The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic and phenotypic parameters of litter size and birth weight traits in three Korean black goat lines (Dangjin, Jangsoo and Tongyung) raised at the Animal Genetic Resources Station (AGRS) of the National Institute of Animal Science (NIAS). A total of 1,861 records collected from 2001 to 2013 were used for analyses with single trait animal models. The average litter size of Dangjin line was the largest (1.72 kids) and the average birth weight of Jangsoo line was the heaviest (1.88 kg) among the three lines. Heritability estimates of litter size and birth weight were 0.07 and 0.26, respectively. The average breeding value of litter size and that of birth weight of Jangsoo line were the greatest of all three lines, 0.15 heads and 1.88 kg, respectively. The correlation coefficients between phenotypic values and breeding values of litter size in the lines of Dangjin, Jangsoo and Tongyung were 0.054, -0.031 and 0.131, respectively. The correlation coefficients between phenotypic values and breeding values of birth weight in the lines of Dangjin, Jangsoo and Tongyung were 0.570, 0.454 and 0.521, respectively. The phenotypic correlation and breeding value correlation between litter size and birth weight were 0.031 and 0.003 in Dangjin line, -0.038 and 0.094 in Jangsoo line, and 0.109 and 0.121 in Tongyung line, respectively. These data suggest that the genetic parameters estimated for litter size and birth weight in this study could be used to improve genetic potentials of Korean black goats in industrial level
The insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) is involved in the regulating effects and the biological activities of the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). Recently, It has been reported that the IGFBP2 gene polymorphism was associated growth and skeletal development in chicken. This study was designed to investigate the association of the C1032T SNP of IGFBP2 gene with growth and egg production traits in Korean native chicken (KNC) population as well as other chicken breeds. A total of 225 chickens from the three breeds (Rhode Island Red, Cornish, Leghorn) and 245 chickens from the six strains of Korean native chickens including Black, Gray, Ogol, Red, White, and Yellow, were genotyped by PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism) and analyzed the association between their genotypes and economic traits by SAS program. The results showed that the SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) was significantly associated with multiple traits, including body weight of 150 days (p<0.001 and p<0.05) in the Rhode Island Red and the KNC (White) and egg production number (p<0.05) in the KNC (Black) breed. These results suggest that IGFBP2 C1032T SNP could be used as a DNA marker for the improvement of economic traits in Korean native chicken breeding.
Raising replacement heifers is important aspect of dairy farm management that can be characterized as a long-term performance and high-cost production period. This study was investigated the effect of month of age at the first pregnancy on calving difficulty of Holstein heifers. Heifers was inseminated with semen of easy-calving sire and the reproductive performance was compared for the effect of first pregnancy at 12-14 months of age (12 month old), 15-16 months of age (15 month old), 17-19 months of age (17 month old) and > 20 months of age (20 month old) in Holstein heifers. Holstein heifers showed different easy calving score (ECS) depending on their ages; frequency of ECS 1 was 55.2%, 64.9%, 59.4% and 52.0% at 12, 15, 17 and 20 month of age, respectively. Frequency of ECS 4 was 5.2%, 1.8%, 6.3% and 4.8% at 12, 15, 17 and 20 month of age, respectively. The rates of retained placenta postparturition in first pregnancy age category was 12.3% at 12 months of age, 5.3% at 15 months of age, 9.4% at 17 months of age and 19.0% at 20 months of age. When It was evaluated by present results, the reproductive performance like easy calving score (ECS), retained placenta rates, and abortion and stillbirth rates of heifers which was inseminated at 14 months old or less and at 17 months old or more was reduced. Therefore, the first pregnancy age for optimum reproductive performance was 15-16 months.
Horse leg bone has been used as a traditional folk medicine for the sick and weak. Bone primarily contains collagen, a key building block of cells for bones, cartilage, and ligaments. In our previous study, horse leg bone hydrolysates showed anti-oxidation and skin protection effects against UV light. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of jelly containing Jeju crossbred horse leg bone hydrolysates at 0.3 (HLBH 0.3), 0.5 (HLBH 0.5) and 1.0% (HLBH 1.0). The HLBH 1.0 showed the highest pH and Brix values compare to control. Lightness (L*) and redness (a*) of HLBH 1.0 showed the lowest value compare to other treatments. However, yellowness (b*) of HLBH 0.3 and 0.5% was increased significantly with increasing levels of Jeju crossbred horse leg bone hydrolysates (p<0.05), while HLBH 0.5 and HLBH 1.0 showed no significant difference. Hardness and chewiness of jelly was decreased with increase of HLBH up to 0.5%, whereas no significant difference was found between HLBH 0.5 and 1.0. In sensory evaluation, panels did not tell the difference of jelly with different level of HLBH in all sensory factors likely color, appearance, flavor, chewiness, taste, and overall acceptability. This result suggests that Jeju crossbred horse leg bone hydrolysates can be used up to 1% without any significant bad influence on quality and sensory characteristics of jelly.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect on quality characteristics of grass-fed cow’s milk (GM) and conventional feed-fed cow’s milk (CM) with various conditions of non-thermal high-pressure processing (HPP) sterilization process. The sterilized GM and CM stored at 5℃ and 10℃ for 14 days and their quality characteristics during storage was evaluated. The pH and titratable acidity changes of HPP sterilized milk were maintained acceptable level 6.7-6.8, 0.14-0.16%, respectively. HPP sterilization was efficient in the reduction of total bacterial population to decrease the level of 4-7 Log CFU/ml compare to those of unsterilized control milk, and coliform bacteria was not detected in the HPP sterilized milk. Non-thermal HPP sterilization processing was not affected milk fatty acid composition compare to those of low temperature long time process (LTLT) sterilized milk. GM has lower ratio of n-3:n-6 unsaturated fatty acid level than those of CM. In the sensory evaluation of GM and commercial milk products, overall consumer acceptance of HPP sterilized GM was higher than CM and LTLT commercial product. In conclusion, the effects of HPP was comparable with conventional LTLT sterilization process to control undesirable microorganism in the milk products with minumal nutritional and chemical changes.
The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of addition of chlorella (CA) on the change of nutritive values, organic acids and microbes on mixture of whole crop barley and crimson clover (WCB-CC) silage. This study was conducted at the experimental field of National Institute of Animal Science, Cheonan, Korea and consisted of three groups, such as control without CA, with 0.25% CA and with 0.5% CA. The contents of crude protein, total digestible nutrient, and in vitro dry matter digestibility of WCB-CC silage were increased by CA treatment (p<0.05). However, acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber of WCB-CC silage were low compared to control (p<0.05). The pH of WCB-CC silage in CA treatment showed no significant difference, but the content of lactic acid and the number of lactic acid bacteria in CA treatment significantly increased as compared to control (p<0.05). These results suggest that the addition of CA could improve the quality of WCB-CC silage
There is no doubt that global warming and climate change affect animal production and sustainability of livestock systems. High ambient temperature and humidity have detrimental effects on the performance of laying hens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of cyclic temperatures on the performance and egg quality of laying hens during the summer in Korea. A total of 1028 Hy-Line Brown layers were reared in the open floor house and exposed to a 24 hr linear temperature cycle ranging from 21.7 to 33.0℃. Feed intake significantly decreased and cracked eggs increased under high ambient temperature or high THI (Temperature Humidity Index). Egg production was decreased gradually from 21 to 29℃ or from 21 to 26 THI. On the other hens, it was increased above 30℃ or 27 THI rather than decreased. High ambient temperature has no important impact on dirty eggs and mortality in this study. We believe that present data contribute to predict the effect of thermal conditions on the performance of laying hens by using ambient temperature or THI
This study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and physico-chemical meat quality properties for Jeju-horse (Jeju-horse×Thoroughbred) with different fattening periods (4-, 8- and 13.5-month). In chemical composition, the moisture contents were decreased as the fattening periods increased. The fat contents were 3.78% at 4-months and they were decreased such as 70∼76% at 13.5-months whereas the protein contents increased as the fattening period increased. The cooking loss was highest (33.41%) at 4-months group and decreased after that periods, however, there was no significant difference among 3 fattening period groups. The Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) values were lowest at 4-months group and tended to increase as the fattening period increased. In mineral contents, the contents of Fe, Na, Zn were significantly higher for 4-month group than 8- and 13.5-month group whereas the contents of Mg were significantly lower for 4-month group than 8- and 13.5-month group (p＜0.05). The results of the amino acid composition analysis showed that cystein, methionine, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, alanine, valine, lysine, histidine, arginine contents were significantly increased and tyrosine contents were significantly decreased as the fattening period increased (p<0.05). The contents of palmitic acid (C16:0) were highest at 4-month group and they decreased as the fattening period increased (p＜0.05). The contents of oleic acid (C18:ln9) were highest at 8-month group and they were lowest at 13.5-month group. The total contents of unsaturated fatty acids were significantly higher for 13.5-month group than those for 4-month groups (p＜0.05). In conclusions, the fat contents were decreased whereas the protein, Fe, Mg contents and WHC increased as the fattening periods increased. Overall contents of amino acids increased only except several amino acids. The total contents of unsaturated fatty acids were increased as the fattening period increased, however they were not significantly different when those were fattened more than 8-month. These results indicated that longer fattening period could be more effective to enhance horse meat quality.