mostly similar in direction, but smaller than the genetic correlations.
This experiment was conducted to investigate effect of brine mineral water (BMW) on growth performance and properties of blood in weaning pigs. Treatments allotted were 0% (general water), 2%, 3% and 5% BMW. In growth trial, a total of 36 weaning pig barrows [(Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc] weaned after 21 days with an average initial weight of 5.38±0.89 kg were used. Each treatment had 3 replications of 3 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. Weaning pigs were investigated for growth performance, complete blood corpuscle count and blood biochemical assay. In results, growth performance of 2% and 3% treatment groups were significantly higher than other groups (p<0.05). In addition, high density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly (p<0.05) higher in 2% group than other treatment groups. On the other hand, mean corpuscular volume of supplement of BMW treatment groups were significantly (p<0.05) increased than control. Therefore, this study suggests that supplementation of BMW could improve growth performance and level of red blood cell in weaning pigs.
A study was performed to investigate the effect of reseeding rates of Italian ryegrass (IRG)〔Lolium multiflorum L.〕on its nutritive value and productivity in native grasssland of Jeju region from Oct. 2011 to Jul. 2012. IRG was sown at reseeding rates (0 30, 40 and 50 kg/ha) in native grassland. When IRG was sown, there was no draught and lodging damage. Plant height in treatment 30 kg/ha of reseeding IRG was the tallest at all harvest stages (p<0.05). DM yield in treatment of 30 kg/ha of reseeding IRG was 12,790 kg/ha and increased 2.7 folds as compared to control. However, there was no significant difference among the treatments. The content of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) significantly decreased in treatment of reseeding, compared to control (p<0.05). In general, the content of NDF in second harvest stage was lower than that of control in first harvest stage. The content of acid detergent fiber (ADF) also showed simliar trend as content of NDF. The content of total digestible nutrients (TDN) in treatments of 30 kg/ha and 50 kg/ha of reseeding were approximately 45.2% each. The content of TDN in treatments of 30 kg/ha and 50kg/ha of reseeding increased as compared to 40 kg/ha and control of reseeding (p<0.05). Therefore, it is conclued that reseeding rate of IRG may improve the yield and nutritive values of IRG at 30 kg/ha.
The aim of this study was to develop the production of crossbred pigs suitable to the Korean consumers’demand. Crossbred (Jeju native pig × Landrace) pigs (n=175) at the age of 200 days, approximately classified into three slaughter weight groups (59~95 kg, 96~110 kg and 111~148 kg) were used to investigate the carcass traits and retail cuts characteristics. We have chosen longissimus dorsi, triceps brachii, biceps femoris, semimembranosus muscles, shoulder butt, thoracic vertebra (5-11th) and last thoracic vertebra for investigations of aforementioned parameters. The results showed that the 111~148 kg group had larger loin area, higher scores for meat color, quality and carcass grade than the other remaining groups (p<0.05). Weights of shoulder butt, rib, picnic shoulder, loin, belly, tenderloin, ham retail cuts, lean meat, fat and bone increased with increasing carcass weight (p<0.05). Ratios of shoulder butt, picnic shoulder, tenderloin, ham, lean meat, skin and bone in the 59~95 kg group were higher than that of the other groups (p<0.05). Ratios of belly in the 96~110 kg group were higher than that in the 59~95 kg group (p<0.05) but similar to the ratios of the 111~148 kg group. Total length, longest length and shortest length of belly increased with increasing carcass weight (p<0.05). Additionally, the longest width and shortest width of belly in 59~95 kg group were lower (p<0.05) than that in the other remaining groups. Length of shoulder butt increased with increasing carcass weight (p<0.05) whereas, the width of shoulder butt showed no differences between the groups. Weights of triceps brachii of picnic shoulder, biceps femoris and semimembranosus muscles of ham increased with increasing carcass weight (p<0.05). Overall, the crossbred pigs of 111~148 kg group possessed better quality and carcass grade however, the yield of belly in 96~110 kg group was higher than the other groups. Based on the consumption preference of Korean consumers therefore, the slaughter weight of crossbred pigs at ≥96 kg could produce higher economic benefit.
This research was conducted to estimate the effect of packaging methods on the color and taste-related precursors in Hanwoo (Korean cattle) beef during aging. Following packaging with vacuum (VACP), low oxygen-modified atmosphere (LOMAP; 0% O2/20% CO2/80% N2) or vacuum skin+LOMAP (VSP+LOMAP), the loins and top rounds were aged at 2℃ for 14 days and lipid oxidation (TBARS content), surface color, glucose and lactate contents were measured. TBARS and glucose contents were not different by packaging methods in both loins and top rounds. The a* (redness), b* (yellowness) and C* (chroma) values were higher (p<0.05) in VACP-aged beef as compared to the other beef. Lactate content was significantly higher (p<0.05) in both LOMAP- and VSP+LOMAP-aged beef than in VACP-aged beef at day 14 of aging. These findings suggested that VACP was the most effective in maintaining color stability but LOMAP was more effective in maintenance of some taste-related precursor compared to VACP.
Recently, with the increase of meat production, high quality and safety of meat have been strongly emphasized by Korean consumers. Marbling in beef has been regarded as an important criterion deciding meat quality in Korea. The purpose of this study was to identify the transcriptional level of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in longissimus muscle samples of 46 Hanwoo. The level of IGF-1 transcripts was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and molecular connection of IGF-1 was analyzed using the Pathway Studio program (Ver 9.0). Increase of marbling score (MS) induced increase of IGF-1 transcripts level in the muscle and there is a significant correlation (p<0.05) between IGF-1 mRNA expression and MS. The pathway study showed that IGF-1 genes are regulated in insulin, fatty acid synthase, leptin, and corticotrophin releasing hormone. These results suggest that IGF-1 might be used as a useful marker for the improvement of economic traits in Hanwoo.
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different thawing methods including; refrigerated at 4℃ for 6 hr, soaked in 15℃ water for 40 min, exposed to room temperature (25℃) for 4 hr, and microwaved (600 W) for 2 min on the water-soluble nutritional component and meat quality trait of Hanwoo beef. The thawing beef by the refrigerated method resulted in significantly lower cooking loss, drip loss and loss of water-soluble vitamin B group, whereas the water-soaked method had higher loss of vitamin B group (p<0.05). Furthermore, total aerobic counts and coliforms were significantly lower in the meat samples thawed by the refrigerated method than that in the samples thawed by the other methods when stored for 6 days at 4℃. However, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) content was found significantly (p<0.05) higher in the microwaved method than that in the other thawing methods. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it is concluded that the thawing methods had remarkable impact on the water-soluble nutritional components, quality properties and storage stability of meat. Therefore, the present study recommends that the thawed meat needs to be consumed and should not be stored for long time due to the acceleration of its quality deterioration
With increasing concerns for the animal welfare, it is required to do a study on consumer's awareness about the necessity of animal welfare products. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the consumers awareness about the necessity of animal welfare products. Especially, in this study, animal welfare egg was focused in Korea. Data were collected by consumer survey at Hanaromart in Chuncheon on November 4th, 2011. SAS 9.1 and Excel 2007 were used as statistical packages and ranked logit model was used as a tool for analysis. The results of this study were as follows. Variable c1 had significant probabilities in categories of “over 40s” for age and “under 3 persons" for family size. Variable c2 had significant probabilities in categories of “over 40s” for age, “over 3 million won” for monthly income and “under 3 persons” for family size. Variable c3 had significant probabilities in categories of “over 3 million won” for monthly income and “under 3 persons” for family size. Variable c4 had significant probabilities in categories of “married” for marital status, “over 40s” for age, “over 3 million won” for monthly income and “under 3 persons" for family size. Variable c5 had significant probabilities in categories of “married” for marital status, “over 40s” for age, “over 3 million won" for monthly income and “under 3 persons" for family size. Variable c7 was ranked as the first reason in the categories of “male” for gender, “under 3 million won" for monthly income and “under 3 persons" for family size. Variable c2 was ranked as the first reason in the categories of “single” for marital status, “under 40s” for age and “over 4 persons" for family size. Variable c3 was ranked as the first reason in the categories of “married” for marital status and “over 40s” for age. The results of this study provide important information to policy makers and farmers. The policy makers can use the results when they will make policies related with the animal welfare, and the farmers can use the results when they will make marketing strategies. This study had a few limitations that the survey was conducted at a city, and at a mart. In spite of the limitations, this study will provide important information to future studies
Selection based on phenotype in the traditional manner does not help in tracking the selected gene. Molecular genetics has revolutionized the old established breeding techniques. A new epoch of molecular markers has been acquainted for genetic improvement of livestock. This study is engaged on the neoteric molecular markers used in various fields of livestock. DNA markers are more encouraging in selecting genomes that have recombination events close to the target gene. Molecular markers rely on DNA assay and are better than the morphological and biochemical markers. In this study DNA-based molecular markers developed during the past decagons for animal genome analysis are reviewed. Mapping of molecular markers provide a framework, required for its subsequent use in the selection procedure. Molecular techniques help in the utilization of genetic variability in breeding population. At the same time livestock genomes play important role in human genomics and their role for understanding human genomics cannot be overlooked. Recently, in the epigenetic and transcriptomic studies, RNA sequencing as a part of next generation sequencing has revolutionized the approach and ongoing trends of analysis. Keeping in mind the goals, these molecular techniques can be implemented successfully by following well defined, crisp and integrated strategy.