본 연구의 목적은 우리나라 Jersey 암소 56두로부터 조사된 체고 데이터에 대해 성장 모형을 추정하고, 추정된 체고 성장 모형의 모수를 활용하여 우리나라 Jersey 암소의 체고 성장 기초 자료를 제공하고자 실시하였다. 추정된 Gompertz, von Bertalanffy, Logistic 및 Brody 모형의 체고 성장 곡선 함수식은 각각 , , 및 이었다. 추정된 Gompertz, von Bertalanffy 및 Logistic 모형의 모수를 이용하여 성장 특성을 분석한 결과 변곡점 월령이 각각 -0.3880, -5.235 및 -0.426월로 성장 기간 중 존재하지 않았다. Gompertz, von Bertalanffy, Logistic 및 Brody 모형에 대한 오차 평균 제곱합은 각각 14.189, 14.083, 14.730 및 14.011로 추정되었으며, 모형 결정 계수는 각각 0.971, 0.972, 0.970 및 0.972로 추정되었 다. 각 모형의 오차 평균 제곱합과 모형 결정 계수의 결과를 종합해보면 Brody 모형이 Jersey 암소의 체고 성장 곡선에 적합도가 좋은 것으로 판단된다.
본 연구는 우리나라 Jersey 암소 41두로부터 측정된 체중 데이터를 이용해 Gompertz, von Bertalanffy 및 Logistic 모형의 성장 곡선을 추정하고,
추정된 성장 곡선의 모수를 활용하여 Jersey 암소의 성장 특성에 대해 알아보고자 실시하였다. 추정된 Gompertz, von Bertalanffy 및 Logistic
모형의 성장 곡선 함수식은 각각 , 및 이었다. Gompertz, von
Bertalanffy 및 Logistic 모형에 대해 변곡점은 각각 10.719, 8.4292 및 14.618 개월로 추정되었고, 변곡점 체중은 각각 208.514, 211.347 및
203.548kg으로 추정되었으며, 최대 증체율은 각각 20.851, 21.192 및 21.993 (kg/월)로 추정되었다. 오차 평균 제곱합과 모형 결정 계수의 결과를
종합해보면 von Bertalanffy, Gompertz 그리고 Logistic 모형 순으로 Jersey 암소 성장 곡선에 적합도가 높은 것으로 판단된다.
This study was performed to investigate the effect of heat-stressed environment on rumen microbial diversity in Holstein cows. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were measured and rumen fluid was collected under normal environment (NE; Temperature humidity index (THI)=64.6) and heat-stressed environment (HE; THI=87.2) from 10 Holstein cows (60±17.7 months, 717±64.4 kg) fed on the basis of dairy feeding management in National Institute of Animal Science. The rumen bacteria diversity was analyzed by using the Illumina HiSeq™ 4000 platform. The rectal temperature and respiratory rate were increased by 1.5ﾟC and 53 breaths/min in HE compared to that in NE, respectively. In this study, HE exposure induced significant changes of ruminal microbe. At phylum level, Fibrobacteres were increased in HE. At genus level, Ruminococcaceae bacterium P7 and YAD3003, Butyrivibrio sp. AE2032, Erysipelotrichaceae bacterium NK3D112, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, Lachnospiraceae bacterium FE2018, XBB2008, and AC2029, Eubacterium celulosolvens, Clostridium hathewayi, and Butyrivibrio hungatei were decreased in HE, while Choristoneura murinana nucleopolyhedrovirus, Calothrix parasitica, Nostoc sp. KVJ20, Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047, Fibrobacter sp. UWB13 and sp. UWB5, Lachnospiraceae bacterium G41, and Xanthomonas arboricola were increased in HE. In conclusion, HE might have an effect to change the rumen microbial community in Holstein cows.
The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of microbial culture supplements on ruminal fermentation and fermentative quality of Italian ryegrass silage (IRGS) both in vitro and in situ. Three species of microbes (Lactobacillus casei (LC), Bacillus subtilis (BS), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC)) were used in this study. They were applied to IRGS at 30 days after silage manufacture. Various items were measured using in vitro and in situ incubation technique after each microbial supplement was inoculated into IRGS at 0.5×104 CFU/g. In the first experiment, in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics of IRGS were evaluated at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after microbes were inoculated into IRGS. In the second experiment, in situ fermentation characteristics were investigated at 0, 1, 3, and 5 days after the inoculation of each microbial supplement. In vitro ruminal NH3-N content was significantly (p<0.05) increased in LC-, BS-, and SC-IRGS at 12 hrs post incubation compared to that in control IRGS. In vitro ruminal total VFA concentration and dry matter digestibility (DMD) of IRGS were not significantly difference among LC-, BS-, and SC-IRGS, although they were numerically increased in LC-IRGS than those of the other IRGS. In addition, this study evaluated the fermentation characteristics and in situ DMD of IRGS with the lapse of incubation time up to 5 days. Throughout the incubation times from 1 day to 5 days, the pH value was significantly (p<0.05) lower in BS-, LC-, and SC-IRGS than that in control IRGS. Lactate was significantly (p<0.05) higher, and significantly (p<0.05) butyrate was lower in LC-IRGS than that in other treatments at 0 day. It was higher (p<0.05) in control IRGS than that of BS-, LC-, and SC-IRGS at 1-5 days. In situ DMD tended to increase in BS-, LC-, and SC-IRGS compared to that in control IRGS. Especially, DMD was higher in SC-IRGS than that in other treatments at 0 day. It tended to be higher in LC-IRGS at all incubation time. Taken together, these results suggest that it might be useful to select a microorganism by considering the feeding time of IRGS to ruminants because organic acids and DMD of IRGS were affected by the incubation time of each microorganism with IRG silage, especially for L. casei decreased the content of acetate and butyrate in IRGS.
In order to provide basic data to predict changes of milk components in milk yield, this study was conducted to compare nutritive values of diets collected from organic dairy farms (ODF) and conventional dairy farms (CDF) of Chungnam and Jeonbuk in Korea. The contents of crude fat, crude fiver, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber in diets of ODF were significantly (p<0.05) higher compared to those of CDF. The contents of crude protein and crude ash in ODF were also higher (p<0.05) than those of CDF. The contents of calcium, ferrum, and phosphorus in diets of ODF were similar to those of CDF. The contents of potassium, magnesium, and iodine in diets of ODF were higher (p<0.05) than those of CDF. The contents of total saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in diets of ODF were higher (p<0.05) compared to those of CDF. The contents of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid in diets of ODF were higher (p<0.05) compared to those of CDF. However, the contents of myristic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid in diets of ODF were lower (p<0.05) compared to those of CDF.
Presently, the first pregnancy age of dairy heifers attended National Dairy Herd Improvement Program (NDHI) in Korea has increased, and more research have been requested to evaluate the possibility of decreasing the first pregnancy age of dairy heifers. Accordingly, this study was investigated the effects of the month of age at the first service and pregnancy on the reproductive efficiency of Holstein heifers. For these, the reproductive performance of heifers was analyzed by evaluating the effects of first insemination service at 12-14 months of age (12 month old), 15-16 months of age (15 month old), 17-19 months of age (17 month old), and > 20 months of age (20 month old) in Holstein heifers. The service numbers per conception in the first insemination months were 1.85±1.22, 1.59±0.77, 1.58±0.72, and 1.76±0.97 times at 12, 15, 17 and 20 months of age, respectively. The conception rates in the first service were 51.2, 57.8, 54.8, and 52.9% at 12, 15, 17 and 20 months of age, respectively. The conception ages were 453.2±78.9, 512.1±75.9, 590.1±98.0, and 713.0±74.5 days in the heifers serviced firstly at 12, 15, 17 and 20 months of age, respectively. There was significantly difference in the conception age among groups (p<0.05). The cumulative conception rates in the heifers serviced firstly at 12, 15, 17 and 20 months of age were 51.21, 57.8, 54.8 and 53.0% by the first service, 29.8, 30.1, 32.3, 23.5% by the second service, and 19.0, 12.1, 12.9 and 23.5% by the third service, respectively. The service numbers per conception in the first pregnancy months were 1.31, 1.55, 2.0, 2.05 times at 12, 15, 17 and 20 months of the first service age, respectively. The service numbers per conception in the 12 and 15 months of age were significantly lower than those in the 17 and 20 months of age (p<0.05). The rates of repeat-breeder were 6.0, 11.3, 22.0, and 41.0% in the heifers serviced firstly at 12, 15, 17 and 20 months of age, respectively. These results demonstrate that first pregnancy of Holstein heifers should be conducted at 15 months of age, because the age at first pregnancy in heifers can be substantially influenced through implementation of reproductive management and performance.
본 연구는 옥수수 사일리지를 이용하여 TMR 제조 시 배합시간에 따른 물리적 특성(Particle size, peNDF 및 laceration)의 변화를 조사하고, 반추위 내 in situ 건물분해율 및 비유중기 착유우의 유생산성에 미치는 영향을 조사하고자 수행되었다. TMR 시험사료는 동일한 원료를 이용하여 배합시간을 30분(T1구)과 50분(T2구)으로 제조하였다. Penn State Particle Size Separator (PSPS, 19 mm와 8mm 체)로 분리하여 입자크기의 분포를 분석한 결과 배합 시간이 30분(T1)에서 50분(T2)로 증가함에 따라 하층(<8mm)의 비율이 유의적으로 증가하였고(p<0.01), peNDF>8.0는 유의적으로 감소하였으며(p<0.01), 굵은 비율(≥1mm) 이 유의적으로 감소하였다(p<0.01). 반추위 내 in situ 건물 분해율은 모든 배양시간에서 처리구간 차이가 없었지만 24시간 배양에서 T1구에서 유의적으로 높게 나타났다. (p<0.01). 산유량은 처리구간 차이가 없었지만 유지방은 T1이 유의적으로 높게 나타났다(p<0.01). 본 연구 결과에서 옥수수 사일리지 위주의 TMR 제조 시 배합시간을 단축 조절함으로서 산유량 및 유성분에 대한 부정적 영향 없이 조사료의 물리적 사료가치를 증진하는데 효과가 있을 것으로 기대된다.
본 연구는 옥수수 수확 시 세절여부에 따라 제조된 옥수수 사일리지를 이용하여 TMR 제조시 배합시간에 따른 물리적 특성(Particle size 및 laceration)과 반추위 내 in situ 건물분해율에 미치는 영향을 조사하고자 수행되었다. TMR 시험사료는 세절(20 mm)한 것(T1구)과 세절하지 않은 옥수수 사일리지(T2구)를 이용하여 총 60분간 배합하면서 시료를 채취한 후 Penn State Particle Separator(PSPS)로 분석하였다. 모든 배합시간에서 T2구보다 T1구에서 상층(>19 mm)과 하층(<8 mm)이 유의적으로 낮았고(p<0.05), 중층(8-19 mm)은 유의적으로 높았으며, 굵은 비율(≥1 mm)의 감소율도 높은 경향을 나타내었다. 그리고 peNDF>8.0 및 반추위 내 in situ 건물분해율도 T1구에서 유의적으로 높게 나타났다(p<0.05). 본 연구 결과에서 옥수수 사일리지 위주의 TMR 제조 시 세절하지 않은 것보다 세절한 옥수수 사일리지가 적정 peNDF 범위가 유지되어 조사료로서 사료적 가치를 증진하는데 효과가 있을 것으로 기대된다.
본 연구는 추청벼를 이용하여 총체 벼 사일리지를 조제 하였을 때 총체 벼 사일리지의 사료가치 및 부위별 소화율 을 조사하여 총체 벼의 이용성을 검정하기 위하여 수행되 었다. 총체 벼 사일리지의 무기물 함량은 망간이 가장 높 았으며 탄소, 철, 아연, 구리 등 순으로 나타났다. 그리고 마그네슘 함량이 가장 낮게 나타났다. 추청벼 총체 사일리 지의 아미노산은 glutamic acid 함량이 가장 높았으며 leucine, asparagine, alanine, valine, arginine 순으로 나타났 다. 그리고 methionine 함량이 가장 낮았다. 추청벼 총체 사일리지 부위(총체 벼, 낟알을 제거한 줄기, 왕겨를 포함 한 낟알, 쌀)에 따른 시간별 반추위내 건물 소화율은 쌀이 가장 높았으며 왕겨를 포함한 낟알, 총체 벼, 낟알을 제거 한 줄기 등 순으로 나타났다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 추청 벼 총체 사일리지 소화율은 부위에 따라 약간의 차이를 보 였으며 무기물 중 망간 그리고 아미노산 중 glutamic acid 가 가장 높은 함량을 보였다.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the slaughtering age on carcass characteristics and economic efficiency of Holstein steers. The Holstein steers (n=27, 4 months old, average body weight 160 ㎏) were divided into 3 groups and raised with TMR feeding formulation until 18, 20 and 22 months old, respectively. In the result, final body weights were 703, 768 and 804 ㎏, and average daily gains were 1.32, 1.32 and 1.27 ㎏, respectively. Dry matter intakes (DMI) were 8.62, 8.94 and 9.24 ㎏. Feed conversion ratio was 6.53, 6.77 and 7.28 for 18, 20 and 22 months old groups. Feed conversion ratio was increased as the fattening periods increased. In yield traits, carcass weight was significantly lower in 18 months old group compared to other groups (p<0.05). The back fat thickness were 8.4, 7.3 and 7.8 ㎜, rib eye area were 70.6, 73.4 and 73.84 ㎠, and the meat yield index was 62.9, 62.5 and 62.1 when slaughtered at 18, 20 and 22 months old, respectively. In the frequency of the yield grade (A:B:C, %), grade B was highest at 20 months old group as 0:75:25. In the quality traits, marbling score, texture and maturity were not different among slaughtering age groups. However, marbling score tended to be increased at 22 months old group. Meat color and fat color were higher at 22 months old group compare to other groups (p<0.05). In the frequency of the quality grade (1+:1:2:3,%), 22 months-old group was the greatest as 12:0:50:38. The income was highest for 20 months old group as 279 thousand wons among the 3 groups. Therefore, the slaughtering ages of Holstein steers may be appropriate at 20 months old.
This study aimed to improve the reproductive efficiency of dairy herds by comparison and analyzing estrous appearance rate, conception and non-conception rate according to the stage of lactation using the lactation and reproductive records of average (less than 10,000 liters milk in 305 days) and high yielding (more than 10,000 liters milk in 305 days) Holstein cows (n=102). Milk production and reproduction data were collected between January 2010 and December 2012 from Holstein cows kept in the commercial dairy farms. Average (n=32) and high yielding (n=24) Holstein cows used to analyze the relationship between milk yield and reproductive performance. Our results showed that estrous appearance rate according to the stage of lactation was 25.0% (30∼59d), 40.6% (60∼ 89d), 25% (90∼110d) and 9.4% (>111d) in average yielding cows and 16.7% (30∼59d), 20.8% (60∼89d), 12.5% (90 ∼110d) and 50.0% (>111d) in high yielding cows, respectively. Conception rate according to the stage of lactation was 87.5% (30∼59d), 61.5% (60∼ 89d), 75.0% (90∼110d) and 66.7% (>111d) in average yielding cows and 25.0% (30∼59d), 0% (60∼89d), 33.3% (90∼ 110d) and 50.0% (>111d) in high yielding cows, respectively. Days between parturition and conception was 23.7% (<149d), 0% (150∼209d) and 0% (>210 d) in average yielding cows and 69.0% (<149 d), 77.8% (150∼209d) and 38.9% (>210d) in high yielding cows, respectively. Conception rate from 110 days postpartum in high yielding cows was 41.7% (110∼150d), 50.0% (151∼180d) and 50.0% (>181d). Body condition score (BCS) in 120 days postpartum was 2.64±0.1 in average yielding cows and 2.28±0.1 in high yielding cows, respectively.