In in vitro fermentation studies, feed samples can either be included in the in vitro rumen medium using filter bags or can be directly dispersed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different pore sizes of filter bags on the rumen fermentation characteristics in an in vitro system. Corn, soybean meal, and timothy were ground to pass through a 1.0-mm screen and were formulated in the ratio of 70:7:23 based on DM, respectively. The formulated experimental diet (2g/DM) was put in F57 filter bags and R510 nylon bags (Ankom®) which pore sizes were 25 and 50 μm, respectively. An in vitro study was conducted to determine the rumen fermentation characteristics for 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h and rumen microbial community at 48 h of incubation. A significantly higher production of gas was observed in the R510 bags than in F57 at all the incubation times (p<0.01). IVDMD (p<0.01) and IVNDFD (p<0.01) were significantly higher, whereas pH (p<0.01) and NH3-N (p<0.01) were lower when R510 bags were used. In the VFA composition, acetate and butyrate were significantly higher (p<0.01) in R510 bags, and propionate and total VFA concentration did not differ (p=0.55 and 0.25, respectively) between F57 and R510 bags. The log copy numbers of bacteria and protozoa did not differ (p=0.69 and 0.94, respectively) between F57 and R510 bags, whereas those of fungi were significantly higher in R510 than in F57 bags (p<0.01). Therefore, the use of R510 may reflect actual rumen fermentation characteristics more precisely than those of F57 because increased gas production, nutrient digestibility and acetate, butyrate proportion were founded in R510.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different feed inoculation method on rumen fermentation in an in vitro. Three experimental treatments were used: control (CON, direct dispersion of feed (2 g) in rumen fluid), combinations of direct dispersion (1 g) and nylon bag (DNB, pore size: 50 μm, 1 g), and nylon bag (NB, 2 g). An in vitro fermentation experiment was carried out using strained rumen fluid for 48 h incubation time and timothy was used as a substrate. At the end of the incubation, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD), pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and microbial community were evaluated and gas production was estimated at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 h incubation periods. Gas production was higher in CON than DNB and NB at 6 and 12 h incubation time (p<0.01). There were no differences in final gas production, pH, NH3-N concentration, total VFA production, and VFA profiles among treatments. The IVDMD was lowest in CON (p<0.01) but the IVNDFD was not differed by feed distribution methods. There were no significant differences in general bacteria and fungi. Protozoa count was highest in NB treatment among treatments (p<0.01). The abundance of cellulolytic bacteria, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes, was highest in the CON among treatments (p<0.01).
This study was conducted to investigate whether dietary levels of copra and palm meals affect the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat properties of Hanwoo steers. Eighty-one Hanwoo steers were randomly assigned to one of three dietary groups: T1 (conventional level of palm and copra meals), T2 (20% copra meal and 15% palm meal), and T3 (30% copra meal and 20% palm meal). During the growing and early fattening periods, the average daily gains and formula feed intakes of T2 and T3 were higher than that of T1; however, those differences were not statistically significant. The dietary levels of copra and palm meals did not affect carcass weight, back fat thickness, and rib-eye areas. Marbling scores and meat quality grades were lower in T3 than in T1 and T2; however, those differences were not statistically significant. Meat color, fat color, texture, and maturity were similar among the treatment groups. In addition, dietary levels of copra and palm meals did not affect the chemical and fatty acid composition of longissimus dorsi muscles in Hanwoo steers. Thus, the present results indicate that high supplementation levels of copra and palm meals do not negatively affect the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat properties of Hanwoo steers.
본 연구는 섬유소분해 효소제를 공급수준에 따라 비육전기 및 비육후기 한우 거세우에 적용하였을 때 성장 및 도체성적에 미치는 영향을 조사하기 위하여 수행하였다. 시험동물은 비육전기 및 비육후기 거세우로 각각 54두씩 총 108두를 대상으로 하였으며, 시험 개시 시 공시된 비육전기 및 후기 거세우의 평균체중은 각각 397.4±27.2(평균 17개월령), 525.2±47.4kg(23개월령) 이었다. 시험사료는 비육전기사료와 비육후기 사료를 구분하여 대조구 사료에 섬유소분해 효소제 0.05(E0.05, L0.05), 0.15% (E0.05, L0.15)를 첨가한 비육전기 및 비육후기 각각 3처리구에 각 처리당 6마리씩 3반복으로 완전임의배치하여 실시하였다. 비육후기 한우 거세우에서 농후사료 섭취량은 대조구와 L0.15구에서 L0.05와비교하여 증가하였으며, 총 건물섭취량 역시 동일한 결과를 나타냈다(p<0.001). 반면, 비육전기 및 후기 한우 거세우 모두 증체량 및 사료효율은 유의한 차이를 나타내지 않았다. 한편 비육후기 거세우의 도체특성은 L0.05와 L0.15구에서 대조구와 비교하여 지방색이 유의하게 높은 것으로 조사되었다 (p<0.01). 등심조직의 지방산 분석은 대조구와 처리구는 유의한 차이를 나타내지 않았다. 결과적으로 본 시험에 사용된 섬유소 분해효소의 비육기 한우 거세우에 대한 첨가효과는 등심의 지방색이 짙어진 것을 제외하고 없는 것으로 나타났으며, 추후 볏짚 위주의 조사료 급여체계에서 효소제 첨가수준 및 효소역가에 대한 추가적인 연구가 필요할 것으로 판단된다.
본 시험은 포도부산물의 첨가가 젖소의 산유량, 유성분 및 혈액 성상에 미치는 영향을 조사하기 위하여 실시하였다. 비유중기 젖소 8두(평균 월령: 89.8, 평균 유기: 164.4, 평균 산차: 2.8산)를 공시하였으며, 포도부산물을 첨가하지 않은 대조구와 1일 1 kg을 첨가한 시험구로 두 처리구를 설정하여 3주간 급여하였다. 유지방, 유단백, 유당 및 총 고형물 함량은 처리간에 차이가 없었다. 그러나 산유량은 포도부산물 을 첨가한 처리구가 23.13 kg/d으로 대조구의 21.16 kg/d에 비해 높은 반면(p<0.05), 체세포 수는 대조구가 포도부산물 처리구에 비해 높았다(p<0.05). 혈중 glucose, alanine aminotransferase, total protein 및 blood urea nitrogen 함량은 처리구간 차이가 없었으나, AST와 총콜레스테롤 함량은 대조구 (123.75 IU/L, 200.82 mg/dl)가 포도부산물 처리구(95.34 IU/L, 180.63 mg/dl)에 비해 높았다(p<0.05). 이상의 결과에서, 다양한 생리활성을 가진 포도부산물은 젖소를 위한 기능성 사료로 이용 가능성이 높을 것으로 사료된다.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects on in situ ruminal degradation of feed protein sources (soybean meal, P-SBM; dried distillers grain with solubles, P- DDGS; wheat bran, P-WB) treated with protease as compared with conventional feed protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; dried distillers grain with solubles, DDGS; wheat bran, WB). There was no significant change in the chemical composition and amino acid profiles of enzyme treatment protein sources compared with the non-treated groups (p<0.05). But for treatment groups, the solid content and total amino acids were reduced by increasing the moisture content due to proteolytic conditions. On the entire incubation time in situ ruminal degradation rate of dry matter appeared higher in treatment groups compared to control groups (p<0.05), and that of the treatment groups suspended during 48 hours were in the order of P-SBM (97.70%), P-WB (74.26%) and P- DDGS (72.39%). In particular, DM degradation rate of enzyme treated DDGS significantly increased to 43.62%, 45.99%, 55.97%, 69.87% and 72.39%, respectively, incubated during 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours in rumen (p<0.05). Also protein degradation rate of P-WB and P-SBM significantly decreased compared to their respective non-treated sources; however, by contrast, in DDGS it was increased. For P-SBM, protein degradation rate significantly decreased at 6 and 12 hours, and for P-DDGS it was increased at 3 and 6 hours of suspension times in rumen (p<0.05). In particular, protein degradation rate of enzyme treated group suspended for 48 hours were in the order of P-SBM (91.81%), P-WB (86.36%) and P-DDGS (58.87%). This result suggests that protease treatment of feed protein sources might be utilized to increase the bypass ratio into post-rumen for wheat bran, soybean meal, and to improve the utilization of feed protein.
본 연구는 허브 부식토를 이용하여 첨가 수준별 in vitro 반추위 발효특성 평가와 젖소를 이용하여 급여시 유생산성에 미치는 영향을 조사하기 위하여 본 연구를 수행하였다. 시험 1에서는 티머시 건초를 기질로 하여 허브부식토(herbaceous peat)를 0,1 및 5%를 3반복으로 각각 첨가하여 in vitro 반추위내 pH, 가스발생량, VFA (volatile fatty acid), ammonia-N 및 건물분해율을 조사하여 반추위내 발효성상의
This study was carried out to elucidate changes in milk production, milk components and milk product properties as influenced by organic and conventional farming system. Milk production in transient organic feeding was lower by 7.6% than that in conventional feeding and also milk fat, milk protein content, solids not fat and somatic cell count were lower than conventional farming system. But, milk lactose content in transient organic feeding was higher than that in conventional feeding. Ca and Fe content in milk in organic feeding tended to be higher compared to conventional feeding. Linoleic acid and unsaturated fatty acids in milk in organic feeding was higher than those in conventional feeding and properties of milk products were improved in organic milk compared to conventional milk.
본 연구는 높은 섬유소 분해력을 검증 받은 Aspergillus niger (KCCM 60357)와 Bacillus licheniformis (KCCM 40934)를 단독 및 혼합 배양한 미생물제제로 양돈용 청보리 발효사료를 제조하였을 때 사료 성상변화, in vitro 대장발효 및 전장소화율에 미치는 영향을 평가하였다. 실험 설계는 건조 청보리 (control), A. niger (control + A. niger), B. licheniformis (
본 시험은 산양유 생산을 위해 유기사료를 이용하여 유산양의 적정 에너지 및 단백질 공급 수준과 조농비율을 결정하기 위하여 비유중기 Saanen종 유산양 4두( BW)를 이용하여 라틴방각법으로 실시하였다. 대사에너지 공급수준과 단백질 공급수준을 10.59 (T1), 10.14 (T2), 9.45 (T3) 및 8.75 (T4) MJ/kg과 11.90 (T1), 12.73 (T2), 15.19 (T3) 및 16.60% (T4)로 달리하였으며, 조농비율은 49
본 시험은 산양유 생산을 위해 유가사료를 이용하여 유산양의 적정 에너지 및 단백질 공급 수준과 조농비율을 결정하기 위하여 비유중기 Saanen종 유산양 4두(57.5土10.8 kg BW)를 이용하여 4x4 라틴방각법으로 실시하였다. 대사에너지 공급수준과 단백질 공급수준을 10.59 (T1), 10.14 (T2), 9.45 (T3) 및 8.75 (T4) MJ/kg과 11.90 (T1), 12.73 (T2), 15.19 (T3) 및 16.60% (T4)로 달리하였으며, 조농비율은 49:51 (T1), 59:41 (T2), 74:26 (T3) 및 90:10 (T4)의 네 처리구로 나누었다. 사료 섭취량 및 체중은 모든 처리구 사이의 유의한 차이가 없었다. 유량은 T3구에서 가장 높았으며, T2 및 T4구와 비교 하여 유의하게 높게 나타났다(p<0.05). 유지방 함량과 생산량은 T4구에서 다른 처리구와 비교하여 가장 낮았다(p<0.05). 유단백질과 유당 생산량은 T1 (61.29 및 70.95 g/일)과 T3 (60.52 및 75.82 g/일)구에서 T2 (50.49 및 59.64 g/일)와 T4 (52.49 빛 59.82 g/얼)구와 비교하여 유의하게 높게 나타났다. 결과적으로 유산양의 유생산성을 극대화시커기 위해서 에너지 공급수준은 최소 9 MJ/kg 이상과 단백질 공급수준은 최소 15% 이상을 공급해 주어야할 것으로 기대된다.
The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding herbaceous peat on growth performance and meat quality of Holstein beef cattle. Total of 20 Holstein beef cattle (18~20 month of age, 657±31kg body weight) were conventionally and separately fed a concentrate diet and rice straw for 134 days. The dietary treatments were randomly assigned by complete block design into four treatments, each of which were five heads in early fattening stage. The treatments in this study were the control group fed basal diet, feeding herbaceous peat group (5%/diet, T1), feeding coated vitamin C group (20g/head, T2) and feeding mixture of herbaceous peat and coated vitamin C group (5%/diet+20g/head, T3). The initial body weights between the groups of control, T1, T2 and T3 were similar showing with 689±31, 661±24, 659±32 and 622±19kg. The daily body weight gain was higher in T3 by 8.3% than that in the control (p
The study was performed to evaluate the effects of soybean meal (T1) and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS, T2) hydrolyzed by microbial proteolytic enzyme of Protame® on milk production and protein contents in dairy cows. Total of nine Holstein cows (i.e., 1.67 ± 0.47 average parity and 23.7 ± 1.2 kg/d average milk yield) were randomly assigned to control, T1, and T2 (e.g., 3 animals per group) and treated for 4 weeks. Milk yield of 3 different groups was similar in the beginning of the study, however the milk yield of T1 and T2 treatment group had increased by 0.93 kg/d and 1.89 kg/d, respectively. Milk protein level of T2 treatment group was increased by 0.19% (e.g., 0.14 kg/d protein content), whereas there was no significant different in control and T1 group. In conclusion, blood metabolites were ranged in normal level, but BUN content was reduced from 19.03 mg/dl to 17.70 mg/dl in T2 treatment group. This result suggests that DDGS hydrolysate supplement efficiently increase milk yield and milk protein level as well as feed protein availability in dairy cattle.
This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing herbaceous peat preparation and vitamin C in order to find out its effects on immunity and growth performance in Holstein calves. Twenty Holstein calves (39.3±4.21kg average initial body weight) were allocated into four treatments by completely randomized design. Dietary treatments included: 1) control (Basal diet), 2) treatment 1 (control +5% herbaceous peat), 3) treatment 2 (control+10g vitamin C) and 4) treatment 3 (control+10g herbaceous peat+10g vitamin C). The duration of the experiment was 38 days in this experiment, and blood metabolism, dry matter intake, body weight and diarrhea frequency were investigated. For blood metabolism, white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils (NE), lymphocytes (LY), and red blood cells (RBC) did not show any significant differences among treatments. Average daily gain and feed conversion were highest in T1 group feeding with the herbaceous peat preparation compared to the control groups and diarrhea frequency showed lowest in T3 group. Overall results of the present experiment indicated that dietary supplementation with herbaceous peat influenced positively on growth performances in Holstein calves.
This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of nattokinase (NK) additives on milk production and composition, and blood metabolites in dairy cows. The two kinds of nattokinase with high fibrinolytic activity were produced by two strains of bacteria, Bacillus amyloliquefacines (NK1) and Bacillus subtilis (NK2). Total fifteen Holstein cows (average 1.83±0.37 parity; average milk yield 23.2±3.2 ㎏/d) were randomly assigned to three treatments (5 animals per treatment). Cows were fed TMR supplemented with 0g, 100g and 100g for control, NK1 and NK2 treatment, respectively for 4 weeks. Milk yield was significantly higher (p＜0.05) for NK1 (22.89 ㎏/d) than for control (21.07 ㎏/d) and NK2 (21.36 ㎏/d). Somatic cell counts in NK treatments were significantly lower than that in control group (58,000 vs. 21,000 and 35,000 cells/㎖, control vs. NK1 and NK2). Serum ALT levels in all treatment were similar to the range of 32.00~35.83 IU/L, but AST levels in NK1 (85.67 IU/L) was significantly decreased compared with those in control and NK2 (121.67 and 117.67 IU/L respectively). Serum T-CHO levels in NK1 (145.33 ㎎/㎗) was significantly decreased (p＜0.05) compared with that in control (179.00 ㎎/㎗) and NK2 (176.17 ㎎/㎗). This finding showed that NK1 additives could possibly have a positive effect in lactation performance of mid-lactation dairy cows by increasing milk yield, reducing somatic cell count, improving liver function and decreasing cholesterol in blood.
This study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of locally produced organic agricultural by-products to substitute imported organic feeds for organic ruminant farming. Imported organic feeds (corn grain, soybean meal, soybean seed, oat grain, barley grain, wheat grain, buckwheat, sunflower seed meal) and byproducts (rice bran, grape seed meal, rice straw, soybean hull, soybean curd, rice hull, green kernel rice, and crushed rice grain) were analyzed for chemical composition and NDF, ADF, mineral, and amino acid contents and anti-nutritional factors. Dry matter, NDF and ADF contents in organic feeds were higher than those in conventional feeds. Especially, the 9.65% fat content of organic soybean meal was 6 times higher than the 1.95% fat content of conventional soybean meal. Fat contents of rice bran, grape seed meal, green kernel rice, and crushed rice grain were 25.66, 6.09, 3.57 and 1.59%, respectively. Protein contents of soybean hull and soybean curd were 14.68 and 19.87%, respectively, which are highest among organic by-products. Levels of aflatoxin in all feeds were below the safety level. Therefore, organic rice bran, green kernel rice and crushed rice as energy source, and soybean hull and soybean curd as protein source could partial replace imported feeds for organic ruminant farming.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of organic feed containing rice bran and soybean hull as organic by-products on milk production of mid-lactation dairy goats. Four Saanen dairy goats (initial BW 59.4±7.4 kg, average 6 lactation months, fourth kidding) were allocated into conventional feed group (T1) and organic feed group (T2) with 2×3 crossover design for 9 weeks. Experimental diets were formulated to contain 23 MJ ME/d, 382 g CP/d DM based on NRC (1981) and AFRC (1998). Dry matter (DM) intakes of concentrate and silage were higher in T2 (1,232 and 96 g/d) than T1 (1,105 and 91 g/d) (p
This study was conducted to determine the effect of probiotics as an alternative for antibiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, noxious gas emission and fecal microbial population in growing piglets. A total of 96 piglets (22.5±1.3㎏ average body weight) were allotted to 3 different treatment groups and replicated 4 times with 8 piglets per replicate in randomized complete block design. Treatments were T1) (Control, basal diet+0.2% antibiotics), T2) 0.2% probiotics complex and T3) 0.3% Bacillus probiotics. During the whole experiment period, there were no differences (p>0.05) in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed efficiency. However, digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, nitrogen free extract and crude ash were showed higher in probiotics groups (T2 and T3) than those of control. In noxious gas emission, ammonia, amine, hydrogen sulfide and mercaptan were significantly (p