The ANK1 (Ankyrin-1) gene, located on the bovine chromosome 27, encodes a structural protein which forms an important component of the cytoskeleton. Ankyrin belongs to a protein family that links membrane proteins to the underlying spectrin-actin cytoskeleton. Many studies on gene expression regulation have revealed that RNA polymerase binds to the ANK1 gene promoter region. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the SNP of the ANK1 promoter region and economic traits in Hanwoo cattle. A total of seven SNPs (C-944T, C-733T, C-687G, A-672G, C-307T, A-104G, C-24T), found in 119 animals, were correlated to economic traits. One of these SNPs, A-104G, was reported for the first time in the present study. Three newly discovered haplotypes were not associated with economic traits. Significant (p<0.05) relationships were found between C-944T and carcass weight, backfat thickeness, loin muscle area and between C-733T, A-672G and intramuscular fat. These results suggest that the SNPs of ANK1 gene may be useful molecular markers for selection of meat yield and quality traits in Hanwoo
Copy number variation (CNV) is one of structural variation types that shows various numbers of copies in segments of the DNA. This study aimed to identify the association between copy number variation regions (CNVRs) and carcass traits in Hanwoo. We analyzed a total of 571 Hanwoo steers with the four carcass traits (marbling score (MS), backfat thickness (BF), carcass weight (CW), loineye muscle area (LMA)). PennCNV program was used to identify the CNVs and CNVRuler program was used to analyze the association between CNVRs and carcass traits. A total of 1,659 CNVRs were identified in the whole genome of Hanwoo. These 1,659 CNVRs divided into 415 Gain, 1082 Loss and 162 Gain/Loss events. A genome wide association analysis between the CNVRs and the carcass traits was performed using CNVRuler program. The number of significant CNVR at a threshold of p<1×10-4 was 2, 7, 2 and 1 loci for MS, BF, CW and LMA, respectively. We performed gene ontology (GO) analysis for the genes in the significant CNVRs using DAVID. ABCA2 and EDF1 were related to regulation of lipid metabolic process. C8G, TRAF2 and STAB2 were related to immune. CHST11 was related to developmental growth. Our results may provide an important resource for molecular breeding research in Hanwoo.
The present study investigated the effects of fermented potato protein (FPP, Lianol® ferity) during gestation and lactation on productivity of sows. A total of 50 crossbred sows (Landrace×Yorkshire) in their 3 to 5 parities were allotted to one of two treatments (n=25) including control and FPP groups. FPP tablets applied in sows in two stages. Stage one involved applying FPP daily from 3 days before farrowing to 2 days after for 5 consecutive days. The second stage also involved a 5 day period around weaning time from 3 days before to 2 days after. After farrowing, the amount of feed offered 3 times per day gradually increased from about 3.6 kg at farrowing to 8.4 kg at late lactation. During the first lactation FPP tended to increase backfat thickness (BFT) at weaning at the first (p=0.069) whereas FPP increased BFT (p<0.05) at weaning in the second lactation. There was no significant effect of FPP on body weight changes and daily feed intake of sows. Decreased weaning to estrus interval was associated with applying lianol tablet at the second lactation (p<0.05). Weight of born alive piglets, weaned piglets and total weight gain were greater in FPP group at the second lactation (p<0.05). Applying FPP tended (p=0.062) to increase insulin like growth factor-Ⅰ(IGF-I) at the weaning time in the first lactation. The effect of FPP on IGF-I was significant at the second lactation, revealing a higher concentration in blood at post farrowing and weaning time (p<0.05). This study shows the benefit of using FPP tablets in sows to increase blood IGF-I and both initial and final litter size to improve piglet weaning weights.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of grass and flaxseed oil on weight gain, fecal pH, microflora and acid resistance of fecal E. coli. in Friesian-Holsteins. Fifteen Holsteins were fed either conventional diet (C, n=5), grass (40%) and concentrate supplemented with flaxseed oil (60%) (T1, n=5) or grass only (T2, n=5) for 141 days, and T1 and T2 groups were grazed on pasture except feeding time. Grabbing fecal samples and measuring body weight were carried out at test day 1, 60, 120, 141. To evaluate acid sensitivity of fecal E. coli, feces were incubated in pH 2.0 anaerobic solution during 1 h at room temperature and measured survival rate. In terms of diets, C group had the highest n-6:n-3 ratio with 21.93, followed by T1 group (0.92) and T2 group (0.51). C and T1 group had higher final weight, total gain weight and average daily gain than T2 animals (p<0.05). The fecal pH of C group was maintained much lower than T1 and T2 group since day 120 (p<0.05). Total anaerobe in feces of C group were higher than the other groups since day 120 (p<0.05), but coliform bacteria were not significantly different among groups. Yeast and mold in feces of C group were significantly higher than the other groups from day 60 to day 141 (p<0.05), which is considered to be relevant to yeast in the diets. After feces were incubated at strong acid, more fecal E. coli of C group (34.09%) survived than those of T1 group (3.79%) and T2 group (1.02%) (p<0.05). From those results, it was considered that feeding grass and flaxseed oil to Holsteins enables to change fecal microflora, increase acid sensitivity of fecal E. coli and contribute to stay healthy for animals. It would be necessary to develop various grass feed diets and their applications for producing healthy and high quality meat products.
This study was conducted to evaluate effects of supplementation of Bifidobacterium ruminantium on in vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production. Ruminal fermentation characteristics of Timothy hay (C1), whole barley (C2), Timothy hay + B. ruminantium (T1) and whole barley + B. ruminantium (T2) were evaluated at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 48 h incubation at 39℃. The amount of B. ruminantium culture added into T1 and T2 was 0.3 ml. The pH values ranged from 5.99 to 6.83 in all the treatments. Concentration of NH3-N of C2 and T2 was higher than C1 and T1 at 48 h (p<0.05). The total gas production of C2 and T2 was higher than C1 and T1 at 9 h (p<0.05). The total methane production of treatments with B. ruminantium was not significantly different at 24 and 48 h (p<0.05). Concentration of lactic acid was significantly different between both substrates (p<0.05). Therefore, B. ruminantium supplementation was determined to be insignificant in the in vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production, while a further study was required to investigate relation to lactic acid production with different forage sources.
The feed value of Astragalus membranaceus leaves and straws was amended by fermentation using effective microorganisms, such as molasses (T1), Rhodobacter capsulatus (T2), Bacillus subtilis (T3), Lactobacillus acidophilus (T4), or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (T5), with no supplements in the control (C). The crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents in the fermentation-treated A. membranaceus leaves decreased, whereas nitrogen free extract (NFE) content increased significantly. A decrease in the amounts of CP (except in T3), EE, CF, NDF, and ADF in the A. membranaceus straws treated with effective microorganisms was observed compared with that for the C and T1 (p<0.05). The NFE content of the straws increased with all treatments, except T1. Fermentation treatment subtly altered the fatty acid composition of A. membranaceus leaves and straws. In contrast, the calcium and vitamin E contents in A. membranaceus leaves and straws were increased after fermentation treatment (p<0.05). However, T3 yielded higher saponin content in straws compared to that by any of the other treatments (p<0.05). The effect of fermentation with microorganisms, maintained the low pH up to 48 h (p<0.05), whereas it was random for the straws. Therefore, the data suggest that fermentation treatment with microorganisms can improve digestion rate and have a positive effect on physiologically active substances and feed value.
In experiment dealt with 240 Hanwoo (172 steers and 68 heifers) among the 456 cattle during growing and fattening period were used from 2004 to 2015. Growth period was divided into 6, 12, 18, and 24 months for steers and 6, 12, 18, and 43 months for heifers. The results showed that lying down, feeding, and drinking behavior increased according to the growth. In contrary, the time of locomotion behavior including standing and walking behavior were reduced. Aggressive behavior was observed to be mostly generated in the first 6-months. Thus the results showed that different growth period of Hanwoo steers can be used as management systems for breeding and disease management. It conclude that providing a comfortable living space is a useful management systems suppress stress to the minimum extent without giving unnecessary stress to the animals.
It has been now believed and documented that high producing animals can be exploited even best if the heat period expressed in them could be synchronized. Recently, the development in the field of animal science and the introduction of newer technology such as assisted reproductive technology (ART) has immensely rationalized the importance of certain techniques by improvising them in order to benefit the production part from animals. Assisted reproductive technologies have not only benefitted a lot by increasing the production but also by addressing several problems of reproduction failure in farm animals. These technologies have also assisted in improving them and in accelerating genetic improvement among animal population. Techniques such as improved follicular efficiencies, ovum pick up, in vitro embryo production, embryo and semen sexing, somatic cell nuclear transfer and production of transgenic and cloned embryos have been now taken up as cost effective shape in accelerating genetic improvement in animal population and all such technologies have been overviewed and highlighted in this review.