The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of environmental temperature and backfat thickness (BT) on the reproductive performance of lactating sows. Sixty crossbred sows were allotted to four groups in a 2×2 factorial arrangement by environmental temperature (high temperature [HT], 27.5±1.76℃; low temperature [LT], 23.3±0.89℃) and BT (<20 mm, average 17.70 mm; ≥20 mm, average 23.20 mm) from July to August 2019. Sows in the HT group experienced a greater change in BT and a lower feed intake. Losses in body weight and BT were lower in sows with <20 mm BT than in those with ≥20 mm BT. Sows with low BT had a lower weaning-to-estrus interval than sows with high BT (5.20, 4.93 d vs. 5.87, 5.60 d, respectively). Piglet survivability was lower in the HT group (90.31%) than in the LT group (94.87%). Piglet weaning weight and average daily weight gain were greater in sows with <20 mm BT (5.75 kg and 201.46 g, respectively) than in those with ≥20 mm BT (5.49 kg and 188.41 g, respectively). Sows in the HT group had higher cortisol concentrations than those in the LT group (post-farrowing: HT 7.86 μg/mL vs. LT 6.04 μg/mL; weanling: HT 5.48 μg/mL vs. LT 4.40 μg/mL). In conclusion, environmental temperature adversely influenced sow performance and cortisol levels. Moreover, sows with low BT had a greater weaning-to-estrus interval when subjected to heat stress.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of probiotic treatment with IgY and Bacillus subtilis complex on diarrhea and weight gain in Hanwoo calves. Bacillus and E. coli levels were measured in the feces of calves post probiotic administration. Subsequently, calves with diarrhea were divided into two groups. The total and daily weight gain was measured in 23 calves after three months of suckling and divided into three groups. In Test 1, Bacillus was detected of the control group constantly at 104 CFU/g; a statistically significant difference was observed between the treatment and the control groups on the 1st and 3rd day (p<0.05) but not on the 7th day, confirming that the Bacillus subtilis survived in the intestine only until the 7th day. The treatment and control groups in Test 2 did not show any significant difference in the E. coli levels. However, comparison of changes in the E. coli levels showed a decreased of 6.39×108±9.80×108 CFU/g in the control group increase by 1.54×109±2.16×109 CFU/g, and, a decrease by 1.47×109±2.20×109 CFU/g; a decrease of by 4.20×107±3.90×108 CFU/g was observed in the treated group, an increase by 7.19×108±2.04×109 CFU/g, anda a decrease by 9.22×108±1.79×109 CFU/g. The changes in, control group were more rapid than in the treatment group. Therefore we hypothesize that probiotics inhibit E. coli growth. A concurrent improvement in weight gain was observed following probiotic administration. The IgY and Bacillus subtilis probiotics complex used in this study can be effectively used for the prevention and treatment of calf diarrhea.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary total mixed ration (TMR) supplementation and dry-aging period on the physico-chemical and sensory quality of striploin (longissimus lumborum) from multiparous Hanwoo cows. The experimental cows were divided into two treatments (n=3/treatment) according to the type of feed: in one treatment (slaughter age: 87±6 months old, parity: 5±1) the cows were fed on TMR for 7 months before slaughter, while in the other treatment (slaughter age: 83±9 months old, parity: 5±2) the cows were fed on concentrate and rice straw (CRS) for the whole rearing period. After slaughtering, the striploins were dry-aged for 20 or 40 days at 2±1℃, 85% relative humidity and 2 m/sec air flow velocity and then utilized for quality measurements. The pH value, cooking loss, and hypoxanthine content were higher (p<0.05) for the striploins dry-aged for 40 days than for those dry-aged for 20 days. Notably, the inosine 5’-monophosphate content was decreased (p<0.05) by increasing the dry-aging time. With regard to microbiological quality, the striploins dry-aged for 40 days exhibited lower (p<0.05) lactic acid bacteria counts and higher (p<0.05) coliform counts than those dry-aged for 20 days. Moreover, the tenderness and overall liking scores based on sensory evaluation were higher (p<0.05) for the dry-aged striploins of the TMR treatment and those dry-aged for 40 days than for the CRS treatment and those dry-aged 20 days, respectively. These findings suggest that dietary TMR supplementation leads to an increase in the sensory preference of dry-aged striploins from multiparous Hanwoo cows, and alteration of the CRS into the TMR may improve the quality of dry-aged Hanwoo beef.
This study investigated the substitution effect of phosphate and isolated soybean powder (ISP) by Allomyrina dichotoma larvae powder (AP) in emulsion sausage. The sausages were prepared for five treatments: 1) positive control (PC): sausages manufactured with sodium pyrophosphate (0.3%) and ISP (1%); 2) negative control (NC): sausages manufactured without sodium pyrophosphate, and ISP; 3) phosphate replacement (PR): sausages manufactured with ISP and AP (1%); 4) ISP replacement (IR): sausages manufactured with sodium pyrophosphate and AP; 5) phosphate and ISP replacement (PIR): sausages manufactured with AP. The 1% AP extract showed DPPH radical scavenging (45.65±2.468%) and metal chelating (22.46±3.559%) activity. The high pH value of AP (8.03) increased the pH of the meat batter of PR, IR, and PIR (p<0.05), but there was no inhibitory effect on cooking loss. Cooking loss of IR was not significantly different with PC due to phosphate. The addition of AP decreased the L* and a* values and increased the b* values, and decreased hardness, chewiness, and springiness of PR, IR, and PIR (p<0.05). AP did not inhibit lipid oxidation in sausages, in contrast to phosphate. In sensory evaluation, the addition of AP resulted in low scores for all sensory parameters of the sausages, although most panels had normal or positive awareness (p<0.05). Aroma was more influential on samples than color. Overall, AP did not replace phosphate and ISP in the sausages. Therefore, processes such as eliminating unique aroma and color and increasing solubility through particle size control are necessary to use AP as a protein source.