In order to investigate the effects of magnetized water treated with HI-Scalper153R on body performance and ammonia concentration in feces of broiler chicks, a feeding trial was conducted with a total of 180 broiler chicks. Each treatment had 18 chicks with 5 replications. Chicks during experimental periods, broiler chicks were fed magnetized water and subterranean water, respectively. The results obtained summarized as follows: Body weight gain slightly increased for broiler chicks fed magnetized water compared with control. But, there is no significantly (p=0.36) different among treatments. Feed intake significantly (p=0.046) decreased for broiler chicks fed magnetized water compared with control. Feed efficiency was significantly (p=0.020) improved for broiler chicks fed magnetized water of each periods when compare to the control. Especially, in starter periods, the feed efficiency of magnetized water treatment increased by 10% more than control (1.80 vs 1.69). In feces, average ammonia concentration (ppm) significantly (p=0.004) decreased in the magnetized water treatment compare to control. Especially, the magnetized water treatment decreased by 2.2 times compared to the control in ammonia concentration of feces (83 vs 37ppm).
This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary probiotics BiopowderR (BP) on pig performance, carcass characteristics and ammonia concentration in feces. A feeding trial was conducted with a total of 36 growing pigs of an average 29kg body weight. Each treatment had 4 pigs with 3 replications. Pig during grower (26days) and finisher periods (62days) were fed 0.15 and 0.30% concentrations of BP respectively. Body weight gain slightly increased for pigs fed BP during overall periods compared with control, not significantly different. Especially, in growing periods, the body weight gain of BP treatment increased by 10% compared with control (700g vs 775g), in finishing periods, that of BP 0.3% treatment increased by 10% compared with control (890g vs 980g), not significantly different among treatments. Feed intake slightly increased for pigs fed BP in overall periods. During grower periods, the feed intake of BP 0.3% treatment increased by 11.0% more than control, but also not significantly different among treatments. Feed efficiency was slightly improved for pigs fed BP overall periods when compare to the control, but not significantly different among treatments. In feces, average ammonia concentration (ppm) and bacterial count (log cfu/g) were not affected by BP addition. There was no significantly different in carcass weight, fat thickness and carcass grade. In conclusion, supplemental BP tended to slightly improve the performance of pig and did not influenced the concentration of ammonia in feces and carcass characteristics.
This study was carried out to compare the effect of dietary zinc gluconate, fructooligosaccharide and probiotic on body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency of broiler chicks. A feeding trial was conducted with a total of 216 broiler chicks. Each treatment had 18 chicks with 3 replications. The supplementation levels of each treatment in the experimental diets were 0.20% for zinc gluconate, fructooligosaccharide and probiotic, respectively. The body gain of chicks fed feed additives significantly increased (p<.05) compare with that of control. Especially, the treatment with probiotic produced higher body gain than other treatments. Average feed intake of chicks was not significantly different among treatments (p<.05). Feed efficiency of chick fed feed additives significantly (p<.05) improved compare with control and the highest in the probiotic treatment. Therefore, the feed efficiency of chicks fed fructooligosaccharide, zinc gluconate and probiotic treatment were increased by 3.5%, 4.0% and 4.5%, respectively compare to that of the control. In conclusion, dietary feed additives tended to slightly improve the body gain and feed efficiency. Especially the treatment with probiotic produced higher body gain and feed efficiency among other treatments.
To elucidate the effect of feeding differently prepared CaCO3 (industrially purified limestone) on laying performance, egg shell quality and serum calcium and phosphorus concentration, totally 288 layers (52 wks old), with 16 birds per replicate, 3 replicates per treatment for six treatments were employed into the series of CaCO3 treatments followed by feeding study. Six CaCO3 treatment and diet preparation includes mash diet with naturally sized CaCO3 (MNaC), mash diet with coarsely particled CaCO3 (MCoC), mash diet with finely particled CaCO3 (MFiC), pelleted diet with naturally sized CaCO3 (PNaC), pelleted diet with casein coated CaCO3 (PCnC) and pelleted diet with agar coated CaCO3 (PAgC). Hen day egg production of the bird fed both fine CaCO3 and pelleted CaCO3 were lower (p<0.05) than those fed other CaCO3 diets. Although there is no difference in average egg weight among treatments, the weight tended to be heavier once the egg production rate was low. There is no difference in feed conversion ratio (intake/egg) among treatments. Egg shell thickness was the highest (p<0.05) with feeding of MCoC whereas the value was the lowest with feeding of pelleted CaCO3 diet. Although there is some difference in egg shell thickness, the shell breaking forces were not significantly different among treatments. Calcium content of the shell was the lowest (p<0.05) in the egg from the layer fed finely particled CaCO3. Serum Ca content tended to decrease up to 8 hrs after feeding, then tended to increase afterwards. Although both agar and casein coating of CaCO3 tended to retard the recovering increase of blood Ca, the difference needed to be clarified with individual ovulation cycle. Serum P level was generally decreased as time passed after feeding. Crude protein utilizability was the highest with feeding of agar coated CaCO3 and that of fat was higher with hens fed pelleted diets. Both ash and P utilizabilities of diet with finely particled CaCO3 were the highest among treatment although there were no differences in both energy and Ca utilizabilities. Conclusively, both the particle size of CaCO3 and pelleting of CaCO3 diet could affect shell quality of the egg. The effect was more evident by the differentiation of CaCO3 particle size than any other processing such as pelleting and coating.
This study was conducted to determine the replacement effect of spray dried plasma protein (SDPP) with dried porcine solubles (DPS) in weaning pigs. An ileal digestibility trial, at first, was conducted to formulate the experimental diets with SDPP or DPS. Six piglets (21-d old and 6.12kg BW) with T -cannula in the terminal ileum were used. In a feeding trial, 180 pigs (21-d old and 5.98kg BW) were alloted in a completely randomized block design. Treatments were T1 (SDPP 5%, DPS 0%), T2 (SDPP 5%, DPS 2.5%), T3 (SDPP 2.5%, DPS 0%), and T4 (SDPP 2.5%, DPS 2.5%) for phase I, and T1 (SDPP 3%, DPS 0%), T2 (SDPP 3%, DPS 1.5%), T3 (SDPP 1.5%, DPS 0%), and T4 (SDPP 1.5%, DPS 1.5%) for phase Ⅱ. Phase Ⅰ(0～1 week) diet was formulated to contain 3,300ME kcal/kg and 1.25% digestible lysine, and phase Ⅱ (2～3 week) diet contained 3,320ME kcal/kg and 1.10% digestible lysine. Chemical pompositions of the protein sources were higher in SDPP than DPS: CP (81.60 vs. 56.01), lysine (5.95 vs. 3.36), and methionine (1.85 vs. 1.22). Apparent ileal digestibilities of arginine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, threonine and phenylalanine were higher in DPS than SDPP (p<0.05). The apparent ileal digestibility of essential amino acids (average) was also higher in DPS than SDPP (p<0.05). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in ADG and ADFI of piglets during phase Ⅰ (0～1 week) and Ⅱ (2～3 week) among treatments. However, during phase Ⅱ, T2 showed better FCR than T1 (p<0.05). During the overall period, there was no significant difference in growth performance among treatments. When DPS was partially replaced for SDPP, the diet cost was significantly reduced (p<0.05) in terms of cost/kg of body weight. In summary, the digestibility of DPS was exellent, and it would be concluded that DPS can be partially replaced in the young pigs' diet containing SDPP in order to reduce diet cost in weaning pigs.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different straw volume (0.5 and 5.0 ㎖) on cryopreservation in boar semen. Semen quality was evaluated the motility, viability, abnormality, acrosome intactness and membrane integrity. And there were also examined the development rates of IVM/IVF embryos using frozen-thawed boar semen. Boar semen were frozen until 5℃ for 3 hours using cell freezer and making the straws, and then freezing by lowing the straws into styrofoam box on the 8 cm above the LN2. In different straw volume (0.5 and 5.0 ㎖), sperm viability and abnormality were not differ in 0.5 and 5.0 ㎖ straws, but sperm motility were significantly higher in 0.5 ㎖ straws (61.3%) than in 5.0 ㎖ straws (56.3%) (p<0.05). In the Coomassie Brillient Blue (CBB), Hoechst 33258/Propidium Iodide (H258/PI) staining and Hypoosmotic Swelling Test (HOST), the acrosome intactness and sperm membrane integrity were not differ in 0.5 and 5.0 ㎖ straws, but sperm survival rate was significantly higher in 0.5 ㎖ straw (65.0%) than in 5.0 ㎖l straw (55.0%) (p<0.05). Employing the Chlortetracycline (CTC)/Hoechst33258 (H258), all treatment group were not differ in characteristic of uncapacitated acrosome-intact sperm (F), capacitated and acrosome-intact sperm (B-type) and acrosomereaction seprm (AR-type). In the developmental rate of IVM/IVF embryos using frozen-thawed boar semen in different straw volumes, the developmental rate of morula plus blastocysts were 19.9% in 0.5 ㎖ straw and 18.8% in 5.0 ㎖ straw, respectively. These results indicated that straw volume affects the semen motility and sperm survival rate, but not other semen characteristic and developmental rate of IVM/IVF embryos.
This study was carried out to investigate the comparison of quality characteristics of Korean native black porks fed high, medium and low levels of lysine diets at growing and finishing stages during refrigerated storage. M. longissimus from Korean native black pigs (gilts) with a live weight of 65 kg were placed in the dark room at 4℃ for 7 days and utilized for the quality measurements. The proximate composition, drip loss, TBARS value and sensory evaluation of raw and cooked meat were not affected by dietary lysine level. Korean native black pork fed low lysine diets showed the highest redness (a*) at day 7. Consequently, as Korean native black pigs were fed low lysine diets at growing and finishing stages, it was effective in color stability of porks.
This study was carried out to investigate the comparison of meat quality of Korean native black porks and modern genotype pork fed high and low lysine levels of diets at growing and finishing stages during refrigerated storage after thawing. M. longissimus from Korean native black pigs (gilts) with a live weight of 65 kg and modern genotype pork (gilts) with a live weight of 110 kg were frozen at -80 ℃ for 1 month and placed in the dark room at 1℃ for 7 days after thawing. The moisture content was significantly lower in modern genotype pork fed high lysine level of diets than to the other treatments (p<0.05), but crude fat content was significantly higher in modern genotype pork fed high lysine level of diets (p<0.05). The pH value and sensory evaluation were significantly higher in Korean native black pork than to modern genotype pork (p<0.05), and the drip loss was significantly lower in Korean native black pork (p<0.05). CIE L*, ho and hunter L were significantly lower in modern genotype pork fed high lysine level of diets than to modern genotype pork fed low lysine level of diets (p<0.05). Myristate, palmitate and saturated fatty acid content were significantly lower in Korean native black pork fed high lysine level of diets than to Korean native black pork fed low lysine level of diet (p<0.05), but unsaturated fatty acid content and UFA/SFA ratio were higher in Korean native black pork fed high lysine level of diets (p<0.05). Consequently, as Korean native black pigs were fed high lysine level of diets at growing and finishing stages, saturated fatty acid content of pork increased but unsaturated fatty acid content and UFA/SFA ratio of pork decreased. And the water-holding capacity, color stability and sensory evaluation of Korean native black porks were better than those of modern genotype pork.
This study was carry out to investigate the quality comparison of ground Korean native black pork compared with modern genotype pork by different fat addition. The Korean native black pig and modern genotype pig were slaughtered at 75 kg and 105 kg of live weight, and for 240 days and 210 days of feeding periods, respectively. The ground lean pork (M. semimembranosus) mixed with ground fat (10, 20 and 30%, respectively) was stored for 9 days at 4℃. The crude fat increased as fat content increased. The pH of two porks increased significantly during storage. It was lower the Korean native black pork during storage than modern genotype pork. The WHC (water-holding capacity) of Korean native black pork was higher than modern genotype pork. The Korean native black pork maintained black reddish color because it had lower CIE L* value and higher CIE a* value than the modern genotype pork. CIE L, b*, C* and h values increased with increasing fat content in two samples but all CIE color values decreased during storage. TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), POV (peroxide value) and FOX (ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange) of ground pork during storage were increased as fat content increased. Lipid oxidation of Korean native black pork occurred more rapidly than modern genotype pig. The Korean native black pork tended to contain more saturated fatty acids compared with the modern genotype pork. Especially, stearic acid and total SFA (saturated fatty acid) content had significantly higher in Korean native black pork (p<0.05).
The obsective of this study is to compare domestic chicory root powder with foreign chicory fructooligosaccharide (FOS) in effect of microflora in piglet feces and to sustitude domestic chicory for foreign chicory. The prebiotic effects of FOS from chicory (Chicorium intybus) was evaluated for livestock feed supplement. Chicory is a turberous plants containing inulin ,with high fructose contents its root. Piglets were fed one of three diets for 5 weeks, a control diet, a basal diet containing 0.2% of foreign chicory FOS and a basal diet containing 0.3% of domestic chicory root powder. Prebiotic effects of foreign chicory FOS and domestic chicory root powder were examined for their effects on the growth of fecal microorganism with piglet along with measuring pH changes of collected piglet feces during experimental periods (5 weeks). The results showed that the growth of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was significantly increased after feeding chicory FOS and chicory root powder supplemented feeds, and the increased occupancy ratio of LAB in the feces was observed. However, the occupancy ratio of Escherichia coli in piglet feces was continuously declined after treating feeds containing chicory FOS and root powder. No remarkable changes were observed in the growth of Clostridium perfringens throughout the experimental periods. A significantly decreased pH of the collected feces was observed after feeding chicory FOS and chicory root powder supplemented feeds. It was noteworthy that feeding chicory root powder more effectively decreased pH levels than those of chicory FOS. As a result of this it was expected that FOS from chicory could be applicable to pigs as prebiotics.
In this study, dietary Rhus verniciflua Stockes were feeded on the porks and Hanwoo beef to determinate sanitation effects. this experiment was performed to measure oxygen contents and total flavor compounds of pork and beef inoculated Pseudomonas aeruginosa in headspace with SPME-GC. The headspace oxygen contents in Hanwoo beef were no difference on the diet supplementation ratio of Rhus verniciflua Stokes during storage at 5℃. Headspace oxygen contents of teratment dieted for 5 and 6months were higher than that of treatment dieted for 3 and 4months. No remarkable difference was observed in headspace oxygen contents in pork between control and treatment during storage at 0℃. Oxygen contents in pork of treatment diet containing 4% Rhus verniciflua Stokes was higher than that of treatment were lower than that of control on Hanwoo beef. Flavor compounds were the lowest in diet supplemented 6% of Rhus verniciflua Stokes during 4 months. Flavor compounds of pork is no change at 0℃. The longer storage periods It had the more increasing total flavor compounds and Rhus verniciflua Stokes supplement ratio had no effects on change of total flavor compounds. Such as this experiment, Flavor compounds and oxygen contents in headspace could be analyzed by SPME-GC method promptly and easily in accordance with, it is expected to apply SPME-GC method to evaluation of food quality.
This study was carried out to determine the effect of dietary crude fucoidans extracted from brown algae and brown seaweed powder supplementation on performance and bacterial count on feed additives of early broiler chicks. A total 180 broiler chicks were assigned to 4 treatments. Each treatment had 15 chicks with 3 replications. The supplementation levels of fucoidan and brown seaweed powder in the experimental diets were 0.5% (fucoidan), 3.0% (brown seaweed). The results obtained summarized as follows: The body weight gain and weight of chicks fed fucoidan (0.5%) was heavy compared with control. Feed efficiency of chicks fed fucoidan (0.5%) slightly improved compare with control. But also not significantly different among treatments. Gizzard weight, length of small intestine and weight of small intestine were not significantly different among treatments. The villi height of chicks fed fucoidan (0.5%) was long compared with control. According to these data, this trial proves the fucoidan could be successfully used as the dietary supplement.
Disturbances of calciumhomeostasishave beenassociatedwithavarietyofdisease conditions inanimals.Knowledge of serumtotal calciumvalues is essential for understanding disease states that cause calciumalterations outside the reference range. Variations in albumin values can affect the proportion of protein-bound calciumin the total calcium concentration.Adjustment formulas ofmeasured calciumbased onmeasuredalbumin or total protein concentrations were proposed byMeuten et al (MeutenDJ, ChewDJ, CapenCCandKocibaGJ. 1982. Am. Vet.Med. Assoc. 180, 63- 67): adjustedcalcium=calcium albumin+3.5 or adjustedcalcium=calcium 0.4 xprotein+3.3. This studywas aimed todevelop relationships between serumtotal calciumandalbumin andbetween serumtotal calciumandtotal protein atdifferent clinical settings, andtocompare these relationshipswithMeuten's. Eachequationvarieddependingonthe laboratories, andtherewas aignificant difference in regression slopes between laboratories. The prevalence of calcium disturbance based on the albumin and total protein equation ranging 0.7-12.1%and 4.6 -19.3%, respectively. These findings suggest that adjustingcalciumformulasmust bedevelopedseparatelyat different clinical settings. Bytheuse of their own formulas, it becomes possible to interpret abnormal calcium values correctly in patients with various clinical conditions.
The Korean livestock industry has grown rapidly. Also the relative importance of livestock production in the total agricultural products has also increased very much. However, there are lots of problems to solve from now because of changing circumstances around Korea, such as increasing imports of low price livestock products, decreasing growth rate of domestic food consumption, and food safety problems. New directions for the animal resource industry are summarized as follows : Firstly, the business field of livestock industry must be enlarged to the animal resource area. Secondly, food safety and sustainable system are very important sectors to develop the animal resource industry in the future. Thirdly, new cooperative systems in the production field, such as integration, support system for calf raising and manure recycling are necessary. Fourthly, promotion and marketing strategies of brand products must be improved.