The aim of this study was to identify allele variability and frequencies of six microsatellite markers (BM861, INRA124, INRA189, UMN0103, UMN0307 and UMN0504) specific to the Y-chromosome. DNA samples from 147 males of three Korean native and seven exotic cattle breeds were tested. Three (Chikso, Heugu, and Jeju black cattle) Korean native cattle (KNC) breeds showed Bos taurus genotype. In the neighbor-joining tree, based on Nei’s DA genetic distance, ten breeds represented main group. In addition, Bayesian clustering result showed that 3 main clusters are for individual allele variability and frequencies. Moreover, KNC breeds showed differences in genotype with B. taurus type when compared to previous studies. The molecular information of paternal lineage in this study would be useful for the conservation and utilization of three KNC breeds as genetic resources.
The objective of this study was to analyze the reproductive ability by strains and age in weeks of Korean native chicken and to compare the egg weight by body weight of Korean native chicken cock. Six strains (L=black, W=white, O=Ogol chicken, G=gray, R=red, and Y=brown) of Korea native chicken were used in this study. The fertility of strains W and Y were 89.6% and 86.3% respectively, and significantly higher than the other strains (p<0.05). Strains R and W showed high hatchability (90.7%, 89.6%, respectively) and strains L and O showed low rate (78.9%, 87.3%, respectively). There was no significant difference by weeks in each strain. The fertility was the highest at 28 weeks of age and the hatchability showed the highest value at 26 weeks of age. Egg weights of strains L and R were significantly high (p<0.05) but strains W and G were significantly low (p<0.05). Egg weight was higher in 1.65 ㎏ of Korea native chicken cock than in 2.00 ㎏ of Korea native chicken cock. These results suggest that the using average weight (1.65 ㎏) of Korea native chicken cocks could have an advantage for the feed cost savings and productivity improvement.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of enzyme and yeast extract supplement on growth performance, carcass characteristics and blood parameters in Hanwoo steers. A total of forty-eight 23-month-old Hanwoo steers, with average initial body weight of 545.25±12.60 kg, were assigned to four treatments with three replicates in a completely randomized design. Hanwoo steers housed in four heads group per pen. The treatments comprised of four groups of control (no feed additives), treatment 1 (xylanase, cellulase, and gluco-amylase; 0.1%/concentrate), treatment 2 (β-glucan and mannan-oligosaccharide; 0.1%/concentrate), and treatment 3 (treatment 1+2; 0.1%/concentrate). During the fourth and eighth month, average daily gain and feed conversion rates improved in treatment 1, but in the control this was lower than the other treatments (p<0.05). Real-time ultrasound was used for measuring the live carcass traits (longissimus muscle area, back fat thickness, and marbling score) and the better results were in the following order: treatment 1 > treatment 3 > treatment 2 > control, and extended to carcass grade. White blood cell indices were lower in treatments 2 and 3 and the IgG indices were relatively higher than in other treatments. As a result, levels of xylanase, cellulase, and gluco-amylase were increased from the fourth month to improve growth performance, live carcass traits. Durin
This experiment was conducted to verify the effect of spraying ethanol extracts (green tea and wormwood) on pH, TBARS, VBN, and total microbes of chicken meat during storage. The ethanol extracts of green tea and wormwood were sprayed on the chicken carcasses (0.2 and 0.2 g extract/㎏meat, respectively). Treated sample showed higher lightness (L* values) and yellowness (b* values) and lower redness (a* values) than those of control. The TBARS values were significantly lower for the treatments than the control on storage day 4, especially, the treatment of the wormwood extracts had lowest TBARS value. The VBN values were relatively lower values for the treatments than the control on storage day 4, especially, the treatment of the wormwood extracts had lowest VBN value on storage day 6. Wormwood samples showed lower total aerobic and E. coli counts than the others on day 6. Therefore, the spray with natural wormwood extracts could be useful to extend the shelf-life by preventing lipid oxidation and reducing the microbial growth during storage of chicken meat.
The objective of this research was to evaluate the changes of water-soluble flavor precursors in loin and top round from Hanwoo (Korean cattle) beef during aging at 2℃ for 14 days. The glycogen, glucose and lactate contents were not significantly influenced by beef parts and aging. Among nucleotide-related compounds, inosine 5'-phosphate (IMP) and inosine contents were significantly (p<0.05) lower in loin compared with top round but hypoxanthine content was not significantly different between beef parts. Moreover, during aging, IMP content significantly (p<0.05) decreased while inosine and hypoxanthine contents significantly (p<0.05) increased. It is concluded that aging highly affected the nucleotide-related compounds among water-soluble flavor precursors in loin and top round from Hanwoo.
The effects of substituting fat with different levels of pork rind on quality characteristics of emulsified sausage were investigated. Five sausage batches were manufactured by partially replacing fat with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20% pork rind. After manufacturing, the sausages were vacuum-packaged and stored at 4℃ for 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The results indicated that the increase in levels of pork rind resulted in lower calorie whereas higher moisture, protein, collagen contents (p<0.05). Use of pork rind resulted in an increase in amounts of minerals such as Cu, K, Mn, Na, P and Zn, and free amino acids such as aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, valine and iso-luecine, as compared with the control (0% pork rind). On the other hand, no significant differences in the sensory properties of sausage with added pork rind were observed. Based on the results in the present study, it is suggested that pork rind can be used as a fat replacer in manufacture of emulsified sausage without adverse effect on the quality characteristics and sensory properties as well.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ultimate pH of semimembranosus muscle on quality characteristics of dry-cured ham. The sample selection was determined based on ultimate pH of semimembranosus muscle, and samples were then classified into three groups: A (pH 5.61±0.09), B (pH 5.86±0.06) and C (pH 6.13±0.09). Our results depicted that the ultimate pH had a significant effect on the quality characteristics of dry-cured ham. Particularly, as the ultimate pH increased, the pH values of the dry-cured hams significantly (p<0.05) increased while weight loss decreased. Significantly (p<0.05) higher CIE a*, b* and chroma values were observed in the dry-cure hams from the samples with lower ultimate pH. Additionally, the values of some texture characteristics (e.g., hardness and chewiness) significantly (p<0.05) decreased as the ultimate pH increased. However, no significant differences among the three pH groups were observed for water activity, salinity, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), calorie as well as sensory properties of dry-cure hams (p>0.05). These results clearly demonstrate that the ultimate pH of semimembranosus muscle is more related to quality characteristics than sensory attributes of dry-cured ham.
The objective of this study was to investigate meat quality and nutritional composition of 10 cuts (loin, striploin, chuck roll, chuck tender, short plate, brisket, bottom round, top sirloin, eye of round, and top round) from quality grade 1 beef from 11 Hanwoo steers at Hanwoo Experimental Station of National Institute of Animal Science. The protein contents were higher in top round (Udoon) and eye of round (Hongduke) and lower in loin (Dngsim) and short plate (Abjin) when compared to the other cuts (p<0.05). Whereas the intramuscular fat contents were highest in loin (12.51%), those were lowest in top round (4.14%) (p<0.05). The calories were higher in loin and short plate and lower in top round, chuck tender (Guri), top sirloin (Bosup), eye of round, chuck roll (Moksim), and bottom round (Sulgit) (p<0.05). The cooking loss (%) was 24.38% in loin and it was lower than the other cuts (p<0.05). The bottom round had higher water holding capacity (WHC) and chuck tender had lower WHC than those in the other cuts (p<0.05). In meat color, L* values were higher in loin and lower in top round than the other cuts (p<0.05). Total saturated fatty acid contents were higher in loin and lower in bottom round than the other cuts (p<0.05). In amino acid compositions, top round had significantly higher than those in the other cuts (p<0.05). The iron contents were higher in chuck tender and chuck roll contained higher iron contents than those of the other cuts (p<0.05). In conclusion, the meat quality and nutritional properties were significantly different among 10 cuts in the same quality grade of Hanwoo beef. Therefore, the provision of the meat quality and nutritional information of 10 cuts to consumers could be important for utilization and balanced consumption of different cuts.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the slaughtering age on carcass characteristics and economic efficiency of Holstein steers. The Holstein steers (n=27, 4 months old, average body weight 160 ㎏) were divided into 3 groups and raised with TMR feeding formulation until 18, 20 and 22 months old, respectively. In the result, final body weights were 703, 768 and 804 ㎏, and average daily gains were 1.32, 1.32 and 1.27 ㎏, respectively. Dry matter intakes (DMI) were 8.62, 8.94 and 9.24 ㎏. Feed conversion ratio was 6.53, 6.77 and 7.28 for 18, 20 and 22 months old groups. Feed conversion ratio was increased as the fattening periods increased. In yield traits, carcass weight was significantly lower in 18 months old group compared to other groups (p<0.05). The back fat thickness were 8.4, 7.3 and 7.8 ㎜, rib eye area were 70.6, 73.4 and 73.84 ㎠, and the meat yield index was 62.9, 62.5 and 62.1 when slaughtered at 18, 20 and 22 months old, respectively. In the frequency of the yield grade (A:B:C, %), grade B was highest at 20 months old group as 0:75:25. In the quality traits, marbling score, texture and maturity were not different among slaughtering age groups. However, marbling score tended to be increased at 22 months old group. Meat color and fat color were higher at 22 months old group compare to other groups (p<0.05). In the frequency of the quality grade (1+:1:2:3,%), 22 months-old group was the greatest as 12:0:50:38. The income was highest for 20 months old group as 279 thousand wons among the 3 groups. Therefore, the slaughtering ages of Holstein steers may be appropriate at 20 months old.
Antibodies are used for preventing several infectious diseases in food animals. Though, antibiotics can deal with infection however, their widespread usage may cause developments of resistance and can also get transferred to humans through animal products. Therefore, production of antibodies against infectious agents in the egg yolk could be an interesting alternative. The present study was conducted with a focus on producing the antibody against Escherichia coli E68 and H28 in egg yolk of laying hens, which are believed to be a cause for diarrhea and beriberi in piglets. The result received from the experiment were promising and have shown efficiency of antibody production in the range of 2-7.3% in the groups which are infected with E68 only and the one which was infected with both strains. The outcome of present research has revealed the potentiality of egg yolk in production of antibody for laying hens, could open a new approach for production of antibodies to manage diarrhea and beriberi
The purpose of the study was to investigate an effect of water temperature on a non-specific immune response and mortality of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, following a bacterial infection. Seventy five tilapia acclimated to 25℃ were then transferred at 16 and 36℃, and examined for non-specific immune responses over 12-96 h. Respiratory burst activity was reduced significantly in the group of fish cultured at 16 and 36℃ over 24-96 h, whereas phagocytic activity decreased significantly in the group of fish reared at a low temperature (16℃) over 12 and 24 h and high temperatures (36℃) over 12-96 h. Lysozyme activity diminished significantly in the group of fish transferred to 16℃ over 12-48 h, but increased significantly in the group of fish at 36℃ over 48 and 96 h. Alternative complement pathway (ACH50) decreased significantly when transferred to 16℃ after 12 h, but increased significantly when transferred to 36℃ after 24 h. In a challenging test, 30 tilapia reared at 25℃ were injected intraperitoneally with Streptococcus iniae at a dose of 2x107 cfu/fish, and then reared onward at water temperatures of 15, 25 (control), and 36℃. Over 12-96 h, the cumulative mortality of S. iniae-injected fish held in 16 and 36℃ was significantly higher than that of injected-fish held in 25℃ In conclusion, transfer of tilapia from 25℃ to low temperature (16℃) after 12 h, and transfer of fish from 25℃ to high temperature (35℃) reduced their immune capability. Furthermore, tilapia under temperature stress at 16 and 36℃ from 25℃ decreased its resistance against S. iniae
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), that usually occurs with a modification in single nucleotide among the population of 1000 nucleotides. Such changes in nucleotides have been investigated and been associated by meat scientist for economically important traits and to increase economical profits in stock breeding. Pluralities in the study have correlated SNPs of potential candidate gene with economically important traits in domestic animals have been put forward. In chickens, INS, IGF1, IGF1R, IGFBP, CAPN1, CAPN3, GHSR, FATP1, FGFBP1, FGFBP2, apoVlDL-Ⅱ, PB1, miR-1614-3p, DAAM1, Wnt3A, LRP5, CHP, RHOA, MAPK9, SFRP1, ATGL, PGC-1α, NPY, GnRHR, PRL, TGFβ2, CASR. UCP, ADSL, STAT5b, LRP2 and CTSD genes have been found to have significant effects on body weight, breast muscle weight, carcass weight and egg number. For the similar reasons, SNPs of these genes have been considered useful DNA markers for the improvement economic value of poultry. Although further studies on different breeds of chickens would be required to segregate such dataset for different breeds of chickens.