The long-tailed goral (Naemorhedus caudatus) is an endangered animal species in all its habitats worldwide, including South Korea. The imbalanced sex ratio in fragmented habitats is closely associated with extinction. Therefore, sex identification using wild animal samples would be necessary. However, only a few studies have been reported about the sex identification of gorals. In this study, we thus aimed at comparing the efficiency of sex identification using various goral sample types as templates and the amelogenin (AMEL) and DEAD-box polypeptide 3 (DDX3) genes as target sequences. We extracted DNA from goral feces, tissues, and blood samples, then amplified the AMEL (SE47/SE48 and SE47/SE53 primer pairs) and DDX3 genes for sex identification, comparing the goral DDX3X and DDX3Y target sequences to those in cattle. Our results indicated that the tissue- and blood sample-derived AMEL amplicons showed an unspecific band pattern containing the sex-specific band in the case of both primer pairs we used, whereas the DDX3 amplicon showed only the sex-specific band. In the case of the feces samples, only the sex-specific band was amplified using both the AMEL and DDX3 primer pairs. However, we found that the DDX3 amplicon exhibited a clearer band pattern than the AMEL amplicon. Then, we compared the DDX3X and DDX3Y target sequences between cattle and gorals. We found 5 and 8 nucleotide differences in the DDX3X and DDX3Y sequences, respectively. In conclusion, the DDX3 gene-related sex identification of the long-tailed goral appears to be more efficient and precise than the AMEL gene-related approach. This method could be used for the sex identification of the members of the Bovidae family.
In in vitro fermentation studies, feed samples can either be included in the in vitro rumen medium using filter bags or can be directly dispersed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different pore sizes of filter bags on the rumen fermentation characteristics in an in vitro system. Corn, soybean meal, and timothy were ground to pass through a 1.0-mm screen and were formulated in the ratio of 70:7:23 based on DM, respectively. The formulated experimental diet (2g/DM) was put in F57 filter bags and R510 nylon bags (Ankom®) which pore sizes were 25 and 50 μm, respectively. An in vitro study was conducted to determine the rumen fermentation characteristics for 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h and rumen microbial community at 48 h of incubation. A significantly higher production of gas was observed in the R510 bags than in F57 at all the incubation times (p<0.01). IVDMD (p<0.01) and IVNDFD (p<0.01) were significantly higher, whereas pH (p<0.01) and NH3-N (p<0.01) were lower when R510 bags were used. In the VFA composition, acetate and butyrate were significantly higher (p<0.01) in R510 bags, and propionate and total VFA concentration did not differ (p=0.55 and 0.25, respectively) between F57 and R510 bags. The log copy numbers of bacteria and protozoa did not differ (p=0.69 and 0.94, respectively) between F57 and R510 bags, whereas those of fungi were significantly higher in R510 than in F57 bags (p<0.01). Therefore, the use of R510 may reflect actual rumen fermentation characteristics more precisely than those of F57 because increased gas production, nutrient digestibility and acetate, butyrate proportion were founded in R510.
The objective of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of emulsion-type pork sausage manufactured with various levels of Eutrema Japonicum (E. Japonicum)(1, 2, and 3%). The crude fat contents of samples containing 2 and 3% E. Japonicum were 27.46-28.38%, significantly higher than those in the control (p<0.05). The cooking yields samples containing 1 and 2% E. Japonicum were 74.99-75.54%, significantly higher than those in the control (p<0.05). Water holding capacities (WHC) of the samples containing 1% and 2% E. Japonicum were 92.22-92.26% significantly higher than those in the control (p<0.05). while the water losses of sample containing 1% E. Japonicum group was 16.41%, significantly lower than those in the control (p<0.05). And fat losses samples containing 1, 2, and 3% E. Japonicum were 0.03-0.64% significantly lower than those in the control (p<0.05) in emulsion stability. Additionally, viscosity increased with increasing E. Japonicum concentration of E. Japonicum. Texture profile analysis (TPA) showed increased with increasing E. Japonicum concentration for hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the samples containing 2 and 3% E. Japonicum were 0.64-0.69 mg MDA/kg significantly lower than those in the control and 1% E. Japonicum group (p<0.05). These results indicate that emulsion-type pork sausage containing 2% E. Japonicum was increasing WHC, emulsion stability, cooking yield, and was decreasing TBARS compared to other E. Japonicum groups. Therefore, emulsion-type pork sausage containing 2% E. Japonicum is high qualified.
The creation of probiotic-containing fermented milk products for use by human is an important research topic and has high potential for development. Also, studies have shown that heat-killed probiotics are more stable and easier to use than live probiotics. However, as of this time, research has not been reported in Korea that has evaluated the product or functionality of fermented milk after the addition of heat-killed probiotics. This study was conducted to verify the physiological activity of heat-killed Enterococcus faecalis EF-2001 after its addition to Lactobacillus-fermented milk. Briefly, NFM normal fermented milk (NFM) was used as the control sample, whereas fermented milk with 100 μg/mL EF-2001 (EFM1) and fermented milk with 500 μg/mL EF-2001 (EFM2) were used as the treated samples. Among the samples, EFM2 had the highest acidity of 1.15, but no other factors significantly differed (p<0.05). Furthermore, EFM2 had the highest Lactobacillus count of 9.22 (p<0.05). ABTS, DPPH and FRAP were measured to determine the antioxidant activity of the samples. With respect to those parameters, EFM2 had the highest antioxidant measurements. Therefore, the study confirmed that the addition of E. faecalis EF-2001 to NFM is suitable with the standard and does not affect the quality of characteristics. In conclusion, the treatment sample had higher antioxidant activity than did NFM; this result may be used as a basic for further research and as a guideline for the manufacturing of heat-killed probiotic-containing NFM.