This study aims to identify DNA marker related to health index which is derived from fatty acid composition of Hanwoo meat. We investigated a genetic association between two SNPs (-867G>C and 878C>T) of SCD gene and health indexes. Two health index values (index of atherogenicity and index of thrombogenicity) were derived from a combination of fatty acid composition. Phenotypic correlation indicated that oleic acid (C18:1) was negatively correlated to index of atherogenicity (-0.84) and index of thrombogenicity (-0.91), respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that 878T>C SNP was significantly associated with IA (index of atherogenicity, p=0.012) and IT (index of thrombogenicity, p=0.006). There was no association between the regulatory SNPs (-867G>C and -877Gdel) and health indexes. Haplotype analysis detected 4 main haplotype (GdelT; 0.004, GdelC; 0.344, CGT; 0.350 and CGC; 0.261) in Hanwoo. The GdelT haplotype was significant on IA and IT. The effect of GdelT haplotype showed increasing IA and IT values, while GdelC haplotype has a decreasing IA and IT value in Hanwoo. In conclusion, the 878C>T SNP in the SCD gene seems to have an effect on this health index and might be implemented into animal breeding program.
In this study, genotyping was executed by using 11 microsatellite markers (BM1824, BM2113, ETH10, ETH225, ETH3, INRA23, SPS115, TGLA122, TGLA227, TGLA53, and TGLA126) for diversity of 214 Hanwoo cows in Hoengseong area. Each marker's size and number of allele, observed heterozygosity, expected total heterozygosity, and polymorphism information content were analyzed by 11 Microsatellite marker. The average of size range was detected from 150.9 to 174.9 in Hanwoo cows of Hoengseong. The number of average allele was 10.0 that is similar to the average of Kangwon Hanwoo, which is known as 10.5 in the previous report. The average were 0.751 for observed heterozygosity, 0.760 for expected total heterozygosity, 0.725 for polymorphism information content, respectively. These results were similar to previous studies in Kangwon Hanwoo, National Hanwoo and Korean Proven Bulls. This study is expected to contribute for genetic improvement of Hanwoo cows in Hoengseong as a popular brand.
In this study, the analysis of meat quality grade was carried out on the DNA identity test samples of 452 Hanwoo (Korean cattle) raised in Gyeongnam region in the year 2009. Appearance rate of above 1st grade from cow (70%) and steer (93.16%) showed high quality grade. On the other hand, there were the difference between this study and slaughtered Hanwoo in Gyeongnam in the year 2009 - appearance rate of above 1st grade from cow (58.77%) and steer (82.99%). It expect considered influence of the samples for beef DNA identity test that collected mainly high quality meat. Quality grade by registry classification about collected samples showed correlation between pedigree classification and quality grade that appearance rate of above 1st grade highly observed pedigree registry more than advanced registry, advanced registry than fundamental registry. Although limited to DNA identity test samples, KPN (Korean Proven Bull's Number) 452 and KPN 407 was preferred for breeding in Gyeongnam. Also average appearance rate of above 1st grade in offsprings of the top 10 Korean Proven Bulls used mating is 95.35%. It means that Korean Proven Bulls influence meat quality of offsprings positively. Thus, this analysis is expected to be a base data for the improvement of meat quality of Hanwoo raised in Gyeongnam region.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the sperm liquid storage diluted with Brine Mineral Water (BMW) in miniature pig. Therefore we performed to find optimal concentration of BMW. The ejaculated semen from miniature pig was collected by gloved-hand method. The collected semen was diluted with dilution solution (Mulberry Ⅲ; modified-Modena B) which BMW was added. Concentration of BMW was 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5% in dilution solution. The diluted semen was preserved at 17℃. Sperm ability was estimated by viability, capacitation acrosome reaction using chlortetracycline (CTC), hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST), morphologic abnormality. The diluted semen was observed for 7 days. The viability was significantly measured higher at 2.5% concentration of BMW than other groups (p<0.05). The AR-pattern of CTC analysis was significantly measured lower at 12.5% concentration of BMW than other groups (p<0.05). However, abnormality was not significantly different among all the groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, viability of sperm was the highest at 2.5% concentration of BMW but BMW had a negative effect on HOST, capacitation and acrosome reaction in sperm of miniature pig.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary sericite(SC) on laying performance, feed conversion ratio, egg quality and fecal ammonium nitrogen. Three hundreds and sixty 92-wk-old, Lohman Lite layers were randomly divided into 20 groups of 18 birds each and assigned to five experiment for 4 weeks (72 birds per treatment). Dietary treatments were Control (control diet), SC 0.5 (control diet +0.5% sericite), SC 1.0 (control diet +1.0% sericite), SC 1.5 (control diet +1.5% sericite), and SC 2.0 (control diet +2.0% sericite). Hen-day egg production tended to increase by the SC 1.0%, SC 1.5% and SC 2.0% supplementation in the diets. Egg weight also tended to increase by the SC 1.0% addition in the diets. Feed intake was increased (p<0.05) in SC 1.5 and SC 2.0 but feed conversion was improved (p<0.05) only in SC 1.0 (p<0.05). Digestibility of nutrients were not linearly affected by dietary supplementation of sericite although there was an inconsistent difference. Egg shell strength, albumin height, yolk color, and egg shell thickness were not affected (p<0.05) by treatments. Fecal NH3-N concentration was decreased (p<0.05) by dietary sericite supplementation compared to control. This study showed that dietary 1.0% sericite supplementation can be beneficial to improve egg production, egg weight and feed conversion and to decrease fecal NH3-N concentration.
The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of feeding dietary legislation sulfur on the lipid levels of chicken meat and growth performance in broilers. A total of 180 male broilers (Ross strain 308) were randomly assigned into three treated groups with triplicate of 20 birds each, T1 (control group), T2 (antibiotics 8 ppm), and T3 (0.3% sulfur premix containing 30% of sulfur) groups. The body weight gains over a 3-wk period were significantly higher in T2 and T3 groups than the T1 group, but not different between T2 and T3. The dressing percentage, weight of thigh meat, breast muscle and bursa of F were significantly high in T2 and T3 groups compared to the T1 group, but not different between T2 and T3. The weight of abdominal fat was significantly higher in T3 group than in T1 and T2 groups. The cholesterol content of the whole chicken meat was significantly lower in the T3 group as compared to the T1 and T2 groups. The oleic acid (18:1n-9) content of whole chicken meat from the T3 group was higher than that of the other groups. The results of this study suggests that feeding dietary sulfur as an antibiotic replacement may increase the oleic acid and reduce the cholesterol in chicken meat while improving the carcass characteristics and growth performance in broiler chickens
Substantial efforts have been made to manipulate ruminal environment in a hope to enhance ruminal fermentation efficiency for better ruminant productivity. Some of examples are methane inhibitors, antibiotics, microbial enzymes, fatty acids and/or lipid feeding, buffering agents, ionophores and probiotics. Of these efforts, the non-ionic surfactant (NIS) has been known for its stimulation to release enzymes from a range of anaerobic microbes. A series of studies were conducted 1) to evaluate NIS diluted with water and ethanol on in vitro ruminal fermentation and 2) to determine the influence of diluted NIS on digestibility of feedstuffs. In first experiment (Exp. 1), NIS was diluted with water or ethanol to measure its effects on in vitro microbial growth, ruminal enzyme activities and gas production by mixed ruminal microbial culture. The NIS was diluted with water or ethanol separately in a 1:5 ratio (w/v). Water and ethanol-diluted NIS with wheat flour were added with rice straw-based mixed ruminal microbial cultures at the rate of 2 ㎎ NIS/16 ㎖ McDougall buffer plus 4 ml ruminal fluid solution. The mixed ruminal microbial culture was run without any NIS addition as control. Addition of NIS either diluted with water or ethanol has significantly reduced the gas production in mixed ruminal microbial culture at 12 and 24 h of incubation. At 48 h post incubation, gas production was the highest with the addition of ethanol diluted NIS followed by water-diluted NIS and control. Carboxy methyl cellulase activity in rice straw-based mixed ruminal bacterial culture was significantly higher with the addition of ethanol-diluted NIS compared with the addition of water-diluted NIS and control at 24 and 72 h post incubation. In second in vitro experiment (Exp. 2), effects of addition of ethanol diluted NIS on dry matter (DM) digestibility of alfalfa hay, gas production, pH and cellular growth in mixed ruminal microbial culture were examined. Alfalfa hay based mixed ruminal microbial culture without any NIS addition was run as a control. The pH of mixed ruminal microbial culture was significantly lower than control at all post incubation sampling hours. In vitro DM digestibility of alfalfa hay was significantly higher with the addition of NIS compared with control. Gas production was significantly less with NIS addition compared with control at all post incubation sampling hours. Microbial growth in mixed ruminal microbial culture was significantly increased with the addition of NIS compared to control.
A study was conducted to determine the effects of the cattle manure (CM) application on the botanical composition and micro-mineral contents (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn) of grazing pasture at the experimental field of Livestock Division, Subtropical Animal Experiment Station, National Institute of Animal Science from year 2003 to 2005. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatment consisted of T1: 100% chemical fertilizer (CF 100%), T2: 50% CF +50% CM, T3: 25% CF +75% CM, T4: 100% cattle manure (CM 100%), T5: 100% CM (1st yr.)+ 100% CF (2nd yr.) + 100% CM (3rd yr.), T6: 100% CM (1st yr.)+ 100% CF (2nd yr.)+ 100% CF (3rd yr.). The botanical composition of grassland for grass, legumes, and weeds showed that the rate of legumes was increased in all treatments. The weeds rate in T4 was the highest in comparison to the other treatments. For micro-mineral contents T5 showed the highest average Fe contents of 262.08 ppm and T1 showed the lowest (199.20 ppm). Mn contents was the highest in T1 among the other treatments. Zn contents was the highest in T3 as compared with other treatments. Cu contents was the highest in T6 as compared with other treatments. The results of this experiments indicated that micro-mineral contents of change was effect of legumes increased than treatment
Beef traceability, a system that provides all the records of beef production, helps customers purchase that they get to know detailed information of the Hanwoo beef. This study was carried out to investigate the DNA identity possibility in various cooking methods to ripen meat (soy sauce, gochujang sauce, 10% vinegar, 10% coke, 10% Cheongha, 10% Soju, raw, dried, and decayed) for beef traceability. The DNA content of decayed beef was higher than those of other cooking methods. It is thought that result of mixed pollutant, it did not affect amplified DNA allele height because of bovine specific microsatellite (MS) markers. The ripened sample in 10% vinegar 3 days was lowest a mount of extracted DNA (156 ng) and amplified DNA allele height (based on the raw samples to 38%) by MS markers compared with the other cooking methods. There are no significant correlation between amplified DNA allele height and the amount of extracted DNA. Therefore, beef DNA identity test in various cooking methods to ripen meat can used by bovine specific MS markers. Beef traceability system by DNA identify test will give more confidence in food safety to customers