As a transcription factor, the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) induces the expression of specific genes by interacting with their promoters. C/EBP can trigger to express other genes, because it can open chromatin structure after binding to DNA, then lead to another transcription factors. In this study, we investigated the features and post-exercise expression patterns of two genes in the C/EBP family, C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ. The basic region leucine zipper motif (bZIP) is a crucial region of C/EBP, and analysis of synonymous and non-synonymous substitution ratios revealed that bZIP regions were well conserved in mammalian species. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR data showed that C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ expression increased significantly in the muscle after exercise, but did not do so in the blood. We therefore propose that exercise-induced increased expression of C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ may stimulate gene expression in physiological pathways in muscle cells.
The objective of this study was to estimate the growth curve parameters of body weight for female Elk. Weight and age data from 115 does raised at the Animal Genetic Resources Research Center in Korea were used in this study. The growth curve parameters were estimated from a nonlinear regression using Gompertz and Logistic models. Mature weight (A), growth ratio (b) and maturing rate (k) of female Elk were 214.1±2.17 kg, 2.12±0.0045 and 0.0043±0.00011, respectively, according to the Gompertz model. They were 208.3±2.17 kg, 5.56±0.234 and 0.0065±0.00017, respectively, according to the Logistic model. The goodness of fit determined by R2 was higher in the Gompertz model than that in the Logistic model. The growth curve functions obtained from the Gompertz and Logistic models in female Elk were f(t)=214.1×e-2.124×e-0.00484×t and f(t)=208.3×(1+5.561×e-0.00651×t)-1, respectively. The absolute growth rate functions from the Gompertz and Logistic models in female Elk were f'(t)=0.0043×f(t)×1n(214.1/f(t)) and f'(t)=0.0065×f(t)×[1-f(t)/208.3]respectively. The growth pattern of female Elk generated from this study can be useful in determining the most appropriate feeding plans and the best breeding strategies for deer.
This study aimed to produce high-quality blastocysts and establish appropriate microinjection conditions for the introduction of target gene. First, we identified embryo development to the blastocyst stage after microinjection using the CRISPR/Cas9 system on the Cas9 protein or mRNA. As a result, we confirmed that blastocyst development in the Cas9 mRNA injected group significantly increased when compared to the Cas9 protein injected group (p<0.05). However, the blastocyst gene targeting rate increased in the Cas9 protein injected group when compared to the Cas9 mRNA injected group (p<0.05). Next, we treated the injection medium with 10 μg/ml of cytochalasin B (CB), and the microinjected embryos were cultured in CR1-aa medium supplemented with 0.1 μM of melatonin (Mela). Consequently, the blastocyst formation rate significantly increased in the CB treated group (p<0.05). After microinjecting embryos with the CB treated injection medium, we investigated blastocyst formation and quality via Mela treatment. Consequently, the Mela treated group demonstrated significantly increased blastocyst formation rates when compared to the non-treated group (p<0.05). Furthermore, immunofluorescence assay using RAD51 (DNA repair detection protein) and H2AX139ph (DNA damage detection protein) showed an increase in RAD51 positive cells in Mela treated embryos. Therefore, we verified the improvement in knock-in efficiency in microinjected bovine embryos using Cas9 protein. These results also demonstrated that the positive effect of the CB and Mela treatments improved the embryonic developmental competence and blastocyst qualities in genetically-edited bovine embryos.
This study was conducted to investigate whether dietary levels of copra and palm meals affect the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat properties of Hanwoo steers. Eighty-one Hanwoo steers were randomly assigned to one of three dietary groups: T1 (conventional level of palm and copra meals), T2 (20% copra meal and 15% palm meal), and T3 (30% copra meal and 20% palm meal). During the growing and early fattening periods, the average daily gains and formula feed intakes of T2 and T3 were higher than that of T1; however, those differences were not statistically significant. The dietary levels of copra and palm meals did not affect carcass weight, back fat thickness, and rib-eye areas. Marbling scores and meat quality grades were lower in T3 than in T1 and T2; however, those differences were not statistically significant. Meat color, fat color, texture, and maturity were similar among the treatment groups. In addition, dietary levels of copra and palm meals did not affect the chemical and fatty acid composition of longissimus dorsi muscles in Hanwoo steers. Thus, the present results indicate that high supplementation levels of copra and palm meals do not negatively affect the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat properties of Hanwoo steers.
The objective of this study was to comparatively analyze the vocalizations of farrowing sows and their piglets in a welfare certified farm and a conventional farm as they are useful parameters for animal welfare assessment. The conventional farm using the gestation stall, farrowing crate and nursery, grower‐finisher pigs were accommodated in small pens. On the other hand, in the welfare certified farm using the group feeding gestation sows, which allows them to turn around in the furrowing pens, unlike in the crates and nursery, grower‐finisher pigs were accommodated in large pens. Vocalization of farrowing sows and their piglets were recoded and acoustic parameters were analyzed. Eight vocalizations―screaming, fighting, playing, suckling competition, suckling, piglet call, frightened, and space competition―were recoded in the farrowing crate and classified; 4 ordinary and 4 non‐ordinary vocalizations were identified. However, frightened and space competition vocalizations were not detected in the farrowing pen. Screaming, fighting, playing, suckling competition, and suckling vocalizations were significantly (p<0.01) different in pitch, intensity and duration between the farrowing pen and the farrowing crate. Piglet call vocalization did not differ between the farrowing facilities. These findings will aid us in using the differences in vocalizations, under different conditions, as parameters of animal welfare assessment.